Handling POWs

Handling POWs

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Handling POWs

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY FIELD MANUAL.
FM 19-40



f HANDLING PRISONERS OF WAR
USA WAR OFFICE LOGO
[, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY. NOYEMBER 1952
United States Government Printing Office
Washington: 1952

PRGP.tiRTY OF U.S. ARMY THE JUDGEADVOCATE GENERAL'S SCHOOl
LIBRARY
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY WASHINGTON 25, D. C., 3 November 1952
FM 19-40 is published for the information and guidance of all concerned.
[AG 383.6 (1 May 52)]
By ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY:
OFFICIAL: J. LAWTON COLLINS WM. E. BERGIN Ohief of Staff, Major General, USA United States Army The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
Active Army:
Tech Svc (1) ; Admin & Tech Svc Bd (2) ; AFF (5); AA Comd (2); OS Maj Comd (5); Base Comd (2); MDW (5); Log Comd (2); A (2); CHQ (2); Div (2); Brig (2); Regt (1); Bn 19 (2); Co 19
(2) ; FT (1) ; Sch (10) except 19 (300); PMS & T 19 (1); RTC (3); POE (1), OSD (1); Mil Dist (8); T/O & E: 19­500 AA thru AE, KA thru KM, MA thruMH.
NG: Div (1) ; Brig (1); Bn 19 (1) ; Sep Co 19 (1). ORO: Div (1); Brig (1) ; Bn 19 (1); Sep Co 19 (1). For explanation of distribution formula, see SR 310-90-1.
iI
A.GO 138GC
FOREWORD
The Geneva Conventions of 1949, many provisions of which have been incorporated in this manual, have at the date of publication not come into force as to the United States and are accordingly not yet binding on the United States or its forces. Until the coming into force of the Conventions the provi­sions of this manual will be given effect only to the extent that the United States has, acting unilaterally and by special directives, directed that the provisions of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 will be applicable in certain designated areas.
A.GO 13~C Iii
"
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Paragraphs Page
Section I. GeneraL_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ __ _ _ _
II. Geneva Conventions____________
III. Disciplinary measures __________
IV. Interrogation_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
CHAPTER 2. COMBAT ZONE Section I. Capture_______________________
II. Collection_____________________
III. Evacuation____________________
CHAPTER 3. PRISONERS OF WAR IN THE COMMUNICATIONS ZONE Section I. Internment fa.cilities ____________
II. Administrative considerations____
III. Transfer and evacuation ________
CHAPTER 4. MILITARY POLICE PRISONER-OF­WAR UNITS Section I. Military police prisoner-of-war processing company __________
II. Militarypoliceguardcompany___
APPENDIX TRAINING_____________________
NDEX______________________________________

1-4 1
5-11 3
12-14 13
15-17 17

18-24 22
25-30 28
31-40 33

41-43 42
44-60 49
61-63 71

64-76 75
77-81 85
88
104

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BLANK PAGE

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
,J
Section I. GENERAL
1.     PURPOSE
The purpose of this manual is to serve as an opera­tional guide for military police and other officer and enlisted men in active theaters of operations in handling, processing, interning, and utilizing for labor purposes enemy prisoners of war. Itshould be recognized, however, that in active theaters of opera­tions where the Army is serving as a part of an allied command, compliance with operational instructions other than or in addition to these herein specified might be required. .

2.     SCOPE
This manual covers pertinent aspects of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 that pertain to the treatment of prisoners of war. It covers operations of cap­turing troops; collection; interrogation; evacuation; handling prisoners of war in division, corps, army,
•     
and communications zone areas; disciplinary meas­ures; utilization of prisoner-of-war labor; and operations and functions of the' military police

•     
prisoner-of-war processing company and the mili­tary police guard company.


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3. ARMY RESPONSIBILITY
a. In accomplishing its mission with respect to prisoners of war, the United States Army is charged with, but not limited to:
(1)     
Evacuation from receiving points.

(2)     
Internment.


(3 ) Medical care.
(4)
Treatment. ~ -----t5) Education.

(6)     
Employment and compensation.

(7)     
Repatriation.

(8)     
Operation of prisoner-of-war information bureaus.

(9)
Maintenance     of an appropriate office of record.

o.
Prisoners of war captured by the Navy or Air Force will be evacuated as expeditiously as possible to designated Army receiving points.



4. COMMAND AND STAFF RESPONSIBILITY
. a. Commanders exercise supervision over prison­ers of war on behalf of the United States, and are responsible for their custody, administration, and treatment.
o.
Prisoners of war who are captured or interned in a theater of operations remain in the custody of the theater commander until they are evacuated from the theater, repatriated, or paroled.

c.
The assistant chief of staff, G-1, has general staff responsibility for coordinating plans for prisoners of war. The plans. are coordinated with the general -. and special staffs in accordance with their respec­tive spheres of interest. (For a discussion of the


2
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pertinent duties of general and special staff officers, see FM 101-5.)
d. The provost marshal collects, guards, works, and evacuates prisoners of war; and recommends loca­tions for collecting points and cages. The theater provost marshal establishes branch prisoner-of-war information bureaus at theater headquarters in a theater of operations. The provost marshal of a command is usu.ally the officer who is responsible for preparing plans for handling prisoners of war. He submits the plans to the assistant chief of staff, G-1, for the n~cessary coordination. The actual execution of the plans, after they receive command approval, is the responsibility of the provost mar­shal of the command.
Section II. GENEVA CONVENTIONS


5. GENERAL
a. The United States is a party to the Geneva (Prisoners of War) Oonventions of ~7 July 19~9 and is a signatory to the Geneva Oonventions of 12 August 1949. The 1949 Geneva Conventions will re­place the 1929 Geneva Conventions in the relations between the United States and the other parties to the Geneva Conventions when th.ey are ratified by the United States Government. These Conventions con­sist of the following:
(1)     
Geneva Oonvention for the Amelioration of the Oondition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field.

(2)     
Geneva Oonvention for the Amelioration of the Oondition of Wounded, Sick, and Ship­wrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea.

(3)     
Geneva Oonvention relative to the Treat­ment of Prisoners of War.

(4)     
Geneva Oonvention relative to the Pro­tection of Oivilian Persons in Time of WaT.


AGO 1385C 200476°-52-2
b. The handling of prisoners of war as discussed in this manual is concerned primarily with the 1949
Geneva Oonvention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. The discussion and the references to articles in this manual pertain exclusively to that Convention unless otherwise cited.
c.
Such Geneva Conventions as are binding on the United States in a conflict are binding on all United States troops in the same manner as the Constitution and laws of the United States.

d.
All members of the United States Armed Forces should have a general understanding of the contents of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the imple­menting Department of the Army rules and regula­tions regarding the treatment and handling of prisoners of war (see DA Pam 20-150).


6. PRISONERS OF WAR
a. Persons belonging to one of the following cate­gories are classified as prisoners of war upon capture (see art. 4 of the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War) :
(1)     
Members of the armed forces of an enemy party to the conflict, as well as members of militias or volunteer corps which are a part of such armed forces.

(2)     
Members of other militias and of other volunteer corps, including those of or­ganized resistance movements, belonging to


AGO 1385C
an enemy party to the conflict, provided that they fulfill the following conditions:
(a)     
That of being commanded by a person re­sponsible for his subordinates.

(b)     
That of having a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance.

(c)     
That of carrying al'ms openly.

(d)     
That of conducting their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war.

(3)
Members of regular armed forces who pro­fess allegiance to a government or an authority not recognized by the detaining power.

(4)     
Persons who accompany the enemy armed forces without actually being members thereof, such as war correspondents and supply contractors, provided that they have received authorization from the armed forces which they accompany.

(5)
Members of crews of the merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft of the enemy parties to the conflict.

(6)     
Inhabitants of a nonoccupied territory, who on the approach of the enemy spontane­ously take up arms to resist the invading forces, without having had time to form themselves into regular armed units, pro­vided they carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war.

(7)
Persons belonging,     or having belonged, to the armed forces of the occupied country who are interned by reason of their al­


. AGO 1385C
legiance to that country, even though the occupying power has originally liberated them while hostilitieS were going on out­side the '~erritory it occupies.
(8)     
Person belonging to one of the categories enumerated in this paragraph who have been received by neutral or nonbelligerent powers on their territory and have been in­terned as required by international law.

o.
Should any doubt arise as to whether persons, having committed a belligerent act and having fallen into the hands of the enemy, belong to any of the categories listed above, such persons shall enjoy the protection of the Geneva Oonvention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War until such time as their status has been determined by a competent tribunal.



7. RETAINED PERSONNEL
a. The term "retained personnel," as used in this manual, refers to certain enemy personnel who are respected and protected in all circumstances even though they are retained in the same prisoner-of­war installations as other captured enemy personnel who are defined as prisoners of war. (Geneva Oon­vention for the Amelioration of the Oondition of the Wounded and Siok in Armed Foroes in the Field, arts~ 1'34, ~6, and 1'38.) Retained personnel include­
(1)     
Medical personnel exclusively engaged in the search for, or the collection, transport, or treatment of the wounded or sick, or in the prevention of disease.

(2)
Staff personnel exclusively engaged     in the administration of medical units and estab­lishments.

(3)
Chaplains attached to the armed forces.

(4)     
Staff personnel of National Red Cross So­cieties and of other voluntary aid societies duly recognized and authorized by their governments who may be employed on the same duties as the personnel mentioned above, provided that the staff of such socie­ties are subject to military laws and regu­lations.

b.
Such retained personnel who fall into the hands of the adverse party are retained only so far as the state of health, the spiritual needs, and the number of prisoners of war may require. Personnel thus re­tained are not deemed prisoners of war. Neverthe­less, they at least benefit by the provisions of the


AGO' 13811C
Geneva Oonvention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Although retained personnel are subject to the internal discipline of a camp, they are not required to perform any work outside their medi­or religious duties.
c. In no circumstances may retained personnel be deprived of the insignia or identity cards that estab­lish their right to protection under the Geneva -Oon­vention for the Amelioration of the Oondition of the W o'11lJ7.ded and Sicle in Armed FDrees in the Field and the Geneva Oonvention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War.
d. Members of the armed forces specially trained for employment, should the need arise, as hospital orderlies, nurses, or auxiliary stretcher-bearers, in
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the search for or the collection, transport, or treat­ment of the wounded and sick are likewise respected and protected if they are carrying out these duties at the time when they come into contact with the adverse party or fall into its hands. Such personnel are classified as prisoners of war, but they are employed on their medical duties so far as the need arises.
8. GENERAL PROTECT/ON OF PRISONERS OF WAR
a.
Prisoners of war are in the power and custody of the detaining power, but not of the individuals or military units who have captured them.

o.
Prisoners of war must be treated humanely, and must be protected, particularly against acts of vio­lence or intimidation and against insults and public curiosity at all times. Measures of reprisal against prisoners of war are prohibited.

c.
Prisoners of war are entitled in all circum­stances to respect for their persons and their honor. Women shall be treated with all regard due to their sex and shall in all cases benefit by treatment as favorable as that granted to men.

d.
The detaining power must provide free main­tenance and medical care for prisoners of war under its control.

e.
Taking into consideration the provisions of the Convention relating to rank and sex, and any privi­leged treatment accorded by reason of health, age, or professional qualifications, all prisoners of war are treated alike without any adverse distinction based on race, nationality, religious belief, political opinion, or other distinction based on similar criteria.

f.
No form of coercion may be inflicted on prison­ers of war to obtain from them information of any kind whatever. Prisoners of war who refuse to an­swer may not be threatened, insulted, or exposed to unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment of any kind.


AGO 1385l'l
9. PRISONER-Of-WAR INfORMATION BUREAUS
f
a. GeneraZ. The Geneva Convention provides that upon the outbreak of a conflict and in all cases of occupation each of the parties to the conflict shall institute an official information bureau for prisoners of war who are in its power, and that a central prisoner-of-war information agency shall be created in a neutral country.
b. Prisoner of War Information Bureau.
(1)     
The United States Enemy Prisoner-of­War Information Bureau operates under the jurisdiction of The Provost Marshal General, Department of the Army. (See SR 10~310-1.) Branch prisoner-of-war in­formation bureaus may be established over­seas. Where branch information bureaus have been established, all reports and infor­mation, such as are enumerated in (2) be­low, are channeled through the oversea branch bureaus.

(2)     
The Enemy Prisoner-of-War Information Bureau is informed within the shortest possible time of every capture of prisoners of war effected by United States forces. All available pertinent information regarding the prisoner is transmitted to the bureau


AGO 1385C
where an individual record is maintained for each prisoner. Most of the data are obtained at the prisoner-of-war camp. The bureau, in turn, immediately forwards such information to the power concerned through the protecting power and the Central Pris­oner-of-War Information Agency. (See par. 10.) This information includes, so far as'available to the bureau, the name and other identifying data of each prisoner, the names of the prisoner's parents, the name and address of the person to be informed of his capture, and the address to which cor­respondence for the prisoner may be sent. The bureau also receives from the various agencies concerned, such as camps or cages, information regarding transfers, releases, repatriations, escapes, hospitalization, state of health of prisoners who are seriously ill or seriously wounded, and deaths. Failure to transmit this information speedily to the enemy power through the channels pro­vided may encourage retaliation in kind.
(3)     
The bureau is responsible for replying to all inquiries sent to it concerning prisoners of war, including those who have died in captivity.

(4)     
The bureau is also charged with collecting all personal valuables left by prisoners of war who have been repatriated or released, or who have escaped or died, and with for­warding such objects to the powers con­cerned, or storing the same until proper disposition can be made.


AGO     1385C
c. Oentral Prisoner-oJ-War Information Agency.
The International Committee of the Red Cross is authorized by the Convention to propose to the pow­ers concerned the organization of the Oentral Pris­oner-oJ-War Information Agency. The function of the agency is to collect through official or private channels all the information it may obtain relative to prisoners of war, and to transmit this informa~ tion as rapidly as possible to the country of origin of the prisoners of war or to the power on which they depend.


10. PROTECTING POWERS
A neutral power which takes charge of the inter­ests of a party to a conflict in order to safeguard the interests of that party, and which acquires certain duties by virtue of the Convention, is termed a pro­tecting power. Representatives or delegates of pro­
tecting powers, who are ~.E!?~ti2..~~l?!2!~~?-!
~l}e ,..P.<l.'Y~~~%-~1)._,.,tJWYJlJ:.ec,tQ"~;-.I,,.2~~J~_ei~ duties, are permitted to visit all places where prison-ef~'OTwar may be located, particularly places of in­ternment, imprisonment, and labor. The represent­atives or delegates of protecting, powers may interview prisoners, and particularly prisoners' representatives, without witnesses. The representa­tives or delegates of the protecting powers have full liberty to select the places they wish to visit. The duration or frequency of these visits may not be re­stricted. Such visits may not be prohibited except for reasons of imperative military necessity.
AGO 1385C 200476°-52-3

11. WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS
a.
The representatives appointed to officiate in all welfare organizations are subject to the approval of the detaining power.

b.
The special position of the International Com­mittee of the Red Cross is recognized and respected at all times.

c.
Subject to the measures which the detaining power may consider essential to insure its security or to meet any other reasonable need, representatives of the International Committee of the Red Cross and other relief societies, religious organizations, or other organizations assisting prisoners of war re­ceive from the detaining power all necessary facili­ties for visiting the prisoners, for distributing supplies and material, from any source, intended for religious, educational, or recreative purposes, and for assisting the prisoners in organizing their leisure time within the camps. Upon delivery of such sup­plies and material to the prisoners of war, or very shortly afterwards, receipts for each consignment, signed by the prisoners' representative, are for­warded to the relief society or organization making the shipment. Receipts for these consignments are also supplied by the administrative authorities re­sponsible for guarding the prisoners. The detain­ing power may limit the number of societies and organizations whose delegates are allowed to carry out their activities in its territory and under its supervisio.n; however, such limitations shall not hin­der the effective operation of adequate relief to all prisoners of war.


12 A.GO 1385C
Section III. DISCIPLINARY MEASURES
12. GENERAL
As prisoners of war are subject to the laws, regula­tions, and orders in force in the armed forces of the detaining power, designated officers in the Armed Forces of the United States and military tribunals of the United States are authorized to impose dis­ciplinary and judicial punishment, respectively, pur­suant to the provisions of the Uniform Code of Mili­tary Justice and the Manual for Oourts-Martial, United States, 1951. However, if any law, regula­tion, or order of the United States declares acts com­mitted by a prisoner of war to be punishable, wher~as the same acts would not be punishable if committed by a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, such acts entail disciplinary punishments only. In any event, no proceedings or punishments contrary to the provisions of the Geneva Oonvention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners Of War are allowed.
a.
Military personnel having immediate custody of prisoners enforce military discipline and military courtesy. _

b.
Fraternization of United States Army and civil­ian personnel with prisoners of war is prohibited.

c.
Collective punishment is not imposed for in­dividual acts. Corporal punishment, imprisonment in premises without daylight, and in general, any form of torture or cruelty are forbidden.

d.
No prisoner of war may be deprived of his rank by the detaining power, or prevented from wearing his badg~

e.
The use of weapons against prisoners of war, es­pecially against those who are escaping or attempting to escape, constitutes an extreme measure, and is al­ways preceded by warnings appropriate to the cir­cumstances. Upon recapture, prisoners may be placed under additional guard or strict surveillance to pre­vent further attempts at escape. If necessary, an organized attempt to escape may be quelled by force of arms. The principles set forth in FM 19-15 may be used as a guide in planning for and the preparation of standing operating procedures for the control of. riots among prisoners of war.


AGO 1385C



13. DISCIPLINARY SANCTIONS
A camp commander, a responsible officer who re­places him, or an officer to whom he has delegated his disciplinary powers may impose disciplinary sanctions, subject to the limitations as to punishment set forth in Chapter III of the G&neva Oonvention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of WaT. Dis­ciplinary punishments applicable to prisoners of war are limited to a fine not to exceed fifty percent of the advances of pay and working pay which the prisoner of war would otherwise receive, discontinuance of pri';ileges granted over and· above those stipulated by the Geneva Convention, fatigue duties, and con­finement. Tn no case shall disciplinary punishments be inhuman, brutal, or dangerous to the health of prisoners of war.
a. The duration of any single punishment is not to exceed 30 days. At least three days must elapse be­tween consecutive punishments, if the duration of anyone of the punishments is ten days or more.
AGOA385C
The period between the pronouncing of an award of disciplinary punishment and its execution shall not exceed one month.
b.
As a disciplinary measure, prisoners may be re­quired to perform fatigue duties not exceeding two hours daily. This punishment is not applicable to officers. Noncommissioned officers may only be re­quired to do supervisory work as a disciplinary measure.

c.
Designated leaders, including officer and non­commissioned officer prisoners, who fail to perform properly the duties of supervision of the personnel under them or any other duty with which they may be entrusted, may be punished under the summary punishment power of the camp commander.

d.
Prisoners who have made good their escape and who are recaptured are not liable to any punishment for having effected their escape. Prisoners of war who are recaptured before making good their escape are liable only to a disciplinary punishment in re­spect of this act. Prisoners of war who commit offenses with the sole intention of facilitating their escape are liable to disciplinary punishment only provided that such offenses do not entail any vio­lence against life or limb. In like manner, prisoners of war who aid or abet an escape are liable to dis­ciplinary punishment only provided that the offenses committed in the giving of such assistance do not entail any violence against life or limb.

e.
Prisoners of war undergoing confinement as a disciplinary punishment are permitted certain privi­leges, such as daily exercise in the open air, medical attention, and permission to read and write. Par-


AGO 1385C
eels and remittances of money, however, may be with­held from them until the completion of the pun­ishment.
14. JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS
In addition to disciplinary sanctions, judicial pro­ceedings may be instituted against prisoners of war, but prisoners of war shall not be subjected to more severe treatment than that applied in respect of the same punishment to members of the Armed Forces of the United States of equivalent rank.
a.
No prisoner of war may be tried or sentenced for an act which is not forbidden by United States law or by international law, in force at the time of the commission of the act. This provision is not a bar to trial by a military tribunal under military law for the violation of laws or regulations, provided such violation would be punishable if committed by a member of the forces of the United States. A prisoner of war must be granted an opportunity to present his defense and to have the assistance of a qualified advocate or counsel of his own choice if reasonably available.

o.
If judicial proceedings are to be instituted against a prisoner of war, the United States must notify the protecting power within the period of time stipulated in the Convention.

c.
Definite provisions and restrictions surround the pronouncing of the death sentence upon a prisoner of war, such as the period of time that must elapse between the pronouncement and the execution of the sentence in order to provide for adequate notification to the protecting power.

d.
Every prisoner of war has the same right of appeal or petition from any sentence pronounced upon him as the members of the Armed Forces of the United States.

e.
For a complete discussion of the penal and dis­


16 AGO 1383C
..     ciplinary sanctions applicable to prisoners of war, see articles 82-108 of the Geneva Oonvention rela­tive to the Treatment of Prisoners of TVar.
Section IV. INTERROGATION
15. GENERAL
a.
The systematic and methodical interrogation of prisoners of war is one of the most productive sources of intelligence. The system of intelligence interrogation parallels that of evacuation. Interro­gation takes precedence over rapid evacuation, except in forward areas where the prompt removal of pris­oners of war from dangerous areas is prescribed by the Geneva Convention. Military police must un­derstand the principles of interrogation in order to avoid the improper handling of prisoners of war and the consequent reduction of their value as a source of enemy information (see fig. 1.).

o.
The interrogation of prisoners of war is a func­tion of the intelligence officer who is assisted by pris­


• oner-of-war     interrogation teams and in some instances, by psychological warfare officers. The in­terrogation of prisoners of war by military police is restricted to that interrogation which is necessary
•     for the administration, movement, control, and proc­essing of prisoners.
AGO 1335C
BLANK SPACE
NONWOOIIDED AND WAI.KING WOUNDED pn
... FRONT LINES



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TERROUnON (USUALLY CO~DUOn:D BY IPW TEAM)TAOTICAL INFORMAJ'tO. &I BGUlHt'HEaf
-jllLGOLL X.
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IPW TEAM AT THIS
LEVEL [NTERROOATEISELEOTED PWI
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xxxX
...

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...RMY D,ut
IPW TEAM rNTI!:RROGATI!!:'
xxxx.... ,ROO.SS.., • ')NTER....TIOII
FOR ADDITIONAL TACTIOAL
AND STRATEGIO INfORIIATIOII
fURTHER
+
INTERROGAnON\
011' SELEOTED
... ;t-­
( III COlnlUNIOATIONS ZON-E
~CAMPS
PW 001 (LAl08)
~PORT OR OTHER DONTAOL POINT
1•• t'NPI
Figure 1. Evacuation ana interrogation of prisoners of war.
c. Every prisoner of war, when questioned on the subject, must give his surname, first names and rank, ' date of birth, and service number, or failing this, equivalent information. The term service number
18     AGO 1385C
as used in this manual refers to his army, regimental, or personal number as assigned by the Power which he serves. Servioe number is not to be confused with internment serial number. Servioe number refers to the combination of numbers, or letters and numbers, assigned to each individual by the military service of the country he serves as a means of positive personal identification. The internment serial number refers to the number assigned by the military police pris­oner-of-war processing company to each prisoner of war.
d.
If, because of his physical or mental condition, a prisoner is unable to identify himself, he shall be turned over to the medical service.

e.
Ifthe prisoner of war wilfully infringes the rule of giving the necessary information, he may render himself liable to a restriction of the privileges ac­corded to his rank or status.

f.
For a detailed discussion of the interrogation of the prisoners of war, see FM 30-5 and FM 30-15.


16. PRrNCIPLES
a.
Searoh. An early and systematic search of prisoners of war is necessary in order that documents or possessions of intelligence value may be obtained before they can be destroyed.

b.
Speed of Evaouation. Prisoners of war must be evacuated as quickly as possible to permit an early interrogation.

c.
Segregation. Early segregation must be ef­fected to separate individuals who may have a con­trolling influence over other prisoners. Prisoners


AGO 1385C 200476'-52-4
of war, when properly segregated, can be more ef­fectively interrogated (par. 22).
a.
Method of Hanulling. High standards of disci­pline are required not only of prisoners of war but also of capturing troops. Prisoners respond better when they are required to adhere to standards of discipline which are at least as high as those to which they are accustomed. Fraternization, mistreatment, or abuse by capturing troops makes the task of the interrogators more difficult. Generally, troops never furnish comfort items to prisoners prior to their first interrogation; interrogators can do much toward gaining the confidence of prisoners if they are the first to offer these items. However, if interrogation is delayed beyond a reasonable period, prisoners may not be denied food and potable water as well as necessary clothing and medical attention.

e.
Skill in Interrogation. Interrogation should be conducted only by personnel trained for this purpose.


17. PHASES OF INTERROGATION
The interrogation may be conducted in two phases. (See fig. 1.)
a.
During the first phase, the purpose of interro­gation is to develop information of immediate tacti­cal importance. This interrogation usually takes place at a forward headquarters immediately upon capture or as soon thereafter as possible.

b.
During the second phase, the purpose of interro­gation is to develop further the order of battle and to obtain strategic or general military or economic in­formation of value to the higher echelons of com­mand. Also during this phase, prisoners may be. in­


,l.GO 1385C
terrogated by specially trained psychological warfare officers, for the purpose of developing intelligence of special value in preparation of propaganda. This interrogation usually takes place at an army prisoner­of-war cage, at a prisoner-of-war camp, or as directed by the theater commander.
AGO 1385C

CHAPTER 2
COMBAT ZONE

Section I. CAPTURE
18. GENERAL
a. The individual or unit capturing prisoners of war disarms and searches them immediately for con­cealed weapons and documents, unless the number of prisoners captured, enemy action, or other circum­stances make search impracticable. If immediate search is not feasible, it is made as soon as possible.
b. Prisoners of war are evacuated from the com­pany ~th.ILJj~~tt~li2!11_,.r~girp.~r:;t~r';~-~-q~i~al~!1t ~ner-of-warSB.D~~,~jng poiIlt.~n(l. from theretQ ~h~ ,dn;;i~~2~,~<2!le~!iElJIJ;>?int. (See fig. 2.) Evacua­
tion from the division collecting point to the Army cage is normally the responsibility of Army. (See par. 33 and fig. 2.) Prisoner-of-war collecting points are designated localities in the area of a front line combat division for the assemblage of prisoners pending local examination for information of im­mediate tactical value and subsequent evacuation. Prisoners of war normally receive their first interro­gation by trained members of an Interrogation Prisoner-of-War (IPW) team at collecting points.
0. Each of the Services, Army, Navy, and Air Force, is responsible for prisoners of war captured
22.
AG'O'13830·
by its forces until such time as they are delivered to designated Army receiving points.


19. SEARCH
a. When interrogation teams are employed with

units, from battalion up, which are in contact with the enemy, the detailed search of prisoners of war is conducted under the supervision of team personnel.

b.
When no interrogation team personnel are at-


o
tached, the regimental or battalion intelligence of­ficer supervises the search. Documents and articles required for intelligence purposes are removed from prisoners of war, and are marked so that they may be identified with the prisoners upon whom they were found. To insure the availability of these docu­ments and articles to interrogators at higher echelons of command, they are turned over, with the prisoners of war on whom they were found, to the prisoner escort.
c. Until such time as prisoners of war can be searched by qualified personnel, capturing troops and guards must be alert to prevent the destruction of documents.

20. DOCUMENTS
An enemy document is any written, printed, en­graved, or photographic matter which may contain information relative to hostile armies or countries. Enemy documents are both of a personal nature, such as letters, pay cards, diaries, and pictures found
-on prisoners of war or enemy dead, and of an official nature, such as maps, orders, manuals, records, of­ficial photographs, and sketches (FM 30-15) •
AGO 1385C
21.     PERSONAL EFFECTS
a.
The officer in direct charge of prisoners of war insl'res that money, valuables, and personal effects on the persons or in the immediate possession of prisoners are safeguarded. Money may not be taken from prisoners of war except on the order of ' an officer. Itemized receipts must be given, legibly inscribed with the name, rank, and unit of the person issuing the said receipt. Personal effects will not be taken as souvenirs or loot.

b.
Property in the possession of prisoners of war usually belong in one of the following classes:


(1)     
Personal effects that prisoners of war are allowed to retain, including metal helmets and gas masks and like articles issued for personal protection, effects and articles used for clothing or feeding, identification tags or cards, badges of rank and nationality, and decorations and articles having a per­sonal or sentimental value. Personal iden­tification cards should not be removed if they are of the type called for by the Geneva Convention of 1949. Such cards normally measure approximately 6.5 x 10 em, and should show the prisoner's name, rank, serial number,· and date of birth plus any other information which the issu­ing power wishes to include. If the pris-.. soner does not possess such a card, one will be prepared and issued to him. At no time should the prisoner be without a basic iden-_ tity document.

(2)     
Personal effects that may be taken from prisoners of war temporarily for intelli­gence purposes, but that are to be returned as soon as practicable, such as personal registration cards, organizational member­ship cards, passports, letters of introduction, passes, ration books, political party cre­dentials, photographs, diaries, and other personal documents of military value. Personal effects in this category are re­moved as items of military value and re­ceipts are given to the prisoners.

(3)
Person&1 effects that prisoners of war are not permitted to retain for reasons of secur­ity. Articles of value may be taken from prisoners of war only for reasons of security. When such articles are withdrawn from prisoners, the procedure laid down for sums of money impounded applies. The pris­oners are given itemized receipts, and the particulars are recorded in a special prop­erty register. The articles are placed in safekeeping and returned in their initial shape to the prisoners at the end of their captivity.

(4)
Articles that prisoners of war are not per­mitted to retain at any time and which are confiscated. These articles include military documents and military equipment, such as arms and vehicles or animals used for trans­portation. Confiscated articles are turned over to G2 in the case of items of intelligence value, or to the appropriate technical serv-


AC!lO 1885C
AGO     1385C
ice for action and coordination with G2 if necessary.


22. SEGREGATION
a. N onwounded and Walking Wounded Prisoners.
As soon as possible, enemy officers, noncommissioned officers, privates, deserters, civilians, and women are segregated, and are delivered to the division or equivalent collecting point. Further segregation is made according to nationality. Segregation is main­tained throughout evacuation to rear areas.
b. Litter Oases. Nonwalking wounded prisoners of war are searched, taken to the nearest aid station for treatment, and evacuated through medical chan­nels. It is the responsibility of the medical officer to bring such prisoners to the attention of intelligence personnel for interrogation and to request the neces­sary guards. When practicable, and when such duty of itself will not expose them to danger, nonwounded and slightly wounded enemy prisoners are used as litter bearers for enemy and United States severely wounded personnel; United States slightly wounded military personnel may be used for prisoner-of-war escorts or guards when feasible. Whenever possible, the segregation of wounded prisoners is maintained as for other prisoners of war. (See Fig. 1.)

23. MOVEMENT TO DIVISION COLLECTING POINT
a. The prompt movement of prisoners of war to the division or equivalent collecting point is impor­tant. While in forward areas not only may prisoners _ become casualties as the result of enemy fire with a resultant decrease in their potential value for in-
AGO 13Blle
telligence purposes, but the problem of handling them is more difficult than in rear areas. Further­more, the Geneva Convention prescribes that pris­oners of war shall be evacuated, as soon as possible after their capture, far enough from the combat zone for them to be out of danger.
b. Evacuation may be accomplished by foot, by water, or by the use of empty ammunition or supply vehicles or other suitable conveyances. The guards
. may be elements of the combat forces or any other troops at the disposal of the military commander.
c. Routes of evacuation for prisoners of war to the division collecting point are usually the same as the routes of evacuation for the wounded. ­
24.     ESCORTS
a.
The officer or noncommissioned officer transfer­ring custody of prisoners of war to the commander of the prisoner-of-war escort provides the latter with a memorandum stating the time, place, and circum­stances of the capture, and the designation of the unit making the capture. At the division collecting point, the commander of the prisoner-of-war escort receives from division military police a receipt show­ing the number of prisoners turned over and the number of documents delivered with them.

b.
Whenever possible, troops from reserve units are detailed to escort prisoners of war to the divi­


, sion or equivalent collecting point. Troops detailed as escorts­
(1)     
Prevent escapes.

(2)     
Maintain segregation at all times. (See par. 22.)

(3)     
Prevent prisoners from discarding or de­stroying any insignia or documents not taken, or overlooked by the capturing unit, to include collection by rear guards of any documents dropped by prisoners.

(4)     
Prevent anyone, other than authorized in­terrogators, from talking to prisoners.

(5)     
Prevent anyone from giving prisoners food, drink, or cigarettes prior to interroga­tion in so far as such act does not violate any requirement concerning the treatment of prisoners of war.

(6)     
Enforce silence among prisoners at all times.

(7)     
Deliver prisoners to the division or equiva­lent collecting point as soon as possible.


AGO 1385C 200476°-52-ti
Section II. COLLECTiON


25.     GENERAL
Prisoners of war are assembled at collecting points
to-
a.
Relieve the capturing units quickly.

b.
Be held until they can be evacuated to the rear by higher headquarters.

c.
Conserve guard personnel.

d.
Expedite evacuation of prisoners of war to the rear.



26. INFANTRY DIVISION
a.
One division collecting point is normally estab­lished for each division.

b.
The infantry division prisoner-of-war collect­ing point is usually located in the vicinity of the


AGO     1385C
division command post. It should be accessible by road to trucks and ambulances from the rear and the front, near water, protected as much as possible against enemy observation and fire, and far enough to the rear to avoid involvement in minor fluctuations of the front line. Ifa regular cage is not available,

a     partially fenced-in area, inclosed courtyard, or similar place that facilitates the maximum security of prisoners with a minimum of guards should be


chosen, if possible. In the absence of a regular cage, the limits of the colle<:ting point are stipulated, and the prisoners ,of war are required to remain within the area defined.

c.
At the division collecting point, division mili­tary police relieve the escort troops of the re­sponsibility for guarding prisoners of war. The prisoners are counted and a detailed search of the prisoners is conducted under the supervision of in­telligence personnel. Segregation is maintained. Documents and selected personnel are also examined. All documents and other personal effects of intelF­gence value are marked so that they may be identi­fied with the prisoners on whom they were found, and are placed in envelopes for transmission to the proper intelligence agency.

d.
Prisoners of war are normally issued rations and water at the division collecting point and aid is


~     given to the wounded and sick. Retained personnel, including medical personnel and chaplains assist in caring for prisoners of war to the fullest extent pos­sible (par. 7).
~     e. At the ~,QJJ,J~ygtJll:!§'2-W~E.§,.,.~;te,~:g9nn.JJJJy..,j$.; ~a.~g~?[~~tQt-~,"W.~rc~~~ The infQrmation that is
AGO 1385C
recorde5L~n ~E}_~~i,~.)~ite~.to the datea!ld pla~e C~t,.cS~l(U;.),..QL~~I!t!lIe._,~~d the designatioIl .2-t,Q1.e unit ~~1f.!ng",,!b~_.9lWtMr,!').· Prisoners of war arewarn(:ia: not to mutilate, destroy, or lose their tags.
f. Few reports regarding prisoners of war are re­quired at the division level other than the listing of the number of prisoners in each group. Ifpractica-• Qle, rosters,of p:risoIl~rs of war, listingnameLgrade, service number, date and place of capture, unitmak­i~~~,.S~i>.~~E~,~·,~~~.'ili~9§hh!l of,·P~~S2.!l~:i;,:::~;e ,for-_ wa~1,~(ttp , ..,JI:le~,,_g~'Vi.?i9I1._ heaClqllf1rt~:r:~" JroIl1 the
divisIon collecting point.
"'"'------.-~,.
27. AIRBORNE DIVISION
a. In an airborne operation, the manner of collect­ing and evacuating prisoners of war is dependent upon such factors as the following: geographical 10­cation of the airhead, tactical plan, availability of transportation, and plans for link-up with ground or other forces .
. b. Because of the nature of an airborne operation, the guarding and evacuating of prisoners of war are initially the responsibility of the regimental combat teams. However, it may not be feasible to establish regimental collecting points during the early stages of the operation. As soon as sufficient control is established, prisoners of war are evacu­ated from lower echelons to higher echelons.
c. At an airhead, prisoners of war are held at the most suitable location until evacuation can be accom­plished. Prisoners of war are evacuated by air or are held until a link-up is made with friendly forces. If the prisoners are to be evacuated by air, the col­
30 AGO 138GC
lecting point is situated in the most suitable location,
-close to the landing field. The military police com­pany of the airborne division performs all normal functions in connection with the handling of pris­oners of war.
d. If the airborne division makes a penetration deep into hostile territory, and if a link-up with other forces is delayed and an evacuation of prison­ers of war is not possible, it may be necessary to re­tain the prisoners within the airhead. The collect­
.ing point operation may then parallel the operation of a prisoner-of-war cage in the guarding and caring for prisoners of war.
28. ARMORED DIVISION
a.
Because of its inherent characteristics, such as mobility, fire power, and communications, an ar­mored division may penetrate deeply and quickly into hostile territory. In an armored penetration, prisoners of war may be disarmed and evacuated to the rear by vehicle or on foot, or they may be retained and guarded in the area of capture while the divi­sion continues toward its objective. If prisoners of war are left under guard, they are held until infan­try units reach the area and take over the control and handling of the prisoners, including tagging and evacuating to a collecting point.

o.
Prisoner-of-war collecting points may be es­tablished in the rear of each combat command that has been assigned an independent objective. These prisoner-of-war collecting points are located on previously announced axes of evacuation. When combat commands operate in close conjunction, one


AGO 138GC
or more collecting points may be established to serve the combat commands jointly.
c.
In a static situation, or'in an infantry-type op­eration, the establishment and operation of an ar­mored division collecting point will resemble that of an infantry division collecting point.

d.
In a rapid pursuit, particularly when the en­emy is demoralized and is surrendering in vast num­bers, the above methods of handling prisoners of war may prove inadequate. In such extraordinary circumstances it may be practicable and necessary to disarm prisoners and order them to march to the rear without guards or to disarm them and order them to remain in place without guards.


~9. OTHER UNITS
The principles and procedures that are outlined above for the collection of prisoners of war and the op,eration of division collecting points are generally applicable to similar operations by comparable units and higher echelons.
30. ARCTIC AND DESERT OPERATIONS
Climate and terrain impose certain restrictions upon the establishment and functioning of collect­ing points.
a. Arctic Areas. In arctic areas, low temperatures may not permit prisoners of war to be searched in the open. Hence, to facilitate the search for weap­ons and documents that may be concealed in bulky clothing, heated shelters are provided for the exami­nation of prisoners before they are escorted to col­lecting points. Collecting points for prisoners of
AGO l3Blle
war in arctic areas are temporary cages that provide shelter, and are located at or near airheads. As care for prisoners of war during the severe arctic winter is difficult, evacuation from forward areas is accom­plished rapidly and is delayed only for intelligence requirements. Normally prisoners of war are evacu­ated as quickly as possible from the arctic.
b. Desert Areas. In order to have access to water and supplies, collecting points in desert areas are located. near troop concentration areas. Limited transportation facilities may delay the evacuation of prisoners of war to rear areas and necessitate re­taining the prisoners for some time. 1£ the prison­ers cannot be evacuated to the rear quickly, further processing than would ordinarily be accomplished at the division level will be required.
Section III. EVACUATION
31. GENERAL
Prisoners of war are evacuated, as soon as possible after their capture, to camps situated in an area far enough £rom the combat zone for them to be out of danger, except those prisoners of war who, owing to wounds or sickness, would be exposed to greater risk by being evacuated than by being temporarily kept where they are. (See fig. 2.) Prisoners of war are not to be unnecessarily exposed to danger while awaiting evacuation from a combat zone, and the evacuation is to be effected humanely. During evacuation, prisoners of war are supplied with suf­ficient food, water, and necessary clothing and medi­cal attention. 1£ prisoners of war must, during
AGO 1385C
w
• I' COLLECTING POINTS -, CAGES OR OAMPS 'I
FIGURE 2: Schematio diagram of evacuation of prisoners of war
~ R!8ioV:~,~~l:~~: ~CAPTURINO un ITa:~"!~1 I~I:I COM~~~~~~O;~LI~~NE _________
TROOPS
<:)
o
'0011,. IIILITA", POLlOI!: USUALLY EVAOUATE II!L!OTID PIUIONEfiS 'ROM DIVIIION TO CORPI •
...
CO '" Figure 2. Schematio diagram of evacuation of prisone1's of war.
(")
'"
evacuation, pass through transit camps (prisoner-of­war cages or processing stations), their stay in such camps must be as brief as possible.
32. EVACUATION PRINCIPLES
The general principles for the evacuation of pris­• oners of war include the following:
a.
The provisions of the Geneva Convention are to be observed in spirit and letter.

b.
The evacuation of prisoners of war is not to in­terfere with the circulation, movement, or· tactical employment of United States troops.

c.
Segregation is to be maintained throughout the evacuation process.

d.
Property rights of prisoners of war are to be fully respected.

e.
Wounded prisoners of war are to be evacuated through medical channels.


33. EVACUATION RESPONSIBILITY
The evacuation of prisoners of war from the divi­sion collecting point to the rear is normally the re­sponsibility of the next higher echelon in the chain of evacuation. In normal situations, army is charged with the evacuation of prisoners of war from the division collecting point. However, some situations may require that prisoners of war be evacuated in whole or in part through a corps prisoner-of-war cage. (See pars. 37 and 38, and fig. 2.)
AGO 1385C 200476°-52--6
34. EVACUATION PROCEDURES
The following procedures are observed in evacu­ating prisoners of war:
a.
Maximum use is made of returning supply ve­hicles for evacuation.

b.
Escorts for prisoners of war who are to be transported via road, air, rail, or water are so or­ganized as to provide adequate security at all times.

c.
When prisoners of war are to be evacuated by vehicle, the loading is supervised, and load limits . are prescribed to prevent accidents because of over­loading. Although the ideal loading formula is ten men per truck ton, the exigencies of the situation may require a load increase in the number of prison­ers; however, in no event are trucks to be overloaded. An armed guard may be placed in the cab of each vehicle to guard the prisoners of war in the preced­ing vehicle. Motor patrols armed with automatic weapons may reinforce the guard detail in very large convoys.

a.
When prisoners of war are evacuated by rail, a minimum number of guards should be used.

e.
WThen prisoners of war are evacuated on foot, close column formations are used, and guards march at the head and rear, and on both flanks, of the col­umns. The number of guards required to escort prisoners of war on a march varies with the morale and physical condition of the prisoners, the possi­bility of an enemy attack, the number of prisoners to be escorted, and the distances to be traversed. When a prisoner-of-war column is attacked, pris­oners are instructed to lie down and to remain immobile.

f.
Rests and stops are preferably made during day­light, outside villages or installations.

g.
Liaison should be maintained with the next higher headquarters to inform it of anticipated changes in the location of collecting points and in the number of prisoners of war in each classifica­tion to be delivered to that headquarters.

h.
The issue of sufficient rations and water is the responsibility of the echelon having custody of pris­oners of war. Account should be taken of the habit­ual diet of the prisoners. To the greatest extent possible, captured enemy rations and other enemy supplies and material are used for prisoners of war.

i.
Normally, no comfort items, such as cigarettes, are issued to prisoners of war until the intelligence officer so signifies.

j.
Prisoners of high rank and other prisoners of special interest, including well-informed enemy sol­diers and high civil functionaries accompanying the armed forces are evacuated accordIng to theater d irecti ves.

k.
Only the minimum conversation necessary to issue orders and to maintain discipline is permitted between guards and prisoners of war. Orders to prisoners are given in a language they understand. Prisoners may be used as interpreters, if necessary. Conversation among prisoners is forbidden.

l.
Punishment for the violation of a rule, regula­tion, or order by a prisoner of war during an evacu­ation is not administered by the escort guards. Measures are taken, however, to prevent the recur­rence of the infringement.


AGO 138liC
AGO 1385C
35. AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS
.An early evacuation of prisoners of war by water may be necessary during the initial phases of an amphibious operation. Prior to the establishment of division control ashore, prisoners of war are nor­mally evacuated by the various landing or combat teams to their respective collecting points, under con-• trol of the amphibious support brigade. The prison­ers may either be held at the beach until interrogators from the higher echelons come ashore, or evacuated ­to ships designated for interrogation. In this type of operation, the handling of prisoners of war may cover three phases:
a.
Initial Phase. Immediate evacuation by water, and no processing on the beachhead.

b.
Intermediate Phase. While awaiting trans­portation for evacuation, initial processing on the beachhead by military police attached to the am­phibious units.

c.
Final Phase. Minimum evacuation, completion of processing, and employment of prisoners on authorized labor projects by the amphibious and follow-up forces.


36. AIRBORNE OPERATIONS
Prisoners of war are normally evacuated by air during the early stages of an airborne operation. At least two guards are required for each plane load • of prisoners of war. Plans should provide for the attachment of personnel from communications zone military police units to the airborne force to guard the prisoners during evacuation (par. 27).
AGO 188[)C

37. CORPS
Prisoners of. war are normally not . evacuated through corps; they are usually evacuated directly from division collecting points to army prisoner-of­war cages. However, if a corps is operating inde­pendently, or if the situation requires evacuation through corps, or if it is necessary for corps to inter­rogate certain prisoners of war, such prisoners are evacuated from division to a corps prisoner-of-war cage by corps military police. Where a corps is operating independently, the processing and han­dling of prisoners of war at the corps prisoner-of­war cage will closely parallel the processing and handling at the army prisoner-of-war cage.

38. ARMY
a.
Prisoner-of-war cages are established in army areas for the temporary detention and interrogation of prisoners of war pending further evacuation. Shelter, usually of a temporary nature, is provided at prisoner-of-war cages. Existing facilities are used whenever possible. Dependent upon the dis­tance from the army and corps cages to the com­munications zone and the method of evacuation, it may be necessary to establish cages along the line of march for food, rest, and overnight stops (fig. 3).

o.
Prisoners of war are counted and receipted for immediately upon arrival at the army cage. A re­ceipt for the prisoners and any accompanying cap­tured documents is given to the commander of the guard.

o.
At the army cage, a thorough search is made of prisoners of war for any previously undiscovered


AGO 1385C
documents of intelligence value, or any other un­authorized possessions.
d.
Sanitary measures are taken to prevent the con­traction or the spread of diseases. The sanitary measures include bathing, delousing, and the disin­festation of clothing. Prisoners of war suspected of having communicable diseases are isolated and placed under medical observation.

e.
If necessary, clothing is issued to prisoners of war. (See par. 47.)

f.
Food is provided prisoners of war, but the prep­aration of such food, if required, is accomplished by the prisoners.

g.
Within one week after arrival at a camp or cage, even if it is a transit camp or cage, prisoners are to be permitted to notify the Central Prisoner of War Information Agency and their families of their capture if they have not been enabled to do so prior to arrival (par. 51).

h.
Interrogation at army prisoner-of-war cages is selective; that is, only certain prisoners are interrogated.

i.
When the evacuation of prisoners of war is de­layed, such as during an island operation, the prison­ers may be retained within the army cage for some time. When there is such a delay, as complete a processing as possible is accomplished and prisoners of war may be used for labor not prohibited by the Geneva Convention within the army area.

j.
Prisoners of war are guarded at cages and dur­ing transfer to and between cages by military police guard companies, when available, or by other troops.


AGO 13811e
39. EVACUATION TO COMMUNICATIONS ZONE
Prisoners of war are evacuated from the combat zone to the communications zone as quickly as pos­sible. Military police from the communications zone normally escort the prisoners from the army cages. The number of guards required for escorting prison­ers of war from army cages to communications zone cages or camps is variable, but usually is dependent upon the number of prisoners to be evacuated, the means of evacuation, and the morale or attitude of the prisoners; i. e., resigned or belligerent.
40.     FORWARD DISPLACEMENT OF ARMY REAR BOUNDARY
As the army rear boundary is displaced forward, prisoner-of-war cages may either be taken over in place by military police of the advance section of the communications zone and the operation of the cages continued, or the cages may be closed and the prison­ers of war evacuated to the rear through normal channels prior to such displacement. The decision to continue to operate or to close prisoner-of-war cages in the newly acquired communications zone is based upon such factors as the tactical situation, plans of higher headquarters, prisoner-of-war esti­mates, plans for utilization of prisoner-of-war labor, suitability of cages for internment of prisoners of war for long periods, and the availability of pris­oner-of-war cages in the advance section area.
AGO 1385C
CHAPTER 3

PRISONERS OF WAR IN THE COMMUNICA­
TIONS ZONE

Section I. INTERNMENT FACILITIES
41. CAGES AND PROCESSING STATIONS
a.
Prisoner-of-war cages may be established in the communications zone under unusual circumstances for the interrogation and temporary detention of prisoners of war pending their further evacuation from the communications zone. Dependent upon the plan for evacuating prisoners of war from the communications zone, cages may be established in each separate port area.

b.
Prisoner-of-war processing stations may also be established for the processing and temporary deten­tion of prisoners of war pending their assignment to cages for evacuation from the communications zone or to permanent communications zone prisoner-of­war camps. Processing is accomplished as described in paragraph 45 by military police prisoner-of-war processing companies (fig. 3.) .


.c. At cages, arrangements are made for the com­plete segregation of prisoners of war according to their classification.
AGO 1385C
Figure 3. Prisoner-of-war cage
PERI

250 F!NAI.ES  
A0 NOO"  
ElBEI KITOHENS AND STORAQE ElBEI  

Ell LAT ~ • A81. I!D  
Ell • DADRE LMMII  
EXllTINa  ROAO  

LEGEND
NOTE: ALL STAUOTURII!8  
~GATE  TRIPLE CONCERTiNA FENCE  TO BE TENTAGE.  
jgI  II' 0" •  II' 0" PYRAMIDAL  TENT  
E3  11' I". 10' 0" ITORAtE TEIIT  
o  e' 10" •  • ' a" '8IULL WALL T£IIT  
Dep  tuARD PLATFORM  
ADM  ADIIIIUSTRATIOIl  
o LAT  LATRINE ./IHOWERS  
ABL  ABLUTIOI  
..  IIESI HALL  
K  KlTGMEil  
8T  STORAel!  
0'  POWER  PLAIIT  
OWT  WAT£R TANK (1000 GALLONS'  

Figure 3. Pri8oner-ot-war cage.
42. PRISONER-Of-WAR CAGE REPRESENTATIVE
To insure smoothness of operation, the receiving communications zone cage may assign a representa­tive to the army cage from which prisoners of war
AGO 1385C
are normally received. The duties of the prisoner­of-war cage representative normally include-
a.
Procuring estimates at least 24 hours in advance, if possible, of the prisoners of war in each category who are to be transferred to the communications zone cage.

b.
Requesting designated agencies to furnish trans­portation, and specifying the trucks or railroad cars required, and the time, the place, and the destination.

c.
Notifying the receiving cage of the guards needed and the categories and numbers of prisoners of war to be shipped.

a.
Arranging for rations en route, if required.

e.
Assisting in segregating prisoners of war, if segregation has not already been accomplished, and preparing rosters for the next movement.

f.
Receiving and checking prisoners of war and prisoner-of-war property.

g.
Assisting in organizing prisoners of war into truck or railroad car loads, and supervising the loading.

h.
Delivering rosters to the senior member of the escort.

i.
Notifying the receiving cage of the expected time of arrival.


43. PRISONER-Of-WAR CAMPS
a. Prisoner-of-war camps are installations of a semipermanent nature that are established in the communications zone or the zone of interior for the internment and complete administration of prisoners of war. The camps may be located on, or may be independent of, other military installations. The
AGO l8Blle
camps are designed to provide security and living ar­rangements as required by the Geneva Convention and military needs. Whenever military considera­tions permit, prisoner-of-war camps are marked dis­tinctly so as to be readily identifiable from the air (figs. 4, 5, and 6).
b.
Prisoner-of-war branch camps are camps that are established on a semipermanent or temporary basis in order to fill a definite work need. The ad­ministration of prisoners in these camps is under the supervision of the prison-of-war camp of which it is a branch.

c.
Quarters in a prisoner-of-war camp must be provided under conditions as favorable as those pro­vided for United States troops billeted in the same area. The area of each camp must be sufficient to provide space for buildings necessary for the housing of prisoners, and for administration; indoor and out­door recreation, medical care, religious worship, mess­ing, canteen, showers, latrines, and other prescribed purposes. Prison-of-war camps are usually divided into compounds by fencing.

a.
In any camp in which women prisoners of war, as well as men, are accommodated, separate dormi­tories and conveniences must be provided.

e.
Prisoners of war are interned in camps accord­ing to their nationality, language, and customs, pro­vided that the prisoners are not separated from prisoners of war of the armed forces with which they were serving at the time of their capture, except with their consent.

f.
For a typical headquarters and headquarters company organization designed to administer a


AGO 1385C
Figure 4. Prisoner-of-war branch tent camp for 250 enlisted men
.... illu'

Figure 4. Prisoner-of-war branch tent camp for 250 enlisted men - legend.
I5jOUAHO IIr~~~~
·OWER
I5S0'
alm~\
(") Figure 4. Prisoner-of-war branch tent camp for 250 enlisted men.
""
aTI!J
LDY • SHOWERS
ElEl
00009008 o=r
El6 El
n TiOTE[ a ~ oP'FIODI
OOOO~E]tJE1 ~
.
~~ ~
000051008 ~
.""no.e·i .
.gOOD~~DEl I .-.~~..
om HALL'
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10
it 40' I to' LJ~i~t
qpoooo~
~
STOCKADE FENe!
STOCICAl)E PUGI
...".,.
El
ffij
!
RECREATION
AREA
40' LAgl"1 ITO'
1----------1100' ------------01
~TOW(ll
D'
Figure 5. Prisoner-of-war base tent camp tor 1,000 enlisted men
Figure 5. Prisoner-of-war base tent camp tor 1,000 enlisted men - legend
Figure 5. Prisoner-of-war base tent camp tor 1,000 enlisted men.
AGO 1385C
"",,'
Figure 6_ Prisoner-of-war camp for 1,800 enlisted men
!sYMBOL  BUILDINOS  SYMBOL  BUILDINGS  
ADMINISTRATION  Q.,II OFFICE  
HO  HEADQUARTERS a CENTRAL GUARD  00  Oi"FICERS QUARTERS  
B  BARRAOKS  PX  POST EXCHANGE ~DETACHMENT  
gHAPEL  POST EXCHANGE -P'!lSONERS  
FIRE HOUSE  DAY ROOfllS -DETACHMENT  
tUARDHOUSE-PAI90NERS  OS  co. STOREHOUSE a-ADNIN.  
I-I  INFIRMARY-PRISONERS  WORK SHOP ­PRISONERS  
1-'•.-1  INII'IRMARY-DETACHWENT LATRINE LAVATORY  TH 8H WHS  TOOt.. HOUSE a STOCKADE OFFICE UTILITY SHOPS WAREHOUSE  
....  LAVATORY-OFFICERS  GT  GUARD TOWER  
M-I ....  IAES9",:, PRISONERS MES.'" t:.. a OFFICERS  s..-.  STOREHOUSE a DAY ReON LAVATORY-DETACHMENT  

Figure 6_ Prisoner-ot-war camp tor 1,800 enlisted men.
A.GO 1385C
30,000 man prisoner-of-war camp, see figure 7. This type organization is intended for use as a guide only and may be modified to meet the existing situations and conditions. It must be supplemented by at­tachment of the required number of such supporting guard and service units as are necessary for camp maintenance and security and to provide proper care, treatment, and administration for the prisoners of war.
Section II. ADMINISTRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS
44.     GENERAL
The policies and procedures that govern the ad­ministration of prisoners of war in the communica­tions zone are also applicable in other areas where prisoners of war may be interned for extensive pe­riods in camps or other installations.
45.     ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES
a. Principles. The following general principles are applicable to the operation, personnel adminis­tration, and supply of prisoner-of-war camps:
(1)     
As far as possible, prisoners of war furnish their own administrative personnel.

(2)     
Extensive use is made of captured enemy supplies and equipment.

(3)     
Commandants of the camps are vested with the authority to impose summary punish­ment. Disciplinary action is administered in accordance with the provisions of the Geneva Convention (par. 13).


AGO 1385C
TYPE HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS COMPANY ORGANIZATION
'"
o FOR A 30.000-MAN PW CA~P
15
o
....
:<>
00
(')'" Figure 7. Typical headquarter8 and headquarter8 company.
b.
Oommand Responsibilities. Every prisoner­of-war camp is placed under the command of a com­missioned officer of the armed forces. A copy of the Geneva Convention and its annexes and special agreements must be posted in every camp in the lan­guage of the prisoners of war. Copies must be sup­plied, upon request, to those prisoners who cannot have access to the posted copy. All regulations, orders, and notices must be issued or addressed in a language which is understood by the prisoners.

c.
Reoords and Reports. Personnel reports and records at prisoner-of-war camps and other prisoner­of-war installations include reports and records required for pay, clothing, equipment, hospitaliza­tion, transfers, punishment, and similar matters.

d.
The initial processing that is accomplished upon arrival at the communications zone prisoner­of-war processing station or camp will include all appropriate steps set forth in paragraph 38. After this preliminary processing has been completed, ad­ministrative processing will be accomplished as soon as possible.


(1)     In processing prisoners of war, an intern­ment serial number is assigned to each pris­oner for the purposes of identification, classification, and reporting. The intern­ment serial number of a prisoner of war consists of several components separated by dashes. The various components indi­cate the command in which the prisoner was captured, the name of the enemy coun­try whose armed forces the prisoner served, and the order in which the prisoner was
AGO 1385C
processed. Internment serial numbers are assigned consecutively to prisoners of war captured by United States forces in each command, irrespective of the country the prisoners served. The commanding general of the appropriate command, at his discre­tion, may assign blocks of numbers to sub­commands or stations within his command. For example, internment serial numbers 1 through 2,000 may be assigned to one sub­command, and numbers 2,001 through 4,500 to another subcommand (par. 15). Care should be taken that all personal effects of prisoners of war are marked with their names and internment numbers, and re­corded in the special property register (par. 72), so that the effects may be returned to them upon repatriation. The prisoner-of­war personnel record for each prisoner is completed in duplicate by the military po­
lice prisoner-of-war processing company (par. 76).
(2)     In processing, the completed record will contain the name of the prisoner of war; his internment serial number, photograph, and fingerprints; an inventory of his per­sonal effects; other personal data; and the prisoner's signature. One copy of the rec­ord is forwarded to the Branch Prisoner­of-War Information Bureau; one copy of the record always goes forward with the prisoner of war. Prisoners of war who have been captured by other United States
AGO 18850
Armed Forces or by allied forces and have been transferred to the custody of the United States Army are permitted to re­tain their previously assigned internment serial numbers. Ifthey have not previously been processed, such prisoners are processed in the same manner as prisoners of war who have been captured by the Army.
(3)
Processing companies are assigned to cages on the basis of the number of prisoners of war to be processed. A prisoner-of-war processing company comprises three pla­toons and is capable of processing fourteen hundred and forty (1,440) prisoners in eight (8) hours (par. 67).

e.
After the prisoners have been processed, they are assigned to a prisoner-of-war camp and are then further assigned to a compound, battalion, and com­pany within the camp. Although the number of prisoners of war assigned to a camp, compound, bat­talion, or company may vary, the organizational framework as set forth in figure 8 should be adhered to in each prisoner-of-war camp. Prisoners of war will be utilized to the fullost extent in the internal administration of their assigned units.

f.
Frisoner-of-War Representatives. At all camps where there are no officers, prisoners of war freely elect spokesmen by secret ballot to represent them before the military authorities, the Protecting Pow­ers, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and any other organization which may assist them. In camps for officers and persons of equivalent status, or in mixed camps, the senior officer is recognized as


AGO 1385C
Figure 8. Prisoner-of-war camp organization
Figure 8. Prisoner-of-war camp organization - continued
~
o
....
...
,-c~oiiMo-. r COHPOUHO -. .-CIIH-;OUMD-1
I 10. 8 I, 10. 9 " 10A0
L ____ J_ !.... ____ J L ____ J
TYPE PW ORGANIZATION FOR A30,000 MAN CAMP
'"
""
CAMP HEADQUARTERS
•r----'
rI 8TH--'
18TH
I &ATTALIOI I
I .ATTALIOI :
L____ J Figure 8. Prisoner-of-war camp organization - continued
I I,""'" 1'".. I L____ J
I
~
(1 Figure 8. Prisoner-of-war camp or-ganization.
the representative. In officer camps, he is assisted by one or more advisers chosen by the officer prison­ers. In mixed camps the assistants are elected by the prisoners who are not officers. Every representative elected must be approved by the camp commander before he has the right to commence his duties.
46. COURTESIES
In addition to the courtesies required by regula­
..     tions in force in their own armies, prisoners of war are required to render the courtesies prescribed for United States personnel.
a.
When the national anthem is played, or when "To the Colors," "Escort of the Colors," or "Retreat" is sounded, prisoners of war not in buildings stand at attention facing the music or the colors.

o.
Enlisted prisoners of war salute all officers of the United States Armed Forces. Although of­ficer prisoners of war salute only United States officers of higher rank, they salute the camp com­mander regardless of his rank. Prisoners of war may salute in the manner prescribed by regulations in force in their own armies.

c.
A prisoner of war in a formation does not salute unless he is in charge of the formation. A prisoner of war in ranks assumes the position of attention when addressed by an officer.

d.
When out of doors, an enlisted prisoner of war upon the approach of an officer comes to attention, faces the officer, and salutes. The same courtesy is rendered by an officer prisoner of war upon the ap­proach of an officer of higher rank. Prisoners at work do not salute an officer unless addressed by him.

e.
When an officer of higher rank enters a mess hall, unless otherwise directed, prisoners of war re­main seated, continue eating, and do not converse.

f.
When entering a room where an officer of higher rank is present, a prisoner of war uncovers and stands at attention.

g.
Before addressing an officer of higher rank, a prisoner of war salutes. He also salutes upon the termination of the interview.

h.
United States military personnel are not re­quired to salute prisoners of war nor to assume the position of attention when addressing them. How­ever, officers of the United States Armed Forces re­turn the salutes of prisoners of war.


AGO 1385C     ss
47. SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT
a. Olothing. Except as circumstances warrant or climate requires, uniforms or other clothing are not is'sued as replacements to prisoners of war until the uniforms or clothing in which they were captured become unfit for use. When practicable, uniforms of prisoners of war are renovated by the prisoners for their own use. Prisoners of war are permitted to wear insignia of rank and decorations. Articles of uniform of the Armed Forces of the United States are not issued to prisoners of war, unless they are so altered that they cannot be mistaken for parts of such uniform. Maximum use is made of indigenous or captured clothing and Class X and nonstandard type clothing. Whenever the nature of their work, requires, prisoners of war receive appropriate clothing.
AGO 13S5C
o.
Rations. The basic daily food rations for pris­oners of war must be sufficient in quantity, quality, and variety to keep them in good health, and to pre­vent loss of weight or nutritional deficiencies. The habitual diet of the various national groups must be taken into consideration. The use of tobacco is per­mitted. Prisoners of war who work must be sup­plied with such additional rations as are necessary for the labor on which they are employed.

c.
Miscellaneous. Materials for bedding and fuel are issued to prisoners of war as required. Cob­bler's, tailor's, barber's, and other tools and mate­rials necessary for repairing clothing and equipment or for essential needs are made available in order to help prisoner-of-war camps to meet many of their own requirements. Clothing, equipment, and other supplies for prisoners of war are issued in accord­ance with the instructions of the Department of the Army and th3 theater commander.

d.
Oanteens. Canteens are established at all pris­oner-of-war camps, where prisoners may procure foodstuffs, soap, tobacco, and ordinary articles of daily use.


48. PERSONAL PROPERTY
a.
Personal effects which are taken from a prisoner of war are carefully listed, receipted for, and for­warded with the prisoner. Packages containing per· sonal effects are labeled with the prisoner's name and internment serial number, and are stored at the camp where he is interned. These effects are restored to the prisoner upon repatriation. (See par. 21.)

b.
The personal effects of deceased enemy person­nel are not sent to the United States. The list of the effects is reported to the theater enemy prisoner­of-war information bureau. The effects are stored within the theater of operations wherever practi­cable.


AGO 1385C
49. SANITATION AND MEDICAL CARE
a.
The sanitary measures of prisoner-of-war camps, so far as possible, approximate the sanitary measures required for United States military camps. In prisoner-of-war camps, sanitary measures are taken to insure the cleanliness and healthfulness of the camps and to prevent epidemics: adequate space is allocated to prevent overcrowding within housing units; sufficient latrines, showers, and lavatories are provided, and are kept sanitary; the rules of good mess sanitation are observed; waste is disposed of in accordance with the facilities available, but in such a manner as to insure the protection of health; and sufficient water is made available for drinking, bathing, laundry, and culinary purposes. Prisoners of war are furnished, by issue or sale, necessary ma­terials, such as soap, razor blades, basins, detergents, and brushes, to insure personal cleanliness and a sanitary environment.

b.
Adequate medical facilities are provided to safeguard the health of prisoners of war and pro­vision is made for the isolation of communicable cases, for disinfestation, and for inoculations. Medi­cal inspections of prisoners of war are made at least once a month. Retained medical personnel and prisoners of war with medical training are used to the


AGO 13850
fullest extent in caring for their own sick and wounded. 1£ adequate facilities are not available for the type of medical care required, prisoners of war are to be admitted to military or civilian medical installations where the required treatment can be given. The costs of medical treatment for prisoners of war are borne by the United States.
c. 1£ prisoners of war are admitted to an Army medical facility, the commanding officer of the hos­pital is responsible for their security and for ad­ministrative procedures, such as reporting the neces­sity for medical evacuation, deaths, escapes, and daily or other fixed interval strength data. Additional guards may be requested by him to provide adequate security.
50. PAY AND ALLOWANCES
a.
The Detaining Power may specify the maxi­mum amount of money in cash or in any similar form that prisoners of war may retain in their possession. Any amounts in excess which are properly in their possession and which are taken from them are placed to their separate accounts. United States currency found upon prisoners of war, if the prisoners can show lawful acquisition thereof, is deposited to the credit of the prisoners. 1£ the prisoners cannot show lawful acquisition thereof, the money is disposed of according to pertinent Army directives. Foreign money belonging to prisoners of war is held by the United States until the prisoners are repatriated.

b.
The Detaining Power must grant all prisoners of war a monthly advance of pay in its own currency in terms of the Swiss franc. The amount of the ad-


AGO 1385C
vance of pay is determined by the military or equiva­lent rank of the prisoner. The amount, however, may be modified by special agreements among the Parties to the conflict.
c. Prisoners of war are paid a fair working rate of pay by the Detaining Power. Prisoners of war or retained personnel who are required to perform spiritual or medical duties on behalf of their com­rades are likewise paid working pay. Prisoners of war who are permanently detailed to duties or to a skilled or semiskilled occupation in connection with
the administration, installation, or maintenance of camps also receive working pay. 1£ there is a fund that is maintained by canteen profits, it is used for the payment of prisoners' representatives and their ad-. visers and assistants.
d. An account is maintained for each prisoner of war, showing the credits, debits, and amounts due him. Every item entered in the account of a pris­oner of war is countersigned or initialed by him or· by the prisoners' representative acting on his behalf. When a prisoner is transferred from one camp to another, his accounts are forwarded with him. When a prisoner is transferred from the control of the United States to another power, a certificate for the amount standing to his credit is also forwarded with him. It is the responsibility of the power on
which the prisoner depends to settle with him any _ I credit balance due to him from the United States upon the termination of his captivity.
e. Prisoners of war are permitted to receive remit­tances of money addressed to them individually or collectively. Prisoners of war may also have pay­
60
AGO 1885C
ments made abroad, subject to financial or monetary restrictions deemed necessary by the detaining power. When such payments are addressed to dependents, they are given priority.
51. MAIL AND CENSORSHIP
a.
Although a prisoner of war has the right to receive and send mail, including packages, certain limitations may be imposed by the detaining power. If a prisoner of war has not filled out the capture and correspondence cards, he is given this opportu­nity not later than one week after arrival at a camp. If limitations are imposed on prisoner-of-war mail, the prisoner is still allowed to send, in addition to capture and correspondence cards, not less than two letters and four cards per month. In the event of a transfer from one camp to another, or of sickness, each prisoner of war is likewise permitted to send a correspondence card direct to his family and to the Central Prisoner-of -War Information Agency giving his name, address, and state of health.

b.
All prisoner-of-war correspondence is censored, and all mail addressed to prisoners of war is exam­ined in accordance with the Geneva Convention and Department of the Army. instructions.

c.
All correspondence to and from prisoners of war is exempt from postal dues, both in the countries of origin and destination and in any intermediate countries.

d.
-No paper, document, note, or written message may be delivered by a prisoner of war, directly to any person visiting a camp.

e.
Chaplains who have been retained and prison­ers of war who are ministers of religion are free to correspond, subject to censorship, on matters con­cerning their religious duties with the ecclesiastical authorities in the country of detention and with in­ternational religious organizations. Letters and cards which they send for this purpose are in addi­tion to any other quotas imposed on prisoner-of-war mail.

f.
Mail will be conveyed by the most rapid method at the disposal of the detaining power and may not be delayed or retained for disciplinary reasons.


A-GO 1885C
52. RELIEF SHIPMENTS
Prisoners of war are allowed to receive by post or by any other means individual parcels or collective shipments containing such items as foodstuffs; cloth­ing; medical supplies; articles of a religious, educa­tional, or recreational character; seientific equip­ment; musical instruments; sports outfits; and materials allowing prisoners of war to pursue their studies or their cultural activities. All relief ship­ments for prisoners of war are exempt from import, customs, and other duties but are subject to inspec­tion and censorship in accordance with directives of the Department of the Army.
53.     RELIGIOUS, INTELLECTUAL, AND PHYSICAL AC­TIVITIES
a. Prisoners of war enjoy complete liberty in the exercise of their religion, including attendance at the services of their faith, provided that they comply with the disciplinary routine prescribed by the mili-
A.GO 18815C
taryauthorities. Retained chaplains are allowed to minister to prisoners of war and to exercise freely their ministrations in accordance with their religious conscience. Retained chaplains are provided with necessary facilities, including the means of trans­portation, for visiting prisoners of war outside their camp. They should have the right to deal with the
competent authorities of the camp on all questions relating to their duties. Prisoners of war who are ministers of religion, without having officiated as chaplains to their own forces, whatever their de­nomination, are to be free to minister to the members of their particular denomination; they receive the same treatment as retained chaplains, and they are not obligated to do any other work. In the absence of a retained chaplain or a prisoner-of-war minister of their faith, prisoners of war may request that a minister, or in his absence, a qualified layman, if feas­ible, belonging to their faith or a similar denomina­tion, be appointed to function in this capacity. This appointment, subject to the approval of the Detain­ing Power, is made with the agreement of the prison­ers concerned and, wherever necessary, with the local religious authorities of the same faith.
b. The camp commander and his staff should en­courage prisoners of war to engage in intellectual, educational, and recreational activities. Adequate premises, instructional material and recreational equipment are provided the prisoners for such activi­ties when practicable. Prisoners of war are also given opportunity for taking physical exercise and for being out of doors. Sufficient open space for such activities is provided for this purpose in all camps.
AGO. 1385C
54. COMPLAINTS
Prisoners of war have the right to make complaints to the camp commander regarding their conditions of captivity. They also have the unrestricted right to address complaints directly or through their spokes­men to the representatives of the protecting power. Even when recognized as unfounded, complaints may not be the basis for punishment.
55. OFFICER PRISONERS
Officers and prisoners of equivalent status are treated with the regard due their rank and age.
a.
Privileges. Officer prisoners are accorded cer­tain facilities and privileges commensurate with their rank. They are provided quarters consistent· with their rank and are given reasonable opportunities for recreation and exercise.

b.
Orderlies. Officers and prisoners of equivalent status are assigned orderlies from other ranks of the same armed forces, who, as far as possible, speak the same language as the officers. Orderlies are not required to perform any other work. Except in unusual circumstances, no enlisted prisoner of war capable of performing a full day of productive labor is assigned as an orderly to an officer prisoner of war.


56. REPATRIATION OF SICK AND WOUNDED
a. Regardless of their number or rank, seriously wounded and seriously sick prisoners of war must be sent back to their own country after they have been medically cared for and are fit to travel, pro-
AGO·· 1385C
vided that arrangements have been made with the country concerned to receive them. However, no sick or wounded prisoner of war who is eligible for repatriation may be repatriated against his will dur­ing hostilities. Throughout the duration of hostili­
•     
ties, the countries concerned may make arrangements for the accommodation in neutral countries of sick and wounded prisoners of war.

b.     
All appropriate decisions regarding sick and


"     wounded prisoners of war are to be made by mixed medical commissions which are to be appointed upon the outbreak of hostilities. A mixed medical com­mission is to be composed of three members. Two of the members are to belong to a neutral country and are to be appointed by the International Com­mittee of the Red Cross. The third member is to be appointed by the detaining power.
57. ESCAPE
In a theater of operations, notification of the escape of a prisoner of war is sent immediately by the com­manding officer of the prisoner-of-war cage or camp, or by the commander of the escort if the escape is made while in transit, to all military commands in the vicinity, to commands in other localities through which the prisoner is likely to travel, and to higher headquarters. Each notification of escape is accom­panied by the best available description of the escaped prisoner of war and any additional informa-. tion which may be useful in effecting his recapture. Notification of all escapes is sent to the Enemy Pris­oner-of-War Information Bureau, and to indigenous civil law enforcement officers if appropriate, after
AGO 1385C
a sufficient period of time has elapsed to make im­mediate recapture appear improbable. Notification of recapture is promptly forwarded to each agency previously notified of the escape.
58. DEATH
a.
Prisoners of war who have died in captivity, regardless of the cause or manner of death, are hon­orably buried, if possible according to the rites of , their religion. Their graves are respected, properly maintained, and identified with appropriate markers.

b.
Death certificates, or lists certified by a respon­sible officer, of all persons who die as prisoners of war are forwarded as rapidly as possible to the En­emy Prisoner-of-War Information Bureau. The death certificate or list must identify the individual and state the date and place of death, the cause of death, the date and place of burial, and all data necessary to identify the grave. 'When a body is cremated, this fact, together with the reasons for this procedure, must be stated in the death certificate.

c.
The burial or cremation of a prisoner of war must be preceded by a medical examination of the body. Bodies may be cremated only for imperative reasons of hygiene, on account of the prisoner's re­ligion, or upon his request for cremation.

a.
If the cause of death is unknown, or if a death or serious injury of a prisoner of war was caused or suspected to have been caused by a sentry, another prisoner of war, or any other person, an official in­quiry should be made and a report of the findings • sent to the Office of The Provost Marshal General.

e.
Enemy identification media, such as identifica-


AGO 1385C
tion tags, are forwarded to the Enemy Prisoner-of­War Information Bureau. Duplicate identification media if any, or copies of originals, remain with the body.
59. LABOR
a.
GeneraZ. The detaining power may utilize as laborers prisoners of war who are physically fit. Although prisoners of war are generally employed in the communications zone, they may be employed in rear areas of the combat zone, or in the zone of interior within areas of labor specified by the Geneva Convention. The provost marshal of tlste communi­cations zone reports the number of prisoners of war available for labor to the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-l. G-l allocates available labor to other staff agen­cies based on their requirements. G-4 receives a bulk allocation of prisoner-of-war laborers and reallo­cates to the technical services as may be required. Prisoners of war should be screened occupationally and for security before assignment.

b.
Supervisors. The number of guards required for prisoners of war who are retained in the com­munications zone for labor depends upon the labor project and the number of prisoners of war utilized. For best results, prisoners of war should be worked under the immediate supervision of their own non­commissioned officers who, in turn, should be super­vised by officer prisoners of war, if possible. Super­vision of prisoners of war employed at Navy or Air Force installations becomes the responsibility of those services upon their acceptance of prisoners for such employment.

c.
Restrictio'M. The Provost Marshal General, acting for the Army, normally designates the type of labor in which prisoners of war may be employed. Limitations governing prisoner-of-war labor include the following:


AGO 1385C
(1)     
No prisoner of war may be employed at work for which he is physically unfit. All prisoners of war are given a physical ex­amination before being assigned to work, and are examined periodically, at least once a month.

(2)
Noncommissioned officers     may be required to do only supervisory work. Officers and noncommissioned officers may be permitted to work if they request it.

(3)     
The duration of the daily labor of a pris­oner of war, including the time of the jour­ney to and from work, must not be exces­sive, and must in no case exceed the time al­lowed for civilian workers employed at the same work in the same district. A prisoner of war must be allowed definite rest periods, including not less than one hour in the middle of the day's work; 24 consecutive hours weekly, preferably on Sunday or the day of rest in his country of origin; and eight paid consecutive days, if he has worked for one year.

(4)     
In addition to work connected with camp administration, installation, or mainte­nance, prisoners of war may be compelled to do only such work as is included in the following classes: agriculture; domestic


68'     AGO l3Blle
service; transport and handling of stores which are not military in character or pur­pose; commercial business, and arts and crafts; and industries or public utility serV­ices which have no military character or purpose. For instance, prisoners of war may not be compelled to work in metallur­gical, machinery, and chemical industries, but it is permissible to utilize prisoners of
•     war in labor which is not military in char­acter or purpose, such as assisting in pre­ventive medicine activities; e. g., clearing and straightening s t rea m s, draining swamps, and applying residual-type insecti­cide for controlling insect-borne diseases.
(5)
Unless     he volunteers, no prisoner of war may be employed on labor which is of an unhealthy or dangerous nature. The re­moval of mines or similar devices is con­sidered as dangerous labor.

(6)     
A prisoner of war may not be assigned to labor which is looked upon as humiliating for a member of the Armed Forces of the United States.

(7)     
Suitable working conditions must be granted prisoners of war, particularly in respect to accommodations, food, clothing, and equipment. Safety precautions and regulations must also be applied.

(8)     
Retained chaplains and prisoners of war who are ministers of religion performing such duties are not to be compelled to carry out any work other than that concerned with their religious duties.

d.
Oompensation and Labor Detaohments. Pris­oners of war are paid a fair working rate. The pay at no time may be less than one-fourth of one Swiss franc for a full working day. Working pay is like­wise paid to prisoners of war who are permanently detailed to duties or a skilled or semiskilled occupa­tion in connection with the administration, manage­ment, and maintenance of prisoner-of-war camps.

(1)     
Branch camps are organized and adminis­tered in a manner similar to prisoner-of-war camps. Labor detachments are adminis­tered by the prisoner-of-war camp. The military authorities and the commander of the camp are responsible for the observance of the provisions of the Geneva Oonvention in labor detachments.

(2)     
Prisoners of war are counted and inspected before going to and upon returning from work; if necessary, they are searched. Special counts and searches are made at un­scheduled times.

(3)     
When prisoners of war are employed on projects by employers other than the Army, even if the employers are responsible for guarding and protecting them, the prison­ers are treated as provided by the Oonven­tion and pertinent Department of the Army regulations and directives. The Army con­tinues to be responsible for the maintenance, care, treatment, security, and payment of the working pay of prisoners of war em­ployed by industry.

(4)     
When prisoner of war labor is requested by units of the Army or by other services for labor by the day, the requesting unit or service is responsible, only during the hours of employment, for the security and proper employment of the prisoners. Adminis­tration remains the responsibility of the camp commander.


AGOA3S5C
AGO 1385C
60.     INJURED AND DISEASED PRISONERS
A prisoner of war who sustains injury or contracts a disease in the course of or as a consequence of his work receives all the care his condition may require. The prisoner of war also receives a medical certificate which may enable him to submit a claim to the power on which he depends. A duplicate copy of the medi­cal certificate is sent to the Central Prisoner-of-W ar Information Agency.
Section III. TRANSFER AND EVACUATION
61.     TRANSFER OF PRISONERS OF WAR
a.
The transfer of prisoners of war is always ef­fected humanely and under conditions not less favor­able than those under which United States troops are transported. Sufficient food, potable water, cloth­ing, shelter, and medical attention are provided dur­ing transfer. Adequate precautions are taken to insure the safety of the prisoners. Sick and wounded prisoners of war are not transferred if their recovery may be impaired.

b.
In the event of transfer, prisoners of war are officially advised of their departure and their new


AGO 1385C
postal address in sufficient time to permit them to
pack their luggage and to notify their next of kin
(par. 51).
c. Prisoners of war are allowed to take with them their personal effects, the weight of which may be limited, if circumstances so require, to the amount each prisoner can reasonably carry, which is not to exceed twenty-five kilograms (approximately 55 pounds) per person.
62. EVACUATION BY WATER
a.
When prisoners of war are transferred or evac­uated by vessel within a theater of operations, the move is so coordinated that the unit, camp, or en­closure transferring custody and the unit, camp, or enclosure receiving the prisoners have full informa­tion as to the number of prisoners being transferred, and the time of departure and the estimated time of arrival of the vessel. In addition, arrangements are made for necessary guard personnel and for trans­portation to and from the port or beach.

b.
Alphabetical shipping lists of prisoners of war are made for each transport. The shipping lists in­clude the full name, grade, nationality, service num­ber, and capture date; if the prisoners have been processed, the internment serial number is included. Rosters are completed in sufficient number to provide copies for the officer or senior noncommissioned offi­cer in charge of the guard accompanying the prison­ers, the commanding officer of the receiving prisoner­of-war unit or installation, the provost marshal concerned, the port authorities, and other appropri­ate officials.

c.
Prisoners of war are assembled in inclosed or otherwise secured areas at the port of embarkation, are divided into groups, and are searched before they board ship. Prohibited items are impounded or con­fiscated. After the search, each group is escorted under guard, to the gangplank according to the order of embarkation, and is conducted to its assigned area aboard ship. Wounded and seriously ill prisoners are loaded first, and then officer prisoners and other groups. Head counts are made upon boarding and at appropriate intervals thereafter. The segrega­tion of prisoners is maintained throughout the as­sembling, the boarding, and the quartering on ship. Each prisoner carries his own clothing and other possessions; however, the possessions of the wounded or the ill and of high ranking officers are carried aboard by special prisoner-of-war details. When


72 A.GOA88~
required, prisoners are deloused prior to embarkation.
d. Safety and hygienic conditions aboard ship should conform to the requirements of the Geneva Convention. Life belts should be provided, and fire and boat drills conducted. Adequate latrine facili­ties as well as sufficient ventilation and air space to maintain health standards should be made available. Wounded and seriously ill prisoners of war should be separated and prisoners with communicable diseases should be isolated from other prisoners. Adequate medical facilities, potable water, food, and clothing to maintain health should be provided. In addition, instructions should be given to the prisoners with re­gard to restricted areas, light regulations, smoking privileges, and other prohibitions or privileges. Ade­quate confinement facilities should be provided for
A.GO A385C
prisoners who violate regulations. Signs should be posted in the languages of the prisoners.
e.
Aboard ship, prisoners of war serve as cooks; as food handlers; as kitchen police; and as clean-up details for decks, latrines, showers, and bunk or sleep­ing areas.

f.
If sleeping facilities are inadequate, provision is made to rotate the prisoners of war, by roster or shift, among the available hammocks, bunks, or pal­lets.

g.
If meSs facilities are inadequate, it may only be possible to provide two meals per day per prisoner, or the prisoners may be divided into several groups, each group eating at a different time.

h.
Ifa prisoner of war dies aboard ship, the com­mander of the escorting unit completes and forwards the required certificate or authentication to the Enemy Prisoner-of-War Information Bureau (par. 58). If circumstances require the burial of a pris­oner of war at sea, the latitude and longitude of the place of burial are given in the report.


63. EVACUATION FROM COMMUNICATIONS ZONE
The number of prisoners of war to be evacuated from the communications zone to the zone of interior is governed by such factors as available shipping, theater labor requirements, and facilities in the zone of interior. Prior to each authorized shipment of prisoners, The Provost Marshal General, Department of the Army, must be informed of the numbers, ranks, and nationalities of prisoners of war being evacuated.
AGO la811e
CHAPTER 4
MILITARY POLICE PRISONER-Of-WAR UNITS

Section I. MILITARY POLICE PRISONER-Of-WAR
PROCESSING COMPANY

64. ORGANIZATION
The military police prisoner-of-war processing company is organized under T/O & E 19-237. The company consists of a company headquarters and three platoons. The company headquarters provides for the internal administration and mess of the com­pany. Each platoon is capable of operating inde­pendently, and is composed of a platoon headquarters and five specialized sections, which are designated as the receiving, processing, photographic, fingerprint, and record sections. Each platoon is capable of processing at least one prisoner of war per minute.
65. MISSION
The mission of the military police prisoner-of­war processing company is to receive, search, and process prisoners of war. Processing includes mak­ing and maintaining permanent reports and records, assigning internment serial numbers to all prisoners, and furnishing pertinent information to the Enemy Prisoner-of-War Information Bureau.
AGO 1385C 7S
66. ASSIGNMENT
Prisoner-of-war processing companies are as­signed to field armies and the communications zone as required. Platoons from the company may be attached to task forces.

67. COMPANY OPERATIONS
a.
The prisoner-of-war processing company nor­mally operates by platoons. When the company is operating as a unit, the platoons should be sepa­rated sufficiently to permit efficient operations.

b.
The physical arrangement of a platoon for processing is determined by the physical layout of the building or tent used. In processing, provision should be made for the continuous movement of prisoners of war from one section to another, and for sufficient space between the sections to allow for the efficient functioning of each section. (See fig. 7.)

c.
In processing prisoners of war, speed and smoothness of movement are primary considerations. To prevent monotony and to insure the continuous functioning of the platoon in the event of losses, each member of the platoon is trained to handle at least one additional processing assignment. Changes of personnel between sections are made as neces­sary to insure the continuous processing of the pris­oners. Each unit determines through practice the most economical arrangement of personnel.

d.
When the company operates as a complete unit, the continuous processing of prisoners of war may be maintained over a twenty-four hour period by as­signing an eight hour shift to each platoon. In the event that the sudden receipt of a large number of


AGO 1385C
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o GLERK IN INTERPRETU o DEVELOPER RO R~RD IECTION CURIC
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prisoners requires more than one platoon to be on duty at the same time, the schedule is revised by the company commander.
e. 1£ the company is assigned interpreters for more than one language, linguists proficient in the same language are assigned to different platoons. Non­interpreter personnel should know at. least those phrases in the foreign language that will expedite the handling of the prisoners of war within their section.
68. TREATMENT OF PRISONERS
Processing personnel refrain from touching pris­oners unnecessarily during processing. Prisoners of war are directed by words, signs, and gestures.

69. USE OF SIGNS
Signs, printed in the languages of the prisoners and in English, are used to assist in directing prison­ers of war through precessing. Both directional signs, guiding them from place to place, and instruc­tional signs, informing them what is expected of them, are helpful.

70. CARRYING OF FIREARMS
Firearms are not worn or carried by personnel of the military police prisoner-of-war processing com­pany while prisoners of war are being processed.

71. PLATOON OPERATIONS
As the platoon may frequently be separated from the company headquarters, the platoon is trained to handle its own administration. The platoon leader is responsible for the training and operation of the
AGO 1385C
platoon. Prisoners of war may be used to assist the platoon in the processing procedure. The platoon leader selects from each group of prisoners of war to be processed one or more prisoners senior in grade or rank who can speak English. The leader explains to these prisoners the purpose of the processing, and makes them responsible for the conduct of the groups. As far as practicable, the platoon leader relays or­ders and instructions to the prisoners through these
•     selected leaders. (See fig. 7.)
72.     RECEIVING SECTION
a. Operation. A prisoner of war is handled by the receiving section in the following manner:
(1)     
The prisoner of war enters the processing building or tent and is directed to a mem­ber of the receiving section, called the re­oeiver, who asks the prisoner to remove his personal possessions and place them on a tray. The reoeiver records the name of the prisoner on the Basic Personnel Record Prisoner of War-Enemy Alien (DA Form 19-2), and assigns him an internment serial number. The reoeiver then directs the pris­oner to the searoher, at the same time mov­ing the tray containing the personal pos­sessions to the inspeotor. The inspeotor examines the effects while the search is be­ing conducted.

(2)     
The prisoner of war is carefully searched for concealed weapons; signal devices; papers or books containing any invisible writing; pictures, maps, or sketches of mili-


AGO 1385C
tary or naval installations; equipment or implements of war; and other unauthorized articles that may have been overlooked in previous searches. If any such articles are found, they are placed with the prisoner's other effects on the tray before the i'Mpeotor. The i'Mpeotor informs the olerk of the arti­cles belonging to the prisoner that are to be taken from him and retained by the Gov­ernment. All these articles are recorded in a special property register and a receipt given to the prisoner of war for money or items of value. These articles are also re­corded on DA Form 19-2 and are placed in a container that is marked with the pris­oner's name, assigned serial number, and
any other required information.
(3)     The prisoner then moves to the next station where he is weighed, where his height is measured, and where he is examined for identifying marks. The data together with his age are also recorded on DA Form 19-2. The prisoner is then handed his form and directed to the processing section.
b. Special I'Mtruotio'M.
(1)     
Members of the receiving section must be thoroughly familiar with foreign money. Care must constantly be exercised to detect counterfeit currency.

(2)     
Noninterpreters should know such words


and phrases in the prisoner's language as­"Place your personal effects in this tray." "Place hands here." "Stand here."
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"Stand there."
"Do you have any scars~"
"Step on scale."
"Take your things."
"Do not rush."
"Wait."
"That is all."

73. PROCESSING SECTION
a.
Interpreter8. The noncommissioned officers of the processing section assign prisoners of war to in­terpreters. When required, certain selected and trusted prisoners of war may be used as interpreters. Members of the processing section should memorize the information required by the prisoner-of-war per­sonnel record. A thorough know ledge of the reasons behind each question on the form is of assistance in obtaining the required information.

b.
Que8tioning Pri8oner8. The questioning of a prisoner of war is confined to obtaining the informa­tion necessary to complete the personnel record. When the information has been recorded, the in­terpreter initials the form, hands it to the prisoner, and directs him to the photographic section.

c.
Special Instructions. The noncommissioned of­ficer in charge of the processing section must be able to speak and read fluently the language designated for his group. He should know the abilities of the interpreters, so that when advisable he may readily make special assignments of prisoners. He should carefully observe the progress of the interviews and, where there appears to be unnecessary delay, per­sonally take charge. The interpreters should have


AGO 1385C
paper and pencil available; prisoners can frequently assist interpreters by writing unusual names.
74.     PHOTOGRAPHIC SECTION·
a.
FWlUJtioning. The members of this section should be qualified photographers. Each member of the section should be trained to perform the work of every other member so that the duties can be ro­tated during the actual processing. To maintain a high standard of work, developers and printers must receive relief at frequent intervals.

b.
Identification Board Group. Theidentification board group receives the prisoners of war from the processing section, prepares the boards on the basis of the information contained on the personnel rec­ords, and shows the boards to the prisoners for verifi­cation. At least three men are needed to prepare the boards. Men temporarily relieved from developing and printing may be used for this work. The boards are prepared in accordance with Department of the Army directives.

c.
Oamera Group. This group consists of the photographer and his assistant. The assistant re­ceives each prisoner of war and the identification board, directs the prisoner to the spot designated, has him face the· camera, and places the board. After the picture is taken, the assistant turns the prisoner of war for a profile view. It is good practice to have the prisoner of war stand, rather than sit, during the photographing.


d. Special Instructions.
(1)     
Before beginning the processing, a few photographs should be taken and developed to insure proper lighting and exposure.

(2)
Members of the photographic section should know such words and phrases in the prison­er's language as­


AGO     1385C
"Come with me."
"Face the ca.mera."
"Face me."
"Turn around."
"Raise your head."
"Stand still."
"Stand here."

..
"That is all."
"Wait."
"Next."

75.     FINGERPRINT SECTION
a. Finge1'prVnting. When the photographs have been taken, the prisoner of war is directed to the fingerprint section. The fingerprinter makes certain that the hands of the prisoner are clean and free from any oily substance, applies the ink, and takes the prints, being careful to protect the forms from smudging or smearing. The prisoner is then di­rected to cleanse his hands with the materials pro­vided for this purpose, is handed the forms, and is sent to the record section.
b. Special Instructions.
(1)     
To minimize fatigue, duties should be ro­tated among the members of the section.

(2)
Members     of the fingerprint section should lmow such words and phrases in the prison­ers language as­


"Clean your hands." "Relax."
AGO 1385C
"Do not press."
"Roll your arm this way."


76.     RECORD SECTION
a.
Per80nnel. Members of this section should be competent typists; should be accurate, careful, and thorough in their duties; and should be trained to detect errors quickly.

b.
Function. This section types the information secured by the preceding sections. The forms are checked carefully for correctness and completeness. When any mistake or omission is found, the form is returned to the section responsible, and the further processing of the prisoner of war is delayed until the correction is made. The forms are filed until the photographs are received from the photographic section. Forms are usually filed by internment serial numbers. 'When the photographs are received, they are attached to the forms, care being exercised that the correct pictures are attached to the proper forms. Each member of the record section initials all the records handled by him.


c. Di8p08ition of Form8.
(1)     
The original copy of the prisoner-or-war record is retained at the camp until the prisoner is transferred, at which time it is forwarded to the commanding officer of the new camp. The record section forwards the duplicate copy to the Enemy Prisoner-of-War Information Bureau where it is re­tained as the basic record of the prisoner.

(2)     
Personal effects which are not retained by the prisoner of war during his internment


AGO l381le

. _
are disposed of in accordance with Depart­ment of the Army instructions (par. 21).
(3)     
The record section also prepares and trans­mits to appropriate officials such other iden­tification records as may be prescribed by the theater commander.

d.
Special Instructions. Members of the record section should know such words and phrases in the prisoners, language as­


"     "Is this your name 1" "Wait." "Stand over here." "That is all." "Go out that door."
Section     II. MILITARY POLICE GUARD COMPANY
77.     ORGANIZATION
There are two types of military police guard com­panies: military police guard company (mobile) and military police guard company.
a.
The military police guard company (mobile) is organized under TjO & E 19-47. The company consists of a. company headquarters and three platoons.

b.
The military police guard company is organized under TjO & E 19-247. The company consists of a company headquarters, three guard platoons, and a machine gun section.


78. MISSION AND ASSIGNMENT
a. The mission of the military police guard com­pany (mobile) is to guard and evacuate prisoners of
AGO 1385C
war and interned enemy aliens. The companies are assigned to field armies and the communications zone as required.
o. The mission of the military police guard com­pany is to guard prisoners of war or interned enemy aliens, both at prisoner-of-war camps or cages and during transfer to and between cages, camps, and ports. The companies are assigned to the communi­cations zone and to the zone of interior as required.
79. CAPABILITIES
a.
The military police guard company (mobile) is capable of providing the guard for 2,000 to 3,000 prisoners of war or interned enemy aliens at prisoner­of-war cages; evacuating 1,000 to 1,500 prisoners of war or interned enemy aliens by marching; and pro­viding the guard for the evacuation of 1,500 to 2,000 prisoners of war or interned enemy aliens by motor in vehicles of Transportation Corps truck companies or in other vehicles under the control of an army, a corps, or the communications zone.

b.
The military police guard company is capable of providing the guard for 2,000 to 2,500 prisoners of war or interned enemy aliens at prisoner-of-war cages (may be augmented with teams from TjO & E 19-500 in case the physical layout of the cage or the number of prisoners or internees so dictates) ; providing the guard for 1,500 to 2,000 prisoners of war or interned enemy aliens at prisoner-of-war camps; providing the guard for three to four prison­er-of-war labor companies employed on work proj­ects distant from cages or camps; evacuating 1,000 to 1,500 prisoners of war or interned enemy aliens


AGO 1385C
by marching; providing the guard and escort for the movement of fifty truckloads of prisoners of war by motor; and providing the guard and escort for the movement of 2,000 to 3,000 prisoners of war by rail in standard-type military railway trains.

80.     WITH AN ARMY OR SEPARATE CORPS

One or more military police guard companies may be attached to a field army, or to a corps when it is operating independently. The guard company op­erates at the army or corps prisoner-of-war cage or at a prisoner-of-war camp in the communication zone. Prisoners of war who are transferred from an army or corps prisoner-of-war cage to the zone of interior are transported to the port of embarkation under a guard furnished by a guard company from the communications zone. At the port of embarka­tion the prisoners of war are turned over to the port commander for shipment to the zone of interior.
8:1.     WITH LOGISTICAL COMMAND
a.
Military police guard companies that are at­tached to a logistical command are assigned to prisoner-of-war camps or projects, or are used to guard prisoners of war who are being evacuated or who are being transported to camps on work projects.

b.
A guard company that is assigned to a prisoner­of-war camp performs the following duties:


(1)     
Guards prisoners of war within the camp.

(2)     
Furnishes guard details for prisoners of war working outside the camp.

(3)     
Furnishes guard details for prisoners of war being transferred from one camp to another.


AGO     1385C
APPENDIX
TRAINING

1. GENERAL
The training of personnel assigned to handle pris­oners of war may be divided into three categories: basic, technical, and tactical. This appendix is con­cerned primarily with the technical training appli­cable to personnel assigned to a military police prisoner-of-war processing company or a military police guard company. In preparing the training program, emphasis m-.lst be placed on the subjects that are most applicable to the type of duties that are to be performed. In a military police prisoner­of-war processing company, for example, the train­ing program should emphasize the coordinating of the various sections and specialist skills in order to develop the teamwork necessary to aGcomplish the mission. On the other hand, in a military police guard company, the training program should em­phasize such subjects as the movement and guarding of prisoners of war.
2. PURPOSE OF TRAINING
The main objective of all military training is success in combat. Training in the handling of pris­oners of war furt!1ers the accomplishment of the military mission through the proper disposition and
AGO 138CiC
advantageous utilization of prisoners of war in ac­cordance with the Geneva Oonvention of 1~ August 1949 and pertinent directives.
3. STANDARDS TO BE ATTAINED
a. General. All personnel assigned to handle pris­oners of war should:
(1)     Understand the provisions of the Geneva Oonvention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, including the following:
(a)     
Rights of prisoners of war.

(b)     
Information that prisoners of war are re­quired to give to captors.


«(])     Personal effects of prisoners of war that are to be retained by the prisoners, or to be impounded or confiscated by the captors; disposition of personal effects impounded or confiscated.
(d)     
Conditions of transfer of prisoners of war.

(
e)     Interment of prisoners of war.

(I)     
Quarters, food, and clothing for prIs­oners of war.

(g)
Hygiene and medical attention for pris­oners of war.

(h)
Discipline of prisoners of war; use of force.

(i)     
Labor of prisoners of war.

(j)     
Payment of prisoners of war.

(k)
Penal and disciplinary sanctions for pris­oners of war.

(l)     
Release, repatriation, and death of pris­oners of war.

(m)     
Information bureaus and relief societies for prisoners of war.

(2)     
Know their jurisdiction and authority over prisoners of war.

(3)     
Be familiar with military regulations as to degTee of force to be used in the control of prisoners of war.

(
4)     Know how to search prisoners of war.

(5)     
Know the disposition that is to be made of confiscated and impounded effects, includ­ing all material of intelligence value.

(6)
Develop a     practical working knowledge of the language of the enemy.

b.
Military Police Prisoner-of-War Proce88ing Oompany. In addition to attaining the standards for all personnel handling prisoners of war, person­nel of the military police prisoner-of-war processing company should­

(1)     
Be able to operate independently in indi­vidual platoons, each platoon capable of processing one prisoner of war per minute on an eight hour basis.

(2)     
Maintain all necessary individual records with regard to prisoners of war.

(3)     
Furnish pertinent information compiled to the Enemy Prisoner-of-vVar Information Bureau.

(4)     
Be proficient in more than one of the spe­cialist skills required in the prC!cessing com­pany, so that personnel may be rotated to insure continuous, complete, and uninter­rupted processing.


AGO 1385C
c. Military Police Guard Oompany. In addition to attaining the standards for all personnel handling
AGO 1385C
prisoners of war, personnel of the military police guard company should:
(1)     
Be able to evacuate prisoners of war, main­tain segregation, eriforce discipline, prevent escapes, and protect documents or material of intelligence value.

(2)     
Know how to tag prisoners of war.

(3)     
Know how to guard prisoners of war.


4. TECHNICAL TRAINING OBJECTIVES
a. Military Police Prisoner-of-War Processing Oompany.
(1)     
The over-all technical training objective for a military police prisoner-of-war proc­essing company is to train it to process effi­ciently one prisoner of war per minute on a twenty~four hour basis and to attain profi­ciency in the maintenance of the records, forms, and reports required for transmittal to the Enemy Prisoner~of-War Information Bureau.

(2)     
To insure the effective performance of the company as a unit, its personnel are trained to become proficient in the following:


.(a) Coordinating the activities of the sections.
(b)     
Establishing processing stations.

(c)     
Establishing security measures.

(d)     
Guarding prisoners of war.

(e)     
Searching prisoners of war.

(I)     
Repairing or replacing damaged equip­ment.

(g)     
Loading and unloading equipment.

(3)     
To insure the effective operation of each


AGO     1385C 9T
of the five sections, personnel assigned to the sections are trained to become proficient in the following:
(a) Receivin,q section.
1. Recording names.
~. Assigning internment serial numbers.

3.     
Searching prisoners of war.

4.     
Examining personal effects.

5.
Recording effects taken from prisoners


.;
of war.
6.
Disposing of effects taken from prisoners of war.

7.
Recording weight, height, age, and iden­tifying marks.


(0) Processing section.
1; Interrogating prisoners of war. ~. Recording information.
(c) Photographic section.
1. Preparing identification boards. ~. Verifying identification boards.
3.     
Taking photographs.

4.     
Developing and printing.


(d) Fingerprint section.
1.     Inking plates.
~.     Producing clear, readable fingerprint records.
(e) Record section.
1.     Recording information.
~. Filing forms . . b. Military Police Guard Oompany. To insure the proper performance of their duties; individuals assigned to the military police guard company are trained in the essential techniques that are necellsary to insure the efficient achievement of the·following:
AGO 1385C
(1)     
Tagging prisoners of war.

(2)     
Guarding prisoners of war at cages and camps.

(3)     
Evacuating prisoners of war by foot, motor, rail, and plane, or boat.

(4)
Searching prisoners of war.

(5)     
Protecting prisoners of war against public insult or curiosity.

(6)     
Guarding, marking, and disposing of con­fiscated or impounded prisoner-of-war per­sonal effects.

(7)     
Segregating prisoners of war.

(8)     
Enforcing military laws and regulations and maintaining order.

(9)     
Handling escapes.

(10)     
Handling and disposing of injured pris­oners of war.

(11)     
Transporting prisoners of war, including loading, unloading, embarking, and de­barking.

(12)
Counting     and receipting for prisoners of war.

(13)     
Using the services of enemy medical and other protected personnel.


5. MINIMUM TRAINING SCHEDULE
The minimum training schedule which follows is only a guide for the technical training of the indi­vidual members of a military police prisoner-of-war processing company and a military police guard company. Additional training as appropriate and as needed should be included in the training pro­gram.
AGO     1385C
GENERAL ALLOTMENT OF TIME
Subject  Hours  
1 5 3 2 6 2 4 8 50 1 82  
Introduction____ ___ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ ___ __ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ Geneva Conventions________________________ '-__ Disciplinary Measures ________________________ _ Interrogation________________________________ _ Capture_____________________________________ _ Collection___________________________________ _ Evacuation___ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ Prisoners of War in the Communications Zone____ Military Police Prisoner-of-War Processing Com­pany_____________________________________ _ Military Police Guard Company_______________ _ Total hours_____________________________  1 4 5 1 6 4 12 12 1 2 48  

'MPGC-Military Police Guard Company.
"MPPWPO-Military Police Prisoner-oI-War Process!n~ Company.

tI
.AGO 1385C
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00
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References
p.,
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C_________________
General and special staff officers' responsi­bilities in relation to prisoners of war.
Geneva Convention8
C and D __________
The Geneva Conventions; definition of prisoners of war; definition of protected personnel.
C D, and PE______
Resum6 of rules for the general protection
J
of prisoners of war. ·MllItary Pollee Guard Company. ··Milltary Poliee Prlsoner·of· War Processing Company. 00
VI
Pars. 1-4_________
(1)
(1)
4
Pars. 5-7_________
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(1)
Par. 8 ____________
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Suhject
References
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Geneva Conventions-Continued
C ________________ J
Prisoner-of-War Information Bureau; cen-j Par. 9-___________1(1)1 (1) tral Prisoner-of-War Information Agency. C ________________ J Protecting Powers; welfare organizations ___
Pars. 10, 1L______ 1 (1)1 (1)
Disciplinary Measures
5
3
C, D, and PK_____ I Enumeration of permissible disciPlinarY'1 Pars. 12,13_______ 1 (3)1 (2) punishments. C, D, and PK____ -I Judicial proceedings _____________________
Par. 14__________ -' (2)1 (1

e
o
Interrogation
1
2
....
co
00
f.) c, D, and PE
Purpose of interrogation; staff responsi-
Par. 15_: _________ 1___ -1 (1
,
~
l>­
bility; information supplied by prisoners
e:>
o
of war upon capture. ,... C ________________ -' Principles of interrogation; _phases of in-
Pars. 16, 17_______ 1____ 1 (1)
(X)
'"
C11
terrogation.
()
C!)'ptuTe
6
6
C, D, and PK_____ I Explanation of action of capturing troops; I Pars. 18-2L______ 1(2) 1(4) search of prisoners of war; documents; personal effects. C, D, and PE_____ -' Segregation of prisoners of war; movement I Pars. 22-24 _______ 1 (4) I (2) to division collecting point; duties of escorts.
Collection
I 4 I 2
C, D, and PE______ I Staff responsibility; location of infantry I Pars. 25-26_______ 1 (2) I (1) division collecting point; responsibility of military police; operations at division collecting point. C________________ -' Airborne division collecting point; armored I Pars. 27-30 _______ 1 (2) 1 (1) division collecting point; collecting points in arctic areas; collecting points in desert areas. °Milltary Police Guard Company.
00
.... o·Military Police Prisoner·o!·War Processing Company •
00­CD
Hours
.
Method
0
Subject Reference!!
il<
0
~
0
I'< il< il<
~ ~
-
Evacuation
12 4 Pars. 31-34_______
C, D, and PE-____ JExplanation of the requirements of the (6)
(1) Geneva Convention regarding evacuation of prisoners of war; evacuation principles, responsibilities for evacuation, evacua­tion procedures. C, D, and PE______ I Evacuation in amphibious operations; evac-
Pars. 35,36_______ 1 (3) 1 (1) uation in airborne operations.
C, D, and PE-_____ Evacuation of prisoners of war to corps; I Pars. 37-40_______ 1 (3)
1
(2) procedure in handling prisoners of war at

army cages; evacuation to communica­
§
tions zone; handling of prisoners of war
-::0
upon the forward displacement of army
00
rear boundary.
('l
""



t>­
o
o
"" C, D, and PE.

<¥J
""
()
""
C, D, and PE.
C, D, and PE.
'0, D;andPK C, D, and PE.
Prisoners of War in the Communications Zone
Cages and processing stations: duties and I Pars. 41-43 _______ functions of prisoner-of-war cage repre­sentatives; prisoner-of-war camps; de­scription of camps; requirements of camps. Administrative considerations in the opera-I Pars. 44-46 _______ tion of camps; command responsibilities; records and reports; processing; organiza­tion of prisoner-of-war companies; selec­tion and duties of representatives; cour­tesies and salutes. Supplies and equipment at prisoner-of-war I Pars. 47-49 _______ camps; canteens at prisoner-of war camps; ·disposition of personal effects; sanitation and medical care. Pay and allowances for prisoners of war; I Pars. 50-52_______ mail and censorship; relief shipments. Religious, intellectual, and physical activi-I Pars. 53-55_______ ties of prisoners of war; complaints; treatment of officer prisoners.
12
8 1 (1)1 (1)
1 (1)1 (1)
1 (1)1 (1)
I (1) I (1) 1 (1)1 (1)
·Military Pollee Guurd Company.
"Military POlice Prisoner·or·War Processing Company.

~
-

a
a
Method
C, D, and PE.
C, D, and PE.

C, D, and PE.
~
o
....
...
.,.
n
Hours
.
o
Subject
References
Poi
.
~.
o
C!l
Poi
Po<
Po<
~
~
-~~-~--~-~~-~--­
--------1-·-,__
Prisoners of War in the Communications
. Zone-Continued
Repatriation of sick and wounded; action 1 Pars. 56-58 _______ 1 (1)1 (1) upon escape of prisoners of war; procedure upon death of prisoners of war. Employment of prisoners of war in the 1 Pars. 59, 60_______ I (4) I (1) communications zone; restrictions; com­pensation; labor units; injured and diseased prisoners. Provisions for transferring prisoners of war; I Pars. 61-63 _______ 1 (2)1 (1) evacuation of prisoners of war by water; evacuation from communications zone .
~
"'.
~
Military Police Prisoner-of-War Processing
1 I 50
Q
o
Company
....
~
n 011 C, D, and PE______ I The organization of the military police 1 Pars. 64-70--_____1____ 1 (4) prisoner-of-war processing company; its mission and assignment; company opera­tions; treatment of prisoners of war; use of signs; carrying of firearms. C, D, and PE______IPlatoon operations; operations and function 1Pars. 71,72-------1----1 (9) of the receiving section. 0, D, and PK_____
Operations and function of the processing 1 Par. 73 ___________ 1____ 1 (9) section. C, D, and PK_____
Operations and function of the photographic 1Par. 74___________1____ 1(9) " section. C, D, and PK_____ Operations and function of the fingerprint 1Par. 75___________1____ 1(10) section. C; D,"and'PE~___ ~~ ()perationsand functionofthereoordsec-I·Par.7{L~__ ~ __ ~-___ I____ 1(9) tion. ·Military Police Guard Company. ··Military ~olice Prisoner-of-War Processing Company •
...
o
....
..
o
~
Subject
Method
Military Police Guard Company
C, D, andPE______
The organization of the military police guard companies; mission and assign­ment; capabilities; operations with army or separate corps; operations with logisti­cal command.
'Military Police Guard Company.
"Military Police Prisoner-oC-War Processing Company.

lI­
I<.)
o
....
...

ell

n
Hours
.
0
ReCerences
P<
0
i:::
0
P<
P<
P<
:2l
:2l
2
1
Pars. 77-SL ______
(2)
(1)
6. ADDITIONAL TRAINING
In addition to the training required for handling prisoners of war, personnel of the military police prisoner-of-war processing company and the mili­tary police guard company should receive training in such subjects as the following:
a.
The physical training required for dismounted ground combat consistent with the maximum capa­bilities of the unit.

o.
The principles of concealment and camouflage, cover, and movement. "

c.
Security consciousness that will assure detec­tion and action against subversive activities;' de­fense against infiltration, guerrilla warfare, and en­emy partisan activities.

d.
Control of traffic and circulation of individuals.

e.
Protection of property to include assistance to civil authorities when specifically authorized.

f.
The operation of the unit including adminis­tration, motor maintenance, communication,' and supply functions.

g.
Prescribed standards for the maintenance of all organization equipment.

h.
Other duties normally assigned to military police.


7. TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS
Training should simulate as closely as possible the actual problems that will be encountered in the field. Ingenuity should be exercised in presenting problems and situations that will stimulate interest. Realistic training and realism in maneuvers and field exercises appropriate to the unit's function and mission should be stressed.
AGO-1385C 103:
INDEX
Para~
Paue
UTaph
Activities, POW:
IntellectuaL________________________ 52, 53b
62,63 PhysicaL___________________________ 52, 53b
62,63
.,
Religious___________________________ 52,53b
62,63
Administrative considerations:
Activities, POW____ "_______________ 52, 53b 62,63
Allowances, pay and__________________ 50 5.9
Censorship, mail and_ _ _ _____ _ _ __ ___ __ 51 61
Command responsibilities __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 45b 51

Complaints___ _______ _ __ _ _ _ _____ ____ _ 54

64
Courtesies_____ -'·_____ ___ __ _ _ _ _ ____ ___ 46

55
])eath______________________________ 58 66
])iseased prisoners_____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _ 60 71

Escape______________________________ 57 65
Equipment, supplies and______________ 47 56
Facilities, sanitation and medicaL__ _ _ _ _ 49 58
General_____________________________ 44 49
Injured and diseased prisoners __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 60 71
Intellectual activities_ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 53 62

Labor:
Compensation __________________ _
59d 70
GeneraL _______________________ _

59a 67
Restrictions ____________________ _

59c 68
Supervisors_____________________ _

59b 67
Mail and censorshi p ____ .... _ -__ --_ -_ ---51 61
Officer prisoners_____________ -___ -_ ---55 64

Orderlies___________________ -__ -_
55b 64
privileges ___________ -___ --_ -----55a 64
Pay a.nd .allowances ___________ -____ -_ 50 59

~
Physical activities__________ ----------53 62
Policies ____________________ -_ ------_

45 49

104 AGO 1385C
Administrative considerations-Continued Prisoner of war:
Evacuation_____________________ _ Labor_________________________ _ Officers ________________________ _ Organization ___________________ _ Representativcs_________________ _ Transfer_______________________ _ Principles__________________________ _ Processing__________________________ _ Property, personaL _________________ _ Records____________________________ _ Relief shipments____________________ _ Religious activiti€s __________________ _ Repatriation of sick and wounded_____ _ Reports, records and ________________ _ Sanitation and medical care __________ _ Supplies and equipment:
Canteens_______________________ _
Clothing_______________________ _
Miscellaneous___________________ _
Rations________________________ _
Transfer of prisoners of war__________ _
Agency, Central POW Information________ _
Allowances, pay and_____________________ _

Boundary, rear, forward displacemenL ____ _ Cages, Figure 3_________________________ _ Camps, POW, Figures 6,7,8_____________ _ Capture: I>ocuments__________________________ Escorts_____________________________
l'
Evacuation to collecting point_________ GeneraL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____ _ _ _ _ Interrogation at collelting point________ Movement to division collecting point_ _ • Responsibility for POW_______________
Paro.­
graph
61-63 59 55
45e 451
61
45a 45d
48
45c
52 53 56
45c
49
47d 47a 47c 47b
61
9c
50 40 38, 41
43
20 24
18b
18
18b
23
18c
Search, immediate___________________ 18a, 19
Page
71
67 64 53 53
71
49 51 57 51 62 62 64 51 58
57 56 57 57 71 11 59 41 39,42 44
23 27 22 22 22 26 22 22,23
Segregation__ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ 22
26
Censorship, mail and ____ ________________ 51b
61
7
lOS'
AGO 1385C
PaTa~
Page
IIraph
Collecting point: Airborne division____________________ 27 30 Arctic operations______ ____ _ _ __ ___ ___ _ 30a
32 Armored division_____________________ 28b 31 In a rapid pursuit_ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 28d 32 Definition_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 18b
22 Desert operatiom __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 30b
33
Division ____________________________ 23,24b
26,27 Purpose_____________________________ 25 28 General_____________________________ 25 28 .. Infantry division_____________________ 26 28 Collection____________________________ 18b, App.
22,88 Compensation _______________'_ ___ _ _ _ _ _ ___ 59d
70 Complaints______________________________ 54 64 Communications zone, evacuation to_ _ _____ 39 41 Correspondence______________________ 38g, 51, 61b
40,61,
71.
Courtesies____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 46 55
Death of prisoner of war: BuriaL _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 58a, b
66 Death certificate_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 58b
66 Examination of body _ _____ ____ _______ 58e
66 Identification media_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 58e
66 Inquiry to determine cause_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 58d 66 On ship_____________________________ 62h 74 Personal effects of deceased_ ______ _ _ _ _ _ 48b 58 Report to protecting power___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 58d 66 Discipline: Measures, disciplinary___________ 12-14, App. 13,88 Punishment:
Collective______________________ _
12e 13
Sanctions, disciplinary:Confinement________________ _ "
13e 15
Duration___________________ _
13a 14
Escapees___________________ _
13d 15 Fatigue duties______________ _
13b 15
"
Summary punishment poweL __ 13e 15
Standards__________________________ _
16d 20 Use of weapons against POW_________ _ 12e 14
AGO 1385C
Para­
Pagegra]Jh
Diseased prisoners_______________________ _
60 71 Displacement of Army rear boundry_______ _ 40 41 Division:
Airborne___________________________ _ 27 30Armored___________________________ _ 28 31
; Infantry___________________________ _ 26 28 Documents_____________________________ _
20 23 Education______________________________ 53b, 3e
63, 2 Effects, personaL _ ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ ___ 21 24 Employment-___________________________ 3e, 59
2,67 Equipment, supplies and____ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ __ 47 56 Escape_________________________________ 13d,57
15,65 Escorts________________________________ 24, 26c
27, 29 Evacuation________________ 3,31-40,61-63, App. 2,33, 71,88 Airborne operations_________________ _
36 38 Amphibious operations_______________ _ 35 38 Initial phase____________________ _
35a 38 intermediate phase______________ _ 35b 38 Final phase_____________________ _
35e 38
Army operations: Cages___________________________ 38a 39 Notification of families____________ 38g 40
Processing______ ___ ___ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ 38
39 Processing Companies___ 45d (3), 64-76 53,75 Receipting for prisoners__ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 38b 39 Record, POW personneL _____ 45d (1),.(2) 51,52 Sanitary measures________________ 38d 40 Search of prisoner________________ 38e 39 Serial number, internmenL___ 45d (1), (2) 51,52
Shelters_____ _ _ __ ___ __ __ _ _ __ __ ___ 38a
39 By water____________________________ 62 72
Communications zone: Evacuation from_________________ 63 74 Evacuation to_ ____ ___ _ _ _ __ ___ ___ 39 41

Diagrams, figures 1, 2 _____________________________ _
Displacement of rear boundry line______ 40 41
GenerM_____________________________ 31-40 33 Handling during_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ 16d 20
AGO 1385C 107
Para·
P"ge
graph
Evacuation-Continued
Interrogation of POW during, figure L_ 16e 20
Principles oL_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 32 35
Procedures__________________________ 34 36
By foot__ _ _ ____ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ 34e 36
By vehicle ____ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 34c 36
By wateL_______________________ 62 72
Death during___ ___ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ 62h 74
Sanitation____ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ ___ 62d 73
Segregation________________ 16c,62c 19,73
Issue of rations __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 34h, 62g 37, 74
Liaison during___________________ 34g 37
Rests during_____________________ 34f 37

Responsibility ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 33 35
Schematic Diagram, figure ~________________________ _
Search______________________________ 16d 20
Speci8"1 prisoners of waL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 34j 37
Speed_______________________________ 16b 19

Facilities, internment-____________________ 41-43 42
Fingerprint section:
Fingerprinting__ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ 75a 83
Special instructions_______ " _ _ _ _____ _ _ _ 75b 83

Geneva Conventions _________________ 5-11, App.
3,88
Prisoners of war ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _ 6

4
POW Information Bureaus____________ 9 9
CentraL_ __ _ _ _ __ __ ___ _ _ _ _ _ __ ___ _ 9c, 60

11,71
U. S. Enemy___ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9b, 57 9, 65

Protected personnel:
Definition___ ___ ____ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ ___ 7a

6
Employment of specialist~_________ 7d 7
Identity cards, insignia_ __________ 7c 7
Rights_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7c

7

Protecting powers____________________ 10 11

Protection of POW's, generaL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8 8

Welfare organizations:
ApprovaL_______________________ lIa 12
Red Cross__________________"_ _ _ _ _ lIb

12
Welfare activities___ _____________ lIe

12

,j
",
,.
108 AGO 1385C
Para-
Pagegraph
Guard company, military police___________ _
77-81 85 Identification:
Of dead____________________________ _
58e 66 Internment serial number ____________ _
15e 18
Service number_____________________ _
15c 18
Tags ______________________________ _
26e 29
Information Bureau, POW: CentraL ____________________________ ge, 60 11,71 Function oL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9b 9
U. S. Enemy__________________ 9b, 57, 60, 76c9, 65, 71,
(1), App. 84,88 Injured and diseased prisoners __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 60 71 Instructions, special. (See Special instruc­
tions.) Internment______________________________ 3b 2
Internment facilities: For infantry divisions_________________ 26b 28 Prisoner-of-war cages ________________ 41, 38a 42,39 Prisoner-of-war camps_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 43 44
Internment serial numbers ______________ 15e,45d 18,51 Intellectual activities_____________________ 53 62 Interrogation:
By intelligence officer ________________ _ 15b 17 By military police___________________ _
15b 17 By POW interrogation team (lPW)----__ 18b 22 Coel'cion___________________________ _
8f 9 Diagram, evacuation and interrogationof POW, Figure L _______________________________ _ GeneraL_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 15 17
Identification information__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 15c 18 Importance______________________ c _ __ 15a 17 Phases_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 17 20 1 Principles_ _____ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ __ _ 16 19 Skill in __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 16e 20
Judicial proceedings:
Conditions of triaL__________________ _

14a 16 Notification of protecting power _______ _ 14b 16 Penal and disciplinary sanctions ______ _ He 17
AGO 1385C 109
Para· graph  Page  
JUdicial proceedings-Continued  
Sentence:AppeaL________________________ _ lDeath _________________________ _  14d 14c  17 16  
Labor, POW: Claims_____________________________ _  60  71  
Compensation ______________________ _  59d  70  
Injury while engaged in______________ _  60  71  
Organization for ____________________ _  59a  67  
Restrictions_ _____ _ _ __ __ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ ___  59c  68  
Supervisors_______ ____ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___  59b  67  
Treatment ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  59c (3)  68  
Litter cases, treatment___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  22b  26  
Medical care.  (See Sanitation and medical  
care.)  
Mail: Censorship _________________________ _  51b  61  
Chaplains, correspondence by_________ _ Limitations_________________________ _ Packages___________________________ _  51e 51a 52  62 61 62  
Postal rates ________________________ _  51c  61  
Privileges _________________________  38g, 51a  40, 61  
Military police guard company: AsBignmenL____ ________ _ _ __ __ _ _ ___ __  78  85  
Capabilities _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  79  86  
Mission__ ______ _ _ __ _____ _ __ _ _ ___ ___ _  78  85  
Operation with:  
Army or special corps_____________  80  87  
Logistical command_ ___ _ _ _ __ __ ___  81  87  
Organization_ ________ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _  77  85  
Training for___ ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _  App.  88  
Types______________________________  77  85  \.  
Military police processing company;Assignment_____ _ _ ____________ _ _ _ ___ _  66  76  
Fingerprint section_________________ 75, App.  83,88  
Firearms, carrying____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _  70  78  
Mission______________ _ _ ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___  65  75  

11 ci AGO 1385C
Para­Pagegraph
Military police processing company-Continued
Operations:

Company___________________ 45d (3), 67
53, 76 Platoon_________________________ 71 78 Receiving section_ ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ 72
79
Organization_ _ _ _ _____ __ _ _ ____ ___ ____ 64
75 Photographic section_______________ 74, App. 81, 88 Platoon, figure 9 ____________________ 67b,71
76,78 Processing section __________________ 73, App.
81,88 Receiving section __________________ 72, App.
79,88 Record section_____________________ 76, App.
84,88 Disposition of forms_ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 76c 84 Function_____ __ ___ ____ ___ _ _ _ _ ___ 76b
84
PersonneL _____________________ _
76a 84
Signs, use __________________________ _ 69 78
Training___________________________ _
App. 88 Treatment of prisoners _______________ _ 68 78 Utilization of POW__________________ _
71 78 Mixed Medical Commissioll______________ _
56b 65
Officer prisoners: Orderlies____________________________ 55b 65 Privileges_ _ ________ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ___ 55a
64 Organizatioml, welfare_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 11
12
Pay and allowances:
Advance oL _______________________ ._ 50b
59 Foreign money, disposition_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 50a 59 Payments__ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 50e
60 POW account_ _____ __ __ ___ ___ __ _____ 50d
60 Remittances____ ____ __ __ _ _ _ ____ _ _ ____ 50e
60 Retention__ ____ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ ___ _ _ _ ___ 50a
59 Working rate of pay__________________ 50c 60 r Personal effects:
Classes_ _ ________ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ ___ ____ ___ 21b
24 Confiscation________________________ 21b (4)
24 Deceased enemy __ _____ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ 48b
58 Disposition_______ _____ _ __ _ _ _ _ _______ 48a
57 Receipting for ____________ ---------21a,48a 24,57 Safeguarding________________________ 21a 24 Storing_____________________________ 48a 57
AGO 1885C 111
Para-Pagegraph
Personnel, protected_____________________ _
7 6 Photographic section:
Camera group______________________ _
74c 82
Functioning________________________ _
74a 82 Identification board group ___________ _ 74b 82 Special instructions__________________ _ 74d 83
Physical activities_______________________ _
53 62 Prisoner of war:
Activities __________________________ _
52, 53 62 Cage, Figure 3______________________ _
38,41 39,42 Camps, Figures 6, 7, 8_______________ _ 43 44 Branch Tent: For 250 enlisted men, Figure 4 _____________ _
For 1,000 enlisted men, Figure 5 _____________ _
For 1,800 enlisted men, Figure 6_____________ _
Capture_____________________________ ,18-24 22

Collecting points_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ 18b, 25-30 22, 28
Correspondence card _________ .. __ _____ 51a 61
Death of. (See Death of POW.)
Definition__________________________ _

o 4
Escorts ____________________________ _
24 27 Information Bureaus __________ ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9 9 Interrogation ____________________ 15-17,38h 17,40 Judicial proceeding~_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 14 16 Labor: Compensation_ ___ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ ___ 59d 70
General_________________________ 59a 67 Injury while engaged iII.__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 60 71 Restrictions_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 59c
68 Supervisors_____ __ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ ____ 59b 67 Litter cases______ ___ _ _ __ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ ___ 22b
26
Movement to division collecting point.. _ 23 26 Officer prisoner~_____ __ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ __ ____ 55 64 Orderlies_______ ___ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ 55b
64 Organization oL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 45e
53 Proceedings, judicial. __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 14 16
Processing company_____________ (;4 -70, App. 75, 88 Processing platoon, Figure 9__________ 67b,71 76, 78 Processing section____ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 73 81 Protection_____ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ 8
8
112 AGO 1385C
Para­
Palle
Ilraph
Prisoper of war-Continued
Relief shipments_ _____ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 52
62 Representative______________________ 42, 45/
43, 53
Search oL____ _ ____ _ _ _ _ _ __ ___ ___ 18a, 19, 38c
22,23,
39
Segregation_____ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 16c, 22, 43e, I, 62c 19,26,
45, 73

Treatroent __________________________ 3d, 8b
2,8 Weapons, use of against_______________ 12e 14 Processing_____________________________ 38, 45d
39,51 Processing coropanies ______________ 64-76, Aup. I 75, 88 Processing platoon, Figure 9______________ 67b,71 76,78 Processing section:
Interpreters __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 73a
81 Questioning of prisoners_ ___ _ _____ _ _ __ _ 73b 81 Special instructions______________ _____ 73c 81 Processing stations_ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 41b 42 Property register__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ 72a (2) 80 Retained personneL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7
6 Protecting powers_______________________ 10,14b
11,16 Protection of POW____________ __ ____ __ ___ 8
8 Punishment. (See discipline.) Rations_________________________ 26d, 34h, 47b, 61a 29,37 51,71 Receiving section:
Operation_ ___ _____ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ 72a
79 Special instructions___________________ 72b 80 Record _______________________________ 26/, 15c
30, 51 Office_______________________________ 3a 2
Section: Disposition of forms_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 76c 84 Function_________ ____ __ __ _ _ __ ___ 76b
84 PersonneL _ ____ ___ ____ _ ______ ___ 76a
84 Special instructions ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ 76d 85 Red Cross_____________________________ llb,56b 12,65 Relief shiproents____ __ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ ___ 52
62
I
Repatriation:
Responsibility ____ __ __ __ __ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ 3
2 Sick and woundcd____________________ 56 64
AGO 1385C 113
Para­Page
(lTaph
Responsibility:
Air Force_________________~_ ______ _ _ l8c
22 Army________________________ 3, l8c, 59c (3)
2,22,68 Command___________________________ 45b 58 Command and st.aff_ __ _ __ _ _ __ ___ __ ___ 4
2 Evacuation_____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 33
35
Guarding_ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ ____ _ _ __ ____ _ ____ 26c
29 Navy_______________________________ l8c 22 Repatriation _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3
2 Retained personneL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ 7
6
Sanctions, disciplinary____________________ 13 14
Sanitation and medical care: Facilities required__________________ 38d,49b 39,58 Injury or disease acquired while working_ 60 71
11easures__ ________________________ 49a 58 o
On ship__ ___ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ __ __ _ 62d 73. Responsibility _ _ ____ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _____ .49c 59 Search_____________________ 16a, 18a, 19, 38c, 62c ·19,22,
23,39,73 Segregation: Influential prisoners__________________ l6c 19 Litter cases_____ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ ____ 22c
26 Nonwounded and walking wounded____ 22a 26 On ship_____________________________ 62c 73
Women___________________________ 8c, e, 43e
8,45 Serial numbers, internmenL _____________ l5c,45d 18,51 Sick and wounded, repatriation____________ 56 64
Signs, use _______ 69
~_______________________
78
Special instructions: Fingerprint section_ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ __ __ __ ___ 75b
83 Photographic section_________________ 74d 82 Processing section___ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____ __ 73c
81 Receiving section_ __ _ _ _ ______________ 72b \
80 Record section_______________________ 76d 85 Special register______________________ 24, 72a (2)
27,80 Specialists, employment___________________ 711 7 Staff responsibility_ _ ____ ____ __ ____ _ _ _ _ ___ 4
2 Stations, processing______________________ 41 42
114 AGO 1385C
Para­Page
graph
Supplies and equipment:
Canteens___________________________ _
47d 57
Clothing___________________________ _
47a 56
Miscellaneous_______________________ _
47e 57
Rations____________________________ _
47b 57 Tags, identification__ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 26e 29 Tent camp, branch, Figures 4, 5, 6______________________ _
Training:
AdditionaL ________________________ _
Allotment of training time ___________ _ Considerations______________________ _ General____________________________ _
Minimum training schedule __________ _ Purpose____________________________ _ Standards to be obtained_____________ _ Technical training objectiyes _________ _ Tra.nsfer of POW_______________________ _ Treatment of POW_________ .____________ _
Weapons, use___ ___ _ _ __ ____ _ _______ __ ____ Welfare orga.nizations_____________________
App. 88 App. 88 App. 88 App. 88 App. 88 App. 88 App. 88 App. 88 61 71 3d, 8b 2, 8 12e 14
11 12
Women ______________________________ 8e, e, 43d 8,45
o
AGO 1385C
BLANK PAGE










FM 29-40
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY FiElD MANUAL

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~"''''; 1.A1. \ r4 ;#t'! '".l. ,..
~ \ .. ~ J'1"'iJ
HANDLING
PRISONERS
OF WAR

ADVANCE COPY
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY • NOVEMBER 1952

AOO 18~
U.S. ARMY JAG SCHOOL LIBRARY
BLANK SPACE
Colonel Howard S. Levie
Collection

THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL'S LEGAL CENTER AND SCHOOL LOGO
The Judge Advocate General's
Legal Center and School
United States Army
Charlottesville, Virginia
 

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