FM-41-10-1962

FM-41-10-1962

Share
FM-41-10-1962

Cover page - front
II~ fiv-'a FM 41-10

r
IEPII1IIIIT••am IIlJ...
Cover page - front

CIVIL AFFAIRS
 
OPERATIONS
 

_1EPII1IIIIT••am
 

1I'1IIZ
FIELDMANUAL      HEADQUARTERS.
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY NO. 41-10 WASHINGTON
25. D. C.. 14 May 1962
I
CIVIL AFFAIRS OPERATIONS
Parngrnphs Page
 
CHAPTER1. INTRODUCTION ..................................... ...............

2. CIVIL AFFAIRS FUNCTIONS ..........................

3. ORGANIZATION FOR CIVIL AFFAIRS OP-
 ERATIONS
 Section I. General ........................................ ..............................
I1. Organization of Staff Sections and Units ..........
I11. Cellular Teams ....................... .........................

IV.
Personnel ..................................................................


V.
Training ....................................................................



CHAPTER 4. CIVIL AFFAIRS STAFF FUNCTIONS AND
 PROCEDURES ..................................... ..........
5. THE ARMY IN THE COMMUNITY ..................

6. CIVIL AFFAIRS COLD WAR OPERATIONS
 Section I. General ....................................................................
I1. Civic Action ...........................................................
I11. Unconventional Warfare (UW) ........................

CHAPTER7. COMBAT AND POST COMBAT CA OPERA-
 . TIONS
 Section I. Employn~ent of CA Organization ........................
1-9  3
 
10-14  18
 
15-22  39
 
23-34  45
 
35. 36  54
 
37-39  56
 
40-53  60
 
54-62  65
 
63-70  74
 
71-78  83
 
79-84  88
 
85-90  100
 
91-95  107
 

I1. Unit Operations  .............  96-101  114
 
I11.  Displaced Persons. Refugees, and Evacuees ...... 102-105  127
 
IV.  Civil Defense and Area Damage Control ............ 106, 107  136
 
V. Special Operations ...................... .........................108-110  141
 
VI.  Other Agency Support of CA Operations ............
 111-119  .  148
 
CHAPTER8.  CONTROL MEASURES  
Section I.  Control and Supervision  120, 121  153
 
11.  Civil Affairs Tribunals  . 122-126  158
 
I11.  Published Regulatory Matter  ..............................  127-133  161
 
CHAPTER9.  INTELLIGENCE  
Section     I.  CA Requirement For Intelligence  ...................... 134-139  167
 
I1. CA Support In Intelligence Activities  ................  140-144  172
 
111.  Operations Of The Intelligence Section  ............145-148  174
 
CHAPTER10.
 
Section I.  General ......................................................................
149-153  178
 
I1. Requirements  ..........................................................
  15-1-160  184
 
I11.  Procurement  ............................................................
161-172  187
 
IV.  Distribution ..............................................................
 173-175  193
 
V. Hospitalization and Transportation ....................
176, 177  196
 

*This manual supersedes FM 41-10, 2 May 1957 and FM 41-15,
 26 March 1954 .
TAGO 614TB-May
APPENDIXI. REFERENCES I1. FORM FOR CA UNIT COhIMANDER'S ESTIMATE OF THE SITUATION ........................................................ I11. FORM FOR CA AKNEX TO OPERATION OR ADMIN- ISTRATIVE PLAN OR ORDER ...................................
IV. EXAMPLE OF CA ANNEX TO OPERATION ORDER -ARMY .............................................................................
V. FORM FOR CA POLICY CHECKLIST ............................
 

VI. FORM FOR CA ANNEX TO SOP ......................................
 

VII. FORM FOR COMBAT CHECKLIST ............................ ....
 

VIII. EXAMPLE OF A CHECKLlST FOR CA INSPECTION
IX. FORM FOR CA INTELLIGEXCE COLLECTION PLAN
X. FORM FOR INITIAL CA PROCLAMATION FOR USE IN LIBERATED TERRITORY ......................................
XI. FORM OF INITIAL PROCLAMATION FOR USE IN OCCUPIED TERRITORY ................................................ XI1. EXAMPLE OF AN ORDINANCE PERTAINING TO THE CIRCULATION OF CURRENCY IN OCCU­PIED TERRITORY ..................................................... XI11. EXAMPLE OF AN ORDINANCE PUBLISHED IN OCCUPIED TERRITORY SPECIFYING PENAL­TIES FOR CRIMES AND OFFENSES ........................ SIV. EXAMPLE OF A NOTICE SPECIFYING HOURS OF CURFEW IN OCCUPIED TERRITORY .................... ..
XV. SOLOG AGREEMENT 29 ....................................................
 

XVI. SOLOG AGREEMENT 39 (STANAG 2056) ....................
 
SVII. SOLOG AGREEMENT 40 (STANAG 2057) ....................
 
ST'III. SOLOG AGREEMENT 41 (STANAG 2058) ....................
 

XI9. SOLOG AGREEMENT 42
.........................................

?........
 

