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Prisoners of war 1991

Prisoners of war 1991

TC 27-10-2

PRISONERS
OF
WAR

SEPTEMBER 1991
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited.
*TC 27-10-2 Training Circular HEADQUARTERS 27-10-2 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Washington, DC, 17 September 1991
PRISONERS OF WAR
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

PREFACE ii

CHAPTER 1. LAWS THAT APPLY TO PRISONERS OF WAR 1

International Law 1

US Laws and Guidelines 3

CHAPTER 2. RIGHTS OF PRISONERS OF WAR 5

Protection 6

Proper Transport 6

Separation 6

Camp Inspection 7

Favorable Work Conditions 7

Personal Effects 7

Mail ~ 7

Military Pay 7

Quarters ; 7

Clothing 8

Food 8

Health and Medical Care 8

Religious, Recreational, and
Intellectual Activities , 8

Fair Trial 8

Suitable Disciplinary Punishment 9

Organization 9

CHAPTER 3. GUIDELINES FOR INTERROGATION, COMMUNICATION, AND RESISTANCE … 11

Interrogation ……………….•………………………………………………… 12

Communication 12

Resistance 13

REFERENCES References-14

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved .for pUblic release, distribution is unlimi~ed.

*This publication supersedes TC 27-10-2, 1 September 1980:
PREFACE

The purpose of this circular is to help you as officers and noncommissioned officers to continuously train and educate yourselves and your soldiers in the laws concerning prisoners of war (PWs). This publication covers the following topics:
Rights and duties of PWs. •
Laws governing treatment· of PWs, including standards of conduct for captured United States (US) PWs.


Interrogation, communication, and resistance tactics for PWs.

You should know about laws that apply to PWs for two practical reasons. First, they govern US behavior toward captured enemy personnel. Soldiers in combat must be ready to handle captured enemy troops b~foretheir removal to permanent PW installations. Second, and more personal, they protect captured members ofUS forces. Ifyou become a PW, knowledge ofthe rights guaranteed and duties expected could mean your survival.
Every captured US individual continues to be of special concern to the US. The. US government expresses this concern by­

Continuing your right to promotion, pay and allowances, and dependent care while in captivity.


Employing every available means to establish contact with you and gain your release.


Ensuring in every possible way that you receive the protection and rights afforded you by the Geneva Conventions.


Providing your family members with all available information concerning your whereabouts and condition and providing all the support and care family members are entitled to under US law.

The proponent of this publication is The Judge Advocate General’s School, US Army. Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 directly to Commandant, The Judge Advocate General’s School, ATTN: JAGS-ADI, Charlottesville, VA 22903-1781.
NOTE: In this publication, the terms captor and detaining power are synonymous. J
Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.
CHAPTER 1
LAWS THAT APPLY TO PRISONERS OF WAR
As a soldier, you may rarely think about being cap­tured. It is not a pleasant subject and assuming that it can happen only to the other guy is easy. Though this attitude is natural, you must seriously consider the possibility of being captured and you must know the laws that apply to you as a PW. Knowing these laws will help you understand your rights and duties as a PW.
INTERNATIONAL LAW

THE GENEVA CONVENTION of War Victims. For the purposes of the dis­cussions in this book, they will be referred to as What You Should Know About the Convention the Geneva Convention or the Convention. The On 12 August 1949 at Geneva, Switzerland, Convention is part of US law as well as inter­representatives of61 nations, including the US, national law. They provide for more humane completedworkonfourintemational agreements treatment for military personnel and civilians
called The Geneva Convention for the Protection in time of war.
LAWS THAT APPLY TO PRISONERS OF WAR
TC 27-10-2 ~—————–CHAPTER 1
Three of the four Convention agreements are revisions of earlier international agree­ments dating back about 100 years. The first deals’with the protection of sick and wounded soldiers oilland. The second covers those atsea or shipwrecked. The third and most familiar covers the treatment of PWs.The fourth deals with the protection of civilians.
The Convention applies not only to a formally declared war but to all forms of armed conflict. All four Convention agreements state that “the present convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more parties, evenifthe stateofwaris notrecognized by one ofthem.” US policy requires you adhere to the Convention whenever you are engaged in conflict.
The Geneva Convention set up an inspec­tion system that works through protecting powers. Any willing and able neutral country or impartial organization, agreed upon by the parties in a conflict, may act as a protecting power.
Basically, the duty of a protecting poweris to safeguard interests of the parties in conflict. Thus, a protecting power checks on proper application of the Convention rules. It also suggests corrective measures where necessary. For instance, a protecting power must periodic­ally inspect PW camps. The detaining power must do nothing to discourage or hinder the inspections. Prisoners must be permitted to appeal to the inspectors for help in correcting any violations of the Convention.
When no other arrangements exist, an organization such as the International Committee of the Red-Cross assumes the humanitarian functions of a protecting power.
Why You Should Adhere to the Convention
The US and its allies adhere to the Conven­tion becam;je they express humanitarian prin­ciples in harmony with nationalbeliefs and tra­ditions. Our compliance will possibly influence the willingness of all governments to do so.
In addition, you have a duty to defend the Constitution and uphold the laws of the US. Under the Constitution, treaties between the US and other nations are US law. One of those treaties is the Geneva Convention. You must be familiar withtherequirements ofthe Convention and adhere to them. In your hands·is the reputation ofthe US as a law-abidingmemberof the community ofnations.
The Convention can be effective only if governments and citizens abide by their pro­visions. In the past, certain parties to a conflict sometimes refused to acknowledge that the Geneva Convention applied to the conflict. Despite isolated incidents and atrocities that have occurred, an awareness that prisoners’ treatmentshouldbehumaneseemstobegrowing.
Who Is Covered by the Convention
The Geneva Convention establishes those who qualify as PWs and are entitled to PW treatment. ThoseentitledtoPWstatusinclude­

Members of regular armed forces, includ­ing militias and volunteer corps that are part of the armed forces.


Members ofother militia, volunteer corps, and organized resistance movements, provided they meet the following criteria:

–    Have a commander responsible for sub­ordinates. -Have a fixed, distinctive emblem recognizable at a ,distance. -Carry arms openly. -Conductoperations accordingto thelaws laws and customs of war.

Members of regular armed forces of governments not recognized by the de­taining power (the party holding the prisoner). Even if the country capturing a person does not recognize the prison­er’s government, the person still gets PW treatment.


Certain civilians accompanying the armed forces, including civilian members of military aircraft crews, war corre­spondents, supply contractors, and United Service Organization personnel.

LAWS THAT APPLY,TO PRISONERS OF WAR

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CHAPTER 1

Members of the merchant marines and crews of civil aircraft.


Inhabitants of an unoccupied territory who spontaneously resist invading forces without time to form into regular armed units. Persons belonging (or having be­longed) to the armed forces ofan occupied country, if the occupying forces consider it necessary to intern them.


Military personnel interned in neutral countries.

In past wars, deciding who was a PW was fairly easy, because most captives wore uni­forms thatplainlyidentified them. Whilethis is still generally true in conventional warfare, it may not be true in guerrilla or counterinsur­gency warfare. In Vietnam, for example, a cap­tive might have been dressed as a local civilian rather than in military uniform. Also, women and children were not generally regarded as PWs, but placing them in their proper category proved to be a problem.
In combat, classifying captives as PWs is difficult or impossible. Therefore, treat all cap­tives as PWs until you verify their status.
CUSTOMARY LAWS OF WAR Centuries of warfare have developed un­written laws governing the conduct of war. Known as the customary laws ofwar, they stem from the lessons of history. They attempt to limit human suffering and destruction of non­military targets. They also provide for humane treatment of all individuals under military control. The Geneva Convention adds to the custom­ary laws ofwar but do not replace them. Where the Convention is not specific, the customary laws of war govern actions.
US LAWS AND GUIDELINES
THE UNIFORM CODE OF MILITARY JUSTICE
The Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), which sets minimum standards of conductfor all US military personnel, continues
LAWS THAT APPLY TO PRISONERS OF WAR
to apply to you if you are captured. The UCMJ provides legal authority to enforce a captured commander’s orsenior-ranking person’s orders.
Article 105 of the UCMJ prohibits a PW from improving his condition at the expense of fellow ‘prisoners. Examples include revealing escape plans or disclosing secret caches offood, equipment, or arms of other PWs. A PW who is in a position of authority and’mistreats other PWs is also chargeable under Article 105. The mistreatment can range from striking a PW to depriving him of benefits without justifiable cause.
Also, Article 104 of the UCMJ prohibits aiding the enemy by giving him intelligence or engagingin unauthorized communication. The offense occurs the moment the service member relays the communication, whether it reaches its destination or not. The means of communi­cation, whether direct or indirect, has no bearing on the issue of guilt.
THE US CODE OF CONDUCT The US Code of Conduct provides a form of mental defense if you are captured during conflict. It is a guide for you to use to resist illegal PW practices. It supports the intent of the Geneva Convention by preventing use of PWs to further the enemy war effort.
The Code applies to all members of the active forces or reserve components. It dates back to the Revolutionary War; however, the current, revised Code stems from the ex;peri­ences ofAmerican prisoners during the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Two influences prompted the revision: isolated incidents of improper actions by US prisoners and the new aspect of PW treatment-exploitation by the enemy.
The US Code of Conduct consists of six articles and accompanying explanations. You should be familiar with the Code and not take it lightly. The Code holds that an American fighting soldier should be ready to give his life for his country. As a US PW, you must follow these guidelines:

Never surrender of your own free will.


Ifcaptured, make every effort to escape.

TC 27-10-2 .-;. _ CHAPTER 1
f


Make no agreements to obtain parole or accept special favors.


Keep faith with fellow prisoners.


If you are the senior-ranking prisoner eligible> for command, whether officer or enlisted, assume command (secretly, if necessary) within a PW camp or within a group of PWs, regardless of service.

• Obey the lawful orders of your superiors, regardless of service.

Followingthese guidelines requires thatyou give only your name, rank, social security number, and date of birth. You must resist, avoid, or evade, to the best of your ability, all enemy efforts to obtain statements or actions which further the enemy’s cause.
LAWS THAT APPLY TO PRISONERS OF WAR

Experience shows that if you are aware of your rights and duties, you get better treatment than other prisoners. Increased awareness also helps end illegal PW pr.actices. Article 13 of the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of PWs, for example, provides that PWs “must at all times be protected, particularly against acts of violence or intimidation, and against insults and public curiosity.”
The detaining power may not ask or force you to give up any rights under the Convention. Further, a party to the Convention can make no agreements or arrangements that deprive its own personnel, or the personnel of any other party to the Convention, of their rights and privileges.
RIGHTS OF PRISONERS OF WAR
TC 27-10-2
PROTECTION

The Convention prohibits the detaining power from holding you in areas exposed to fire In the combat zone. The detaining power must evacuate you from the battle area as swiftly, safely, and. humanely as possible. It may not use your presence to protect areas from military operations. For example, a detaining power cannot keep you in a place as a means of preventing the enemy from bombing it. Itmust tell the enemy the location ofPW,camps. When military considerations permit, the detaining power must mark the camps with letters large enough to be seen clearly from the air.

PROPER TRANSPORT

The detaining power must ensure that you have food, safe drinking water, clothing, and medical attention during a transfer. The transit or screening camps through which you pass must meet the same general requirements as permanent camps.
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CHAPTfR 2

Within a week after you reach a PW camp, the detaining powermust send a message on the standard capture card (see below). The detain­ing power should also forward a copy of this cardto the Central PrisonerofWarInformation Agency. This is a clearing house operated by the International Committee ofthe Red Cross in Geneva. The detaining power must also notify this agency whenever a prisoner transfers to another camp or hospital.

SEPARATION

The detaining power must separate you along with other PWs in camps or compounds according to your nationality, language, and customs. PWsfrom the same armed forces must remain together unless they agree to the separa­tion. Every camp must have copies of the Conventions, in each PW’s language, posted in places where prisoners can read them. All camp notices, regulations, and orders must be in a language the PWs understand.
RIGHTS OF PRISONERS OF WAR
TC 27-10-2

CHAPTER 2
CAMP INSPECTION

According to the Geneva Convention Rela­tive to the Treatment ofPWs, a protecting power must periodicallyinspectPW camps. Thedetain­ing power must do nothing to discourage or hinder the inspections. They must let you appeal to the inspectors for help in correcting violations of this Convention.
FAVORABLE WORK
CONDITIONS

The working conditions for you as an employed PW must be at least as favorable as those of the detaining power’s forces under similar circumstances. The detaining power’s laws for the safety and protection of workers apply to you.
Ifyou are an officer, you may request work; camp officials may notforce you to work. Ifyou are a noncommissioned officer (NCO), you shall only be required to supervise, but you may request other kinds of work.
As a working prisoner, you get paid for your services. Your work cannot harm your health, and it may not have any military character or purpose. You maynot perform any humiliating or hazardous work such as removing mines or booby traps. Yon mayrestfor onehour during a full work day and may work no more than six days per week. Camp officials should not force you to work when ill or in poor physical condition.
Ifyou are an enlisted prisoner, you may be compelled to perform certain kinds of work as described in the Convention in areas such as­

Administration, maintenance, and con­struction of the camp.


Agriculture.


Industries connected with raw materials and manufacturing (but not metallur­gical, chemical, or machinery industries).


Public works and construction that have no military character or purpose.


Transport and handling ofstores that are not military in character or purpose.


Public utility services having no military character or purpose.

RIGHTS OF PRISONERS OF WAR

Commercial business and arts and crafts.


Domestic service.

PERSONAL EFFECTS

As a PW, you keep all your personal effects, including your clothing and mess gear, insignia of rank or nationality, decorations, identifi­cation cards, and articles of sentimental value, even during transit from one comap to another. Medical personnel can retain aid bags. Only officers may order you to give up your money or valuables. In all such cases, captors must give you receipts. You must keep your protective masks, metal helmets, and other items issued for personal protection. Ofcourse, this does not include arms, military equipment, or military documents.
MAIL

Camp officials must allow you, as soon as possible after your capture, to inform your family of your whereabouts and health. You have the right to send letters as frequently as the captor’s censorship and postal facilities allow. You may also receive letters and relief packages forwarded through neutral agencies.
MILITARY PAY

You continue to accrue your military pay during captivity. Nortnally, the US govern­ment holds it for you until your release. The detaining power must provide you a monthly advance of pay, a stated sum that varies according to rank.
QUARTERS

The Geneva Conventions declare that “prisoners ofwarshallbe quarteredunder con­ditions as favorable as those for the forces ofthe detaining power who are billeted in the same area.” These are the minimum standards of treatment. Camp conditions may never en­danger your health.
TC 27-10-2

CLOTHING

The detaining power must provide clothing, underwear, footwear, and work clothing, and must mend or replace these items regularly. If possible, the detaining power should supply clothing from stocks ofuniforms captured from your own forces.

FOOD

To the extent possible, every camp should establish a canteen where you can buy food­stuffs, soap, tobacco, and ordinary articles in daily use. Prices can be no higher than those charged civilians in the area. Any profits are for the benefit of the prisoners.
The 1929 Prisoner of War Convention pro­vided that prisoI;1ers get the same rations as troops of the detaining power. During World War II,however, this proved unrealistic. For example, American and British prisoners in the Far East could not easily digest the fish head and rice part of the diet that their Japanese captors provided.
In 1949thePrisonerofWarConventionwas revised to state that food must be “sufficient in quantity, quality and variety” to keep the prisoners in good health without loss of weight. Further, the detaining power must con­sider the dietary habits ofall prisoners. It must provde mess halls and kitchens where prison­ers can assist in preparing their own food. Restricting food as a form of mass punishment is forbidden.
The captor must also furnish sufficient safe drinking water and must allow prisoners to use tobacco if they wish.

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE
The Geneva Convention include detailed provisions for meeting your health and medical needs. They ensure at least a minimum stand­.ardofhealth. Forexample,campsmustinclude adequate latrines, showers, and laundry facili­ties. According to the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of PWs, the captor “shall be’bound to take all sanitary measures necesSary to ensure the cleanliness and health­
fulness of camps and to prevent epidemics.”
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CHAPTER 2
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Every camp shall have an adequate infirm­ary. In the infirmary, you should receive treat­ment from medical personnel from your own capturedforces, ifpossible. Sick call must occur regularly. Camp officials mustconductmedical inspections of PWs at least monthly. Such inspections will include periodic X-ray exami­nations for tuberculosis and tests for other infections and contagious diseases.
Captors should let captured medical per­sonnel visit prisoners inside and outside en­closures. They fit into the special category of retained persons and must perform only the duties of their profession for the benefit of prisoners.

RELIGIOUS, RECREATIONAL,

AND INTELLECTUAL

ACTIVITIES

Camp officials must allow you to attend services of your faith and otherwise practice your religion. They must allow chaplains, who are consideredretained persons, to perform only the duties of their profession for the benefit of prisoners. Chaplains should have maximum freedom to minister to the religious needs of prisoners.
Camp officials must also allow you the right to exercise, including playing sports and games, and to participate in intellectual and educa­tional activities.
Article 80 of the Geneva Conventions provides for the establishment ofPW organiza­tions for welfare and morale purposes. All PWs should organize for activity such as studies, sports, and other recreation.

FAIR TRIAL

You must be tried in the same court and according to the same procedures as members of the armed forces of the detaining power. Regardless of the charge, you may not get a sentence more severe than .a member of the detaining power’s forces could receive for the same offense. If you are charged with an offenserequiring a trial, a military court hears
RIGHTS OF PRISONERS OF WAR

________________________________ TC 27-10-2
CHAPTER 2
the case. The only exception is if a member of the detaining power’sforces commits an offense and would be tried in civil court, you could also be tried in civil court for a similar offense. You have a right to appeal as provided under laws that apply to the detaining power’s armed forces. You may not be punished more than once for the same act or on the same charges.
Additional safeguards include your right to counsel, advance knowledge ofthe charges, the services of a competent interpreter, and ample time for preparation of the defense. The de­taining power must provide advance notice ofa trialtoa representativeofyourprotectingpower as he is entitled to attend the proceedings.
SUITABLE DISCIPLINARY PUNISHMENT
Wheneverdisciplineis imposed, PWs should know the rights afforded them by the
Convention.

FORMS OF PUNISHMENT
Under the Geneva Convention, whenever possible, you should getthe lightest punishment authorized for a violation. The Geneva Con­vention lists forms of disciplinary punishment suitable for minor offenses. Disciplinary punishment may include­

Fines up to one-half of your advance of pay. and working pay for not more than 30 days.


Withdrawal of any privileges granted beyond those required by the Geneva Convention (no required privilege may be withdrawn).


Not more than two hours a day of fatigue duty such as kitchen police, fire watch, or othertasks performed outsidenormal duty hours for the common welfare of the PWs (officers may not be forced to work).


Simple confinement for not more than 30 days.

LIMITATIONS ON PUNISHMENT
Even when your captors find you guilty of several minor offenses in the same proceedings,
RIGHTS OF PRISONERS OFWAR
the Geneva Convention limits the disciplinary punishment to 30 days. Ifyou receive consecu­tive 30-day sentences, at least 3 days must elapsebetween sentences. Youmustbeinformed ofthe offense and havean opportunitytodefend yourself. You may also call witnesses to testify on your behalf.
In addition, captors cannot give you undue punishment if you escape and get recaptured. The attempt to escape is not a criminal offense and entails only disciplinary punishment. If, when trying to escape, you commit a minor crime to help you escape, such as forging identification papers or stealing civilian clothes, you may be appropriately disciplined. However, the fact that you were trying to escape is not an excuse to impose extra punishment. Ifyou help a fellow prisoner escape, you are subject only to disciplinary punishment, unless your partici­pation includes violence or acts not solely to aid the escape.
Even during disciplinary punishment, you must receive medical attention. The camp commander must also allow you time to read and write and at least two hours of open-air
/ exercise each day.
DISTRIBUTION OF

PUNISHMENT
Only the camp commander or a designated representative can impose disciplinary punish­ment. He cannot delegate this power to a prisoner, regardless of grade. The camp commander records all punishments. He must make these records availablefor the representa­tive of the protecting power to inspect.

ORGANIZATION

PRISONERS’

REPRESENTATIVE
Organization in a PW camp is very im­portant. Prisoners need a solid structure that allows them to be responsible to someone or for something. The Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment ofPWs authorizes establishment of PW organizations. The organizations normally are responsible to the prisoners’
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CHAPT~R 2 f

representatives. For USPWs, the senior officer among the PWs becomes the prisoners’ representative.
A detaining power may seek to damage morale or weaken certain PW organizations by trying to install a cooperative prisoner as the prisoners’ representative. In camps with no officers, camp authorities may refuse to accept the senior representative. They may demand more elections until nomination of a weak person appropriate for the d.etaining power’s purposes. They design these tactics to break down the prisoners’ internal control. US policy, however, is that the senior person is always in charge.
Underprovisions ofthe Geneva Convention, the prisoners’ representative monitors the physical, spiritual, and intellectual well-being ofthe prisoners. He represents them before the military authorities ofthe detaining power, the protecting power, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and any other outside organization that may assist the prisoners. Various committees should be established to deal with the general problems of camp administration.
SENIOR RANKING OFFICER According to the US Code of Conduct and for their own benefit, PWs should organize in a military manner under the senior person eligible for command, the seniorranking officer (SRO). He can be either an officer or enlisted soldier. The SRO should assume command within the camp or within a group of prisoners according to rank. He should do so regardless of branch of military service. The US Code of Conduct (Article IV) places clearresponsibility ofcommand squarelyonthe shoulders of the senior ranking person. Sub­
ordinates must obey the orders ofthe SRO. The SRO should ensure proper behavior of those under him. Enlisted prisoners must salute officers of the detaining power and show them the same respect required by their own forces. Officer prisoners must salute higher-ranking officers of the detaining power and the camp commander, regardless of his rank. Prisoners may wear their decorations and rank insignia.
Iffor any reason the senior person is unable to act, the next senior person must assume command. Chaplains and medical personnel are normally ineligible for command because of the nature of their duties and the special protected status accorded them under the
Conventions.
Common sense and camp conditions de­termine how the SRO and other prisoners organize and carry out their responsibilities. The SRO must inform the other prisoners that he is taking command. He must designate the chain ofcommand and inform all prisoners ofit so they can identify the representatives who deal with enemy authorities. He must ensure that PWs in his organization understand their duties and the chain of command.
The enemy probably knows about the US Code of Conduct and the duties and respon­sibilities it imposes on the SRO. Experience shows that PWs most likely can have an SRO and a commandorganization only secretly; that is, the organization will be unknown to camp authorities. Theenemymaynot allow an organ­ization-basedonthe normal militarycommand structure-to form or function openly. In that case, the organization may elect prisoner’s representatives. However, even if such repre­sentatives are elected, the SRO mustcontinue to secretly exercise military command authority over all PW matters.
RIGHTS OF PRISONERS OF WAR

CHAPTER 3
GUIDELINES FOR INTERROGATION, OMMUNICATION, AND RESISTANCE~~~~
You must resist, avoid, or evade, to the best of your ability, all enemy efforts to secure statements or actions which further the enemy’s cause. The Geneva Convention requires that you give only your name, rank, social security number, and date of birth. If you unwillingly or accidentally disclose unauthorized information, you must regroup, renew resistance, and use a fresh approach or an alternate line of mental defense.
GUIDELINES FOR INTERROGATION COMMUNICATION AND RESISTANCE
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INTERROGATION

Ifyou are captured, you must know certain things about the interrogation process. Your captors must question you in a language you understand. They must not use physical or mental torture or other coercion to obtain information nor should they punish you if you fail to respond. Most countries issue identifi­cation cards to members of their armed forces. Although PWs must show them to their captors on demand, as a PW, you have the right to keep your card.
Captors view PWs as valuable sources of military information and propaganda and will use every bit of information for their own purposes. Therefore,duringenemyinterrogation, indoctrination, and otherexploitation attempts, you should follow the guidelines below­

Giveonlyyourname, rank, servicenumber, and date of birth.


Be respectful but not give the impression that you are willing to cooperate through politeness. Such an impression might prolong the interrogation.


Act ignorant of possessing information useful to the enemy.


Be aware of informants such as prison camp medical personnel who may be used to collect information.


Do not reveal knowledge of the enemy’s language; your concealed understanding of their language may help you escape.


Do not believe that fellow prisoners have talked. This is a common procedure to catch prisoners off guard and encourage them to talk.


Avoid looking the interrogator directly in the eye. Your eyes can give information even if you do not answer dIrectly. Select a spot between the interrogator’s eyes or on his forehead and concentrate on it.


Be courteous but firm in refusing to give information during interrogation.


Salute all senior officer interrogators.


Nevergiveinformationaboutotherprisoners. Ifa fellow prisoneris mentioned dur~ngin­terrogation,reportthe circumstancestoyour

superior. The other prisonermay be under
surveillance. Information from one PW
may be used against the other.

Do not try to impress interrogators by boasting of exploits, either true or invented.


Do not be tricked into filling out innocent­looking questionnaires or writing state­ments that require more than name, rank, service number, and date of birth.


Do not attempt to deceive the enemy by volunteering false information. A skilled interrogatoris able to extractneededinfor: mation once you start talking on the subject.


Stay confident of yourself, your family, your unit, your country, and your religion. Above all, keep the will to survive.

COMMUNICATION

As a PW you are not supposed to provide information to your captor. However, to expect you to remain confined for years without some communication with the enemy is unrealistic. Certaintypes ofcommunicationsare acceptable. You should know these exceptions and exercise . great caution when communicating with the enemy.
You may, when appropriate, talk to captors on matters of health and welfar~. Medical personnel may communicate withthe detaining power concerning medical requirements, sani­tary conditions, and related matters. The SRO has a duty to represent prisoners in matters of camp administration, health, welfare, and grievances.
You may also communicate with your families through letters. However, you must understand that the enemy will read them and may distort and use the information to demoral­izeyou, yourfamily athome, and your comrades in the field. Thus, if you become a PW, you should keep personal correspondence brief and general.
GUIDELINES FOR INTERROGATION COMMUNICATION AND RESISTANCE
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CHAPTER 3
RESISTANCE

Under the Geneva Convention, the detain­ing power cannot subject a prisoner to physical or mental torture, or any other force, to secure information. However, do notrely on the enemy to abide by the Geneva Convention. If you are captured and tortured, you mustresist, avoid, or evade, to the best of your ability, all enemy efforts to obtain statements or actions that will help the enemy. Examples of statements or actions to resist that are harmful to the US, its allies, or other prisoners, include­

Oral or written confessions.


Questionnaires or personal history statements.


Propaganda recordings and broadcasts.


Appeals to other PWs and appeals for surrender or peace.


Engagement in self-criticism.


Oral or written statements or communi­cations on behalfofthe enemy.

The enemy might use any confession or statement to convict you as a war criminal. It prolongs your right to repatriation until you serve a prison sentence.
If as a PW you. unwillingly or accidentally disclose unauthorized information, you must regroup and renew resistance. You must use a fresh approach or a different line of mental defense. Experience shows thata prisoner with the will to resist can withstand intense levels of mistreatment even though enemy interrogation sessions are harsh and cruel.
GUIDELINES FOR INTERROGATION COMMUNICATION AND RESISTANCE

REFERENCES
SOURCES USED
These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication.
JOINT AND MULTISERVICE PUBLICATIONS
NWP 9/FMFM1-10. The Commander’s Handbook on the Law ofNaval Opera­tions. 1989.
ARMY PUBLICATIONS

FM 27-10. The Law of Land Warfare. 1956.
DA Pam 27-1. Treaties Governing Land Warfare. 1956.

FM 27-2. Your Conduct in Combat. November 1984.
NON-MILITARY PUBLICATIONS

Pictet, Jean S. Commentary to IIIGeneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. 1960.
Levie, Howard S. Prisoners of War in International Armed Conflict; Interna­tional Law Series, Vol. 59.
Levie, Howard S. Documents on Prisoners of War; International Law Series, Vol. 60.

READINGS RECOMMENDED
These readings contain relevant supplemental information. Shindler/Toman, ed. The Laws of Armed Conflict. 1988.
·u.s.Government Printing OIlIce: 1991 -527·027/40009
~”

TC 27-10-2
17 SEPTEMBER 1991
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
GORDON R. SULLIVAN
General,  United States Anny
Chief of Staff
Official:
PATRICIA P. HICKERSON
Brigadier General,  United States Anny
The Adjutant General

DISTRIBUTION: Active Anny, USAR and ARNG: To be distributed in accordance with Da Fonn 12-11E, requirements for TC 27-10-2, Prisoners of War, (Qty rqr block no. 1373).

 

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