XX. STANAG XO . 206.5 ................................................................
 

XXI. PERIODIC CA REPORT ......................................................
 

XXII. A CA UNIT CHECKLIST ................................. ...............
 

XXIII. EXTRACTS OF TREATY IDRO\'ISIONS FOR PRO­TECTION OF PROPERTY ...........................................
XXIV. TYPE TASK ORGASIZATIOSS ......................................
 
INDEX................................................................................................................
 

AGO 6147B
 

CHAPTER 1
 

1. Purpose and Scope
a.
This manual is published for use of all personnel concerned with civil affairs (CA) operations. It is intended for use in con- junction with FM 41-5. It is generally applicable to nuclear and nonnuclear, general or limited war, as well as to operations of the Army conducted during situations short of war, the cold war, and peacetime. It contains procedures employed by CA staff sections, units, and teams in furthering national policies of the United States, in fulfilling international obligations, and in pro- viding maximum support for military operations by the planning, conduct, and supervision of civil affairs operations and activities.

b.
Users are encouraged to submit recommended changes or comments to improve this manual. Comments should be keyed to the specific page, paragraph, and line of the text in which the change is recommended. Reasons should be provided for each comment to insure understanding and complete evaluation. Com­ments should be forwarded directly to the U.S. Army Civil Affairs School, Fort Gordon, Ga.


2. Definitions
In this manual terms will be used as defined below-
a.
Civil Affairs. Those phases of the activities of a commander which embrace the relationship between the military forces and the civil authorities and people in a friendly (including US home territory) or occupied area where military forces are present. In an occupied country or area this may include the exercise of executive, legislative, and judicial authority by the occupying power.

b.
Civil Affairs Operations. Those activities which directly support a commander's political-military mission. Any project or activity of a military unit involving points of contact with or designed to influence or control civilians and civil organizations outside the military establishment can be classified as a civil affairs operation regardless of the location of the activity or the size of the participating military unit. The legal aspects of CA operations may be governed by a provision of United States law, including the law of a state, territory possession or other political subdivision of the United States; a bilateral or multilateral agree- ment, including an agreement concluded without the formalities


AGO 6147U
required of treaties, a rule of law established by custom, or a provision of the law of a foreign state made relevant by a provision of United States law, the terms of an international agreement, or rule of international law. The scope of military authority or control in a civil affairs operation may extend from measures of liaison and coordination with appropriate local civil- ian agencies to the furnishing of assistance and support to local officials and populations or even to the assumption of responsi- bility for the exercise of some or all of the functions of govern- ment in the locality in question. The degree of authority or control necessary to assure the success of civil affairs operations will at all times be consistent with law and the factual posture of the civil affairs relation.
c. Civil Defense. All those activities and measures designed or undertaken to­
(1)
Minimize the effects upon the civilian population caused or which would be caused by an enemy attack,

(2)
    Deal with the immediate emergency conditions which would be created by any such attack and,

(3)
    Effectuate emergency repairs to, or the emergency resto- ration of, vital utilities and facilities destroyed or dam- aged by any such attack.

d.
Civil Emergency. Emergencies affecting public welfare as a result of enemy attack, insurrection, civil disturbance, earth- quake, fire, flood, or other public disasters or equivalent emergen- cies which endanger life and property or disrupt the usual process of government.

e.
Civil Affairs Agreement. Defines the relationship between a visiting force, on one hand, and the indigenous population and governmental authority of the host country, on the other hand, including the degree of control and the extent to which support is to be rendered or derived therefrom.

f.
Status of Forces. A term used to describe the legal position of a visiting military force deployed in the territory of a friendly state. Agreements delineating the status of visiting military forces may be bilateral or multilateral. Provisions of agreements de- fining the status of visiting forces may be grouped into a separate agreement or they may form a part of a more complex civil affairs agreement. These provisions describe how the authorities of a visiting force may control members of that force and the amena- bility of the force or its members to the local law or to the authority of local officials in such matters as civil and criminal jurisdiction, customs and imports, taxation, passports, vehicle registration and drivers' licenses, local procurements, etc. In-


AGO 6147B
asmuch as status-of forces agreements delineate matters affecting the relationship between a military force and the civil authorities and peoples in a friendly area, these agreements constitute a specific category of civil affairs agreement.
g.
Military Government. Form of administration by which an occupying power exercises executive, legislative, and judicial authority over occupied territory.

h.
General War. Conflict between international powers or coalitions of powers involving use of their total war-making abilities with national survival of both sides at issue.

i.
Limited War. Armed conflict in which objectives of the combatants do not constitute a direct threat to survival of the major opposing power blocs. Limitations invoked may be restric- tive on means employed or upon extent of area of operations.

j.
Situation Short of War. A state of international relation- ships, designed to alter or maintain the balance of power between contending power blocs. While it does not include armed conflict, the use of force or military operations is not precluded. Such operations may be conducted to counter or deter use of force by another nation, to encourage a weak or faltering government, to maintain or restore order, or to protect U.S. personnel or prop- erty.

k.
Cold War. A state of conflict between nations or coalitions of nations short of overt armed action and involving any or all means including ideological, political, economic, psychological, sociological, technological, and military operations.


3. Objectives
The basic CA mission includes-
a.
Implementation of National Policies. An objective of CA operations is to implement those aspects of United States national policy as pertains to a particular area for which the military commander is responsible. Support of the commander's military mission may involve participation in coordinated activities with other US., allied, or international military components or civil agencies.

b.
Fulfillment of International Obligations. Discharge of the commander's responsibilities pertaining to civil population, gov- ernment and economy of the area. It is U.S. policy to observe faithfully all international legal obligations. (See FM 27-10.)

c.
Support of Military Operations. Assist in the accomplish- ment of military missions through support or control of local agencies in implementing measures to-


(1) Maintain public order.
AGO 6147B
(2)
    Safeguard, mobilize, and utilize local resources such as labor, supplies, and facilities for tactical or logistical purposes.

(3)
    Control disease and epidemic conditions that might endanger the military force.

(4)
    Prevent civilian interference with military operations.

d.
Emergency Civil Assistance. When directed or requested by appropriate authority, CA operations to assist in civil emer- gency situations resulting from natural disaster, unrest, or enemy attack.


4. Principles
The general principles below apply to a CA operation. In the absence of specific directives, they are basic to planning.
a. Continuity of Policy. Continuity and consistency in policy are essential to the success of civil affairs operations. Therefore it is fundamental that comprehensive policy be developed at gov- ernmental or top command levels and transmitted through normal command channels. Civil affairs relations are influenced by the fact that diplomatic relations between the United States and the government of the area will ususlly be in existence. Since the Department of State is the U.S. government agency held respon- sible by the President for foreign policy, relations between the
U.S.
commander and the U.S. ambassador or diplomatic repre- sentative require close coordination and definite delineation of responsibilities and functions. Normally this will be accomplished by means of an Executive Order issued by the President of the United States.

b.
Command Responsibi'ity. The military nature of CA opera- tions requires that responsibility and authority for establishment and conduct of these activities be vested in the senior commander. The commander is guided by directives from higher authority, national policies, applicable agreements, and international law. Commanders may delegate their authority to the degree that subordinate commanders require such authority for the accom- plishment of the mission.

c.
Mission. All CA operations must support the commander's politico-military mission.

d.
Economy of Force. The commander's politice-military mis- sion must be accomplished effectively with minimum personnel. Whenever possible, CA operations are conducted through and with existing or reestablished civilian authorities utilizing the minimum number of military personnel required for advice or supervision.

e.
Continuity of Plans and Operations. Effectiveness of opera- tions depends upon-


(1)
Plans that contain appropriate guidance and direction to assure accomplishment of the CA mission.

(2)
    Execution adapted to the requirements of the situation and the capabilities of the organization.

(3)
    Coordination of CA and other operations of each com- mand.

f.
Integration in Combined Operations. In combined opera- tions an integration of effort may be achieved by exercising CA control through a combined command.

g.
Military Authority. The scope of military authority varies with the locale and the situation and for convenience of discus- sion is broken down into three general categories:

(1)
Occupied Territory (AR 320-5). The commander of an occupying force has the right, within limits set by inter- national law, to demand and enforce such obedience from inhabitants of an occupied area as may be necessary for the accomplishment of his mission and the proper administration of an area.

(2)
     The law of war places limits on


Combat Zone (320-5).
the exercise of a belligerent's power in the interest of protecting combatants and noncombatants from un­nec'essary suffering and safeguarding certain funda­mental human rights. Commanders are required to refrain from employing any kind of violence not actually necessary for military purposes and to give due regard to the principles of humanity and chivalry.
(3)
    Other Areas. The terms of international agreements, regulations, and national policy as promulgated or in- terpreted by higher authority dictate the scope of au­thority in all other areas.

h.
Military Limitations. Civilian inhabitants have a right to freedom from unnecessary interferences with their individual liberties and their property rights. Members of US Armed Forces are individually and collectively responsible for compliance with all requirements of law and regulation affecting their relations with civil authorities and populations.

i.
Humanity, The principle of humanity prohibits use of any violence not actually necessary for the purpose of the war. War is no excuse for ignoring established humanitarian principles. Since all these principles have not become legal rules, a military commander must consider whether a proposed course of action will be humane even though it is not specifically prohibited.


AGO 6147B
j. Benefit of the Governed. Subject to requirements of the situation, government should be for the benefit of the governed. The CA organization assists the commander in carrying out those obligations imposed by treaty or international law respecting the government and inhabitants of territory in which U.S. Armed Forces are deployed.
5. Environmental Factors
a. Determination of Patterw. The pattern and objectives of CA operations in any place or with reference to any sphere of activity depend primarily on U.S. foreign and domestic policies articulating the national interest of the United States as conceived by duly constituted policy making agencies of government in light of legal, political, economic, social, and military factors affecting the security and welfare of the nation. Factors influencing policy formulation are not static, and they reflect such divergent vari- ables as domestic, industrial and agricultural resources, military requirements, the participation of allies in defensive alliances, the nature of the enemy operations and iqtentions, and other related factors. In the formulation and implementation of policy, it is essential that primary consideration be given to U.S. national objectives. Although a commander's first task may be destruction
'
of an enemy's forces, his subsequent responsibility for building peace may be of greater importance. A military command may be operational under any condition extending from peace through general war. Within this spectrunl civil affairs operations may be required under a wide variety of conditions including, with re- spect to-
(1)     Control or assistance measures
Developmental factors.
pertinent to the exercise of governmental functions in a highly developed area, with complex political, economic, and social systems, to like measures in an underdeveloped area.
(2)
    Duration. Protracted assistance or control measures ex- tending over several years or decades, pending resolu- tion of major political, economic, or military problems, to operations lasting but a short time prompted by tran- sitory emergency situations.

(3)
    Location. Control or assistance measures undertaken in foreign territory as differentiated from measures insti- tuted in domestic territory.

(4)
    Popular Response. Operations involving a vehemently hostile population to measures receiving the enthusiastic support of a loyal and cooperative population.


(5) Military Factors.
(a)     Operations in a society which has suffered total devas-
AGO 6147B
tation and disruption to measures taken in one that has been undamaged by warfare and associated effects.
(b)     
The unlimited use of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons to the employment of conventional weapons only.
(c)
    The use of Army groups of field armies in a general war to the use of small task forces in situations short of war.

(6)
     Control or assistance measures authorized


Legal Basec.
or required by express provision of positive law, as, for example, the Constitution, an Act of Congress, an inter- national agreement, a judicial decision, an executive order or departmental regulation having the force of law, to like measures undertaken under that unwritten prin- ciple of necessity known as "martial law" or equivalent legal principle made relevant because of the necessities of the case.
b. Implementation of Policy. The above environmental factors will require unprecedented flexibility and capabilities in CA or- ganization to assist Commanders. Implementation will require broad area and contingency planning and training in the entire range of CA command and functional operations, including-
(1)
    The conduct of CA activities such as civic action and support of contingency operations.

(2)
    Action to maintain public order or to provide for the welfare of the population, when requested by appropriate civil authority or by direction of the President, in civil emergencies resulting from enemy attack, disaster, epi- demic, disorder, or conditions threatening the successful functioning of duly constituted authority.

(3)
    Exercise of a minimal degree of authority granted by treaty or other agreement, express or implied, which may involve only a liaison relationship between the mili- tary commander and the civil population, government, and institutions of an area.

(4)
    Full or partial executive, legislative, and judicial au­thority over a country or area.


6. Range of Interest
a. A Continuing Factor. Civil affairs begin for a commander at the same instant a member of his command has contact with representatives of the civilian community, regardless of whether the contact is in continental United States or an oversea area and whether the United States is in a state of war, peace, or any of the in-between conditions categorized generally under the heading
AGO 6147B
of cold war. Organizations and emphases may vary, but the same general principles are applicable regardless of the situation. Mili- tary-civil relationships are a continuing factor of consideration in military operations. They may vary from a minimum of securing the least amount of civilian interference to obtaining a maximum of all-out civilian support for the military operation, but the de- gree of mutual cordiality, understanding, and support involved have a direct bearing on success or failure of the operation.
b. Diverse Relationships. Civil affairs relationships are varied and complex. No attempt will be made to summarize them all in this manual because, regardless of the situztion, similar criteria govern general military-civil relationships, and the variation is only in emphasis and degree. Among some of the military-civil status possibilities are-
(1)
Occupation of an enemy homeland.

(2)
    Occupation of liberated territory with or without a civil affairs agreement.

(3)
    Assignment in another country during peace or war on the basis of a status of forces, military assistance, or similar agreement.

(4)
    Disaster relief or invitational intervention on behalf of a foreign country, usually on the strength of a prior agreement.

(5)
    Show of force.

(6)
    Peacetime activities in the U.S. and possessions.

(7)
    Wartime activities in the U.S. and possessions.

(8)
    Assistance in civil defense, emergency, or disaster.

c.
Command Responsibility. It cannot be overemphasized that the conduct of civil affairs (military-civil relations) is as much a responsibility of command as the planning for and conduct of combat operations. Peacetime civil affairs, when regulations, laws, and agreements generally are more restrictive, impose prob- lems of coordination, liaison, and negotiation of greater difficulty and delicacy than more clearly defined wartime relationships.

d.
Aspects. Frequently the term "civil affairs" is misunder- stood, because in common usage it may have three distinct mean- ings: civil affairs concept, civil affairs operations, and civil affairs organization (staffs and units).

(1)
    The civil affairs concept (see definition in par. 2a) em­braces all military-civil relationships, whatever the locale, status of peace or war, or whether relationships involved are official or personal.

(2)
    Civil affairs operations (see definition in par. 2b) include activities of a military unit pointed toward support for, or the exercise of influence or control over, civilians and


10      AGO 6147B
civilian organizations outside the military establishment regardless of the participating section or unit. Some further amplification of the scope of civil affairs opera- tions follows in this section, but in general such key words as liaison, advice, negotiation, cooperation, super- vision, assistance, and control essentially summarize civil affairs operations.
(3)     Civil affairs organization, consisting of the staffs and units particularly designed and trained to supervise and conduct civil affairs operations, is an integral component of the military force. It supports army forces in the conduct of tactical military operations. It assists in ful- filling the military commander's legal obligations with respect to the inhabitants, government, and economy of the area. It serves as the military agency with primary concern for the attainment of ultimate national objec- tives and provides for the future transfer of certain CA activities to a designated agency of government. Other staff sections and units, in their dealings with civilian counterparts and representatives of the civilian commu- nity, also engage in military-civil relationships. This does not mean that the normal liaison and contractual functions of the technical and administrative services need necessarily constitute civil affairs operations, al- though some degree of civil affairs general staff interest will always be present and in oversea areas may be paramount.
7. Representative Military Activities in Civil Affairs
Since from a conceptual standpoint civil affairs is the inclusive total of all military-civil relationships no attempt will be made in this manual to enumerate every conceivable operational aspect of these relationships. As a guide for planning and training pur- poses, however, the following activities are typically representa- tive of civil affairs and constitute processes through which the functions are performed :
a. Liaison.
(1)
With staff sections and units within the command to which assigned or attached.

(2)
    With other Army units in the zone of CA responsibility of the command to which assigned or attached.

(3)
    With army units in contiguous zones of responsibility.

(4)
    With CA representatives of other services or allied mili- tary units.

(5)     
With other U.S. allied, and international governmental agencies in the area.

(6)
    With representatives in the apparatus of civilian gov- ernment.


b. Negotiation.
(1) With appropriate agencies of the civilian government over such matters as policing authority, legal jurisdic- tion, licensing, taxation, use of public facilities, registra- tions, applicability of laws and regulations, customs, religious practices, restrictions, and other similar phases of both personal and official relationships.
(2)         
With private civilian individuals and organizations con- cerning purchases, claims, contracts, rentals, member- ships, personal relationships between individuals, and other related matters.
(3)         allied and international military and
With civilian agencies over joint or parallel functions.
c. Participation.
(1)
    On joint military-civil councils and committees.

(2)
    In community relations and civic action type activities.


(3)         
In uni-service, joint, and combined exercises and train- ing programs insofar as CA instruction and emphasis are concerned.
d. Coordination.
(1) With other general and special staff officers and com­manders of subordinate units.
(2)         
Among functional civil affairs specialists and between
civilian counterparts and staff sections with related
interests.
(3)         
Between all military and civil agencies in areas of mutual concern.
(4)     With representatives of other U.S. governmental, allied, and international agencies and between these agencies and military command of assignment or attachment.
e. Support.
(1)
    For military forces from civilian labor and material re- sources.

(2)
    For civilians from military personnel, equipment, facili- ties, and supplies.


f. Advice.
(1)     To the commander on-
(a)         
Relationships with civil authorities and population.
(b)         operations or activities or contemplatedEffects of
operations or activities on civilian welfare and morale.
AGO 6147B
(c)
Effects     of      civilian laws, regulations, administrative processes, habits, activities, needs, and capabilities on his operations, missions, and subordinate personnel as individuals.

(d)
    ~elationshi~s'with


U.S. and allied agencies in civilian governmental capacities.
(e)
Procedures for handling non-U.S. labor.

(f)
    Treatment of civilians coming under his jurisdiction or control such as visitors, violators of regulatory documents, refugees, displaced persons, and evacuees.

(g)
All other matters concerned with affairs of his com- mand in respect to civilian relationships.

(2)
    To civil authorities on-

(a)
Needs and requirements of the military forces.


(b)     
Capabilities of military forces in cooperative ventures.
(c)
Rehabilitation procedures and processes.

(d)
    Civil defense and disaster measures.

(e)
Technical methods calculated to improve civilian econo- mies and social structure.

(3)
    To other staff sections and to subordinate units of the command on civil affairs matters.

g.
Control (when authorized) of-

(1)
The circulation of civilians.

(2)
    The agencies of government.

(3)
    Economic processes and civilianactivities or conditions which may affect operations.


8. Application of International Law
a. International law is usually regarded as having two branches, one dealing with the peaceful relations between states and the other concerned with armed hostilities between states. This division is not, however, absolute, and there are many facets of international relations that are difficult to regard as belonging to the law of peace or the law of war. Both branches as well as the undefined grey area in between apply to civil affairs relations. The law of peace deals with such matters as recognition of states and governments, jurisdiction, nationality, diplomatic protocol, the prerequisites for and construction of international agreements, and, generally, the practices and standards observed by friendly states in their mutual relations. Evidence of the law of peace is to be found in law making treaties, the decisions of interna- tional and national judicial bodies, the writings of jurists, diplo- matic correspondence, and other documentary material concern- ing the practice of states. The law of peace is particularly rele- vant to define the rights and obligations of a military force that
AGO     

6147B
 
is deployed in the territory of an allied state not only where there is a civil affairs agreement, but also where there is no applicable agreement or with respect to matters on which such agreement is silent.
b. The law of war governs such matters as the conduct of hostilities on land, in the sea, and in the air; the status and treatment of persons affected by hostilities, such as POW'S, the sick and wounded, and civilian persons; the occupation of enemy territory, flags of truce, armistices and surrender agreements, neutrality, and war crimes. The law of war is derived from two principal sources, law making treaties, such as the Hague and Geneva Conventions, and custom, a body of unwritten law that is firmly established by the practice of nations and well defined by recognized authorities on international law. Ordinarily, a pro­vision of an international agreement is binding on a state only to the extent that it has consented to be bound. However, a humanitarian principle enunciated in a law making treaty is bind- ing on a state even though it may have never agreed to or has repudiated the agreement containing the humanitarian rule in question. The law of war is inspired by the desire to diminish the evils of war by-
(1)
Protecting both combatants and noncombatants from unnecessary suffering;

(2)
    Safeguarding certain fundamental human rights of per- sons who fall into the hands of the enemy, particularly prisoners of war, the wounded and sick and civilians; and

(3)
    Facilitating the restoration of peace.

c.
In furtherance of these objectives, the law of war imposes limitations on the exercise of a belligerent's power and requires that belligerents refrain from employing any kind or degree of violence which is not actually necessary for military purposes and that they conduct hostilities with regard for the principles of humanity and chivalry. The law of war is binding not only upon states as such but also upon individuals and, in particular the members of their armed forces. The law of war is particularly relevant to civil affairs operations affecting an enemy population, not only during an occupation and a period of hostilities preced- ing an occupation, but also in situations in which an occupation of territory is not an objective of the conflict.

d.
The most important treaties and agreements applicable to civil affairs operations, to which the United States is a party, include the following:

(1)
With respect to agreements to which provisions of the law of peace are particularly relevant:


14      AGO 6147B
(a)
The Charter of      the United     Nations     (59 Stat. 1031, TS 993).

(b)
The NATO Status of Forces Agreement (4 UST 1794; TIAS 2846).

(2)
With respect to agreements to which the provisions of the law of war are particularly relevant:

(a)
Hague     Convention     IV of     October 1907, Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land (36 Stat. 2277, TS 539), and Annex Thereto, Embodying the Regula- tions Respecting tl e Laws and Customs of War on Land (36 Stat. 2295, TS 540), popularly known as the Hague Regulations.

(b)
The      1949 Geneva      Civilian     Conventions (Wounded and Sick-GWS) (TIAS 3362) ; (Wounded and Sick at Sea-GWF Sea) (TIAS 3363) ; (Prisoners of War -GPW) (TIAS 3364) ;Civilian Persons-GC) (TIAS 3365). For an interpretation of these and other pertinent law making treaties as well as an explanation of United States practice, see FM 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare (1956) ; for the text of the more im- portant agreements (see DA Pam 27-1,) Treaties Governing Land Warfare (1956) .

e.
Of these' agreements, the NATO Status of Forces Agreement is particularly significant because of the precedent it has estab- lished concerning the law applicable to visiting military forces when they are in the territory of a friendly state. The Hague Regulations are important because they are regarded as declara- tory of law applicable between belligerents. The 1949 Conven- tions supplement the Hague Regulations, which by their literal terns applied only to a "war" between parties signatory thereto, by broadening the scope of the Treaty law to cover not only "war" but also "any other armed conflict" and "any partial or total occupation," involving their signatories (see FM 27-10). An international agreement of particular significance to CA personnel is the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. The United States became a signatory to this agreement at the Hague in 1954. This Convention outlines the measures which armed forces shall take in the preservation of historical, cultural, and scientific properties in any enemy ter- ritory. As CA personnel will have principal responsibility for measures to be taken concerning cultural property, they should be thoroughly familiar with the legal obligations of the United States respecting artistic objects, archives, monuments, shrines, and other types of cultural property.


AGO 6147B     
9. Phasing of Civil Affairs
a.
Responsibility for the conduct of civil affairs is an integral aspect of military command (see par. 6 and 7). The degree of emphasis and the nature of activities in which military forces become directly involved are as diversified as the scope of func- tional and geographical areas, political climate, and national policy. Figure 1, graphically demonstrates the varying parameters of the civil affairs function, depending upon the varying politico- military aspects of the international scene. Transition from peace to war or from war to peace is a process that influences the character of military-civil relationships and affixes responsibilities for the performance of those specific civil affairs functions covered in chapter 2.

b.
During a static period of peace military relationships with the civilian population fall primarily in the area of liaison and co- ordination necessary to effect long and well established mutual support with civilian authorities retaining paramount authority and control. When hostilities are in progress, the civilian govern- mental apparatus frequently requires military reenforcement to insure continuity of those normal civilian functions requisite for the maintenance of civilian order, livelihood, and institutions and, reciprocally, expanded military forces need increased civilian support.

c.
The military organization diverts only those resources and takes only those measures in its dealings with civil authorities and population essential to its mission and dictates of national policy. As hostilities cease or the emergency is terminated and the agencies of civilian government and administration are re- constituted, responsibility for many civil affairs functions is transferred to civilian authorities and agencies (transition "A" in fig. 1). This entails an ultimate, if not a parallel, shift in responsibility for proponency and liaison and from the military to the State Department or other U.S. governmental agency in matters of policy and functional relationships between govern- ments and people concerned.

d.
When U.S. Armed Forces are stationed in oversea areas on training, security, or emergency assignments, particularly where political and economic stability is lacking, the divisive potential among different U.S. agencies present is considerable during the grey area of Transition "B". If several U.S. governmental de- partments are involved in such matters as budgeting, program- ming, and supervising, vital problems can only be prevented or resolved by complete objectivity, a mutual understanding of capa- bilities, and the closest of coordination among agencies concerned.


16 AGO 614iB
CIVIL AFFAIRS IN
 
TIME PHASES
 



PEACETIME
RELATIONSHIP TO CIVIL GOVERNMENT (POLITICAL -ECONOMIC-
SOCIAL MATTERS)- A PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY OF DESIGNATED
 
US AGENCIES SUPPORTED BY THE MILITARY
 

Figure 1. Civil aflairs in lime phases..
AGO 6147B
 

CHAPTER 2
 
CIVIL AFFAIRS FUNCTIONS
 
10.     General
a.
For purposes of training, research, planning, and opera- tional effectiveness CA is administered on a functional basis, with areas of specialization arranged into categories generally adap- table to the diverse socio-politico-economic ramifications of civilian communities. Each function is related to a certain extent to every other function, and their interlocking relationships do not permit assignment of exclusive interest to any one functional area. Extensive liaison and coordination are also required with other military units, particularly Intelligence, Military Police, Engi- neers, Signal, Medical, and Quartermaster. In CA operations, aside from purposes of organization and training, the functional breakdown is not arbitrary but is designed to provide sufficient flexibility to fit the special requirement of any area or situation.

b.
In applying these functions in any foreign land, commanders must be constantly alert to avoid projection of an organizational concept from U.S., state, or local forms previously encountered. By way of illustration, in many foreign countries the following functions are commonly assigned to postal ministries in addition to responsibility for "carrying the mails":


(1)
    Telephone service.

(2)
    Telegraph service.

(3)
    Radio service.

(4)
    Bus transportation. This is a mechanized retention of the original postal service-the stage coach.

(5)
    Commercial banking. This includes checking accounts, fund transfers, and other transactions in addition to sav- ings deposits.

c.
Included in the areas of specialization are those functions normally related to government; utilities and services, whether private or public; the range of economic matters covering such categories as manufacture, distribution, and sale of goods, in- cluding agriculture products, money and banking; and other as- pects of civilian communities associated with communications media, displaced persons, cultural and documentary collections, education, religion, and the gamut of sociological institutions. For purposes of discussion in this manual twenty-one separate functions are considered, although the number could be increased or contracted depending on the mission and operational circum- stances.


18      AGO 6147B
d. Reflecting a type organization, individual functions more nearly related are consolidated into four general categories, Gov- ernmental, Economic, Public Facilities, and Special. The break- down of activities within each function is predicated upon situa- tions where the military commander exercises full control to illustrate complete application. Lesser degrees of authority and scope of mission will entail correspondingly lesser activity in each function, but to some extent, in a11 conditions of peace and war, commanders are directly concerned with the following func- tions:
(1)
Governmental.

(a)
Civil Government

(b)
Legal

(c)
Public Safety

(d)
Public Health

(e)
Public Welfare

(f)
Public Finance

(g)
Public Education

(h)
Labor

(2)
Economic.

(a)
Economics

(b)
Commerce and Industry

(c)
Food and Agriculture

(d)
Price Control and Rationing

(e)
Property Control

(f)
Civilian Supply

(3)
Public Facilities

(a)
Public Works and Utilities

(b)
Public Communications

(c)
Public Transportation

(4)
Special

(a)
Civil Information

(b)
Displaced Persons

(c)
Arts, Monuments, and Archives

(d)
Religious Affairs


1 1. Governmental Functions
Included in this grouping of functions are those dealing with matters customarily involving governmental activity or control. The general areas of concern include the organization and con- duct of local government, political activities; review, advice, or correction of civil officials in accordance with competent directives, and implementation of policy decisions with respect to control or other relationships with government in the area of operations.
a. Civil Government. This function is concerned with the
AGO 6147B
structure and conduct of local government. It encompasses methods of establishing legislative and executive agencies from national to local levels and the processes of these agencies in the administration of civil government. Included are such considera- tions as political. parties, eligibility for franchise, elections, ten- ure, and all other aspects of the development and operation of the apparatus of government. Commanders having area respon- sibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, as appropriate, with­
(1)
Surveying governmental organization at all levels.

(2)
    Surveying lines of authority and influence having im- pact on political matters.

(3)
    Analyzing effectiveness of existing agencies of govern- ment or social control.

(4)
Studying effectiveness of governmental officials and em- ployees and of other community leaders; removing per- sons who are inimical to the United States or who are not in sympathy with its policies and objectives, and securing the appointment of leaders who will further desired programs.

(5)
Negotiating to gain support or cooperation for United States forces.

(6)
    Recommending organization, functioning, staffing, and authority of agencies of government or social control.

(7)
    Advising, conducting liaison with, supervising, control- ling, or replacing organs of government.

(8)
    Participating on joint commissions, committees, or coun- cils concerned with governmental affairs.

b.
Legal. This function is concerned with the legal system of the area and the application of international law in CA operations. Commanders having CA area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, as appropriate with-

(1)
Translation of the legal aspect of CA operations into plans and directives.

(2)
    Analysis and interpretation of the civil and criminal laws of the territory, particularly restraints imposed upon the civil populace.

(3)
    Study of the organization of the judicial system includ- ing determination of legal status and jurisdiction of civil courts and law.

(4)
Review of the local organization of the bar and deter- mination of reliability of its members.

(5)
Examination of locally accepted forms of judicial pro- cedure including rules of evidence and rights of. the accused.


AGO G147B
(6)
    Assistance to commanders and staffs in the preparation of proclamations, ordinances, orders and directives, and as otherwise may be required.

(7)
    The establishment of necessary civil affairs tribunals and other judicial and administrative agencies, includ- ing their number, types, jurisdiction, procedures, and delegation of appointing authority.

(8)
    The closure or reopening of local tribunals, including courts, boards, and commissions; their jurisdiction, or­ganization and procedure, and the class of cases triable therein.

(9)
    Recommendations concerning the suspension or abro­gation of laws and procedural rules applicable to local courts.

(10)
    Recommendations concerning the alteration, suspension, or promulgation of laws to include civil legislation for the government of the area in which military forces are deployed. It may be necessary to deny enforcement effect to local legislation or to adopt new laws essential to the control of the area in question and the protection of


U.S. forces. Such legislation must conform to applicable provisions of U.S. law and international law as, for example, the 1949 Geneva Civilian Convention.
(11)
    Supervision of the administration of civil and criminal laws by local officials.

(12)
    Provision of members for civil affairs tribunals.

(13)
    Review or administrative examination of cases tried in CA courts before referral to higher headquarters for final review.

(14)
    Arrangements for transmittal of civilian claims against the United States to the proper agency.

c.
Public Safety. This function is basic in CA operations and includes, in addition to the establishment and maintenance of public order and safety, the coordination of civil defense plans and measures with the military plans for rear area defense and damage control. Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged as appropriate, with-

(1)
Examination of the customary method of announcing regulations concerning conduct of the people and of those law enforcement methods having traditional re­spect among the civilian population.

(2)
    Study of the organization, capabilities, equipment, and functioning of existing law and order agencies, confine- ment facilities, civil defense, and fire-fighting agencies.


AGO 6117B     
(3)     
Analysis of the character of the population with respect to orderliness and obedience to law.

(4)
    Coordination with counterintelligence elements of the Intelligence Corps in the prevention and detection of espionage, sabotage, subversion, and civilian aid to guer- rilla activities.

(5)
    Preparation of plans, procedures, and recommendations for restoring law and order.

(6)
    Supervision of those civilian agencies which enforce law and maintain order with particular attention to looting, rioting, control of liquor and narcotics; collec- tion and disposition of weapons, explosives, and imple- ments of war in the hands of civilians, and the enforce- ment of regulatory and other measures of the occupant.

(7)
    Assurance of proper posting of proclamations and notices.

(8)
    Enforcement of orders relating to security control of the civil population, including, as necessary, establish- ment and operation of a pass system, registration of individuals, check points, curfew, communications, regu- lations, control of assembly, and arrest of wanted per- sons.

(9)
    Establishment, supervision, and strengthening of exist- ing local organizations for civilian safety and protection in order to provide for natural disaster, air raid warn- ing, blackout shelter, fire fighting, evacu~.tion, demoli- tion, and related activities.

(10)
    Coordination and integration of civil defense measures with rear area security and damage control plans and supervision over civilian activities in integrated plans.

(11)
    Arrangements for warning service and other military assistance for civilian protection and recovery.

(12)
    Supervision of administration of jails and prisons.

(13)
    Requisition and issuance of required police and fire de- partment equipment in accordance with approved poli- cies.

(14)
    Activities regarding impounding or safeguarding sup- plies, materials, equipment, buildings, or areas as may be required for any civil affairs function or activity.

(15)
    Determination of suitability of government employees and public officials.

d.
Public Health. This function is concerned with measures to preserve or restore the state of public health and to protect the health of military forces. Due to the changed nature of mod- ern war, it has now been provided by the Geneva Civilian Con-


AGO G147B
vention of 1949 that belligerents must protect the wounded, sick, aged, children, and expectant mothers from the effects of war. This Convention also provides that civilian hospitals and medical transportation facilities are entitled to the same protection from attack as is provided for military medical units and facilities. Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, as appropriate, with-
(1)
    Analysis of organization and functions of public health and sanitation agencies.

(2)
    Survey of adequacy of medical, paramedical, and aux- iliary personnel, medical, and sanitation facilities.

(3)
    Preparation of estimates of requirements for additional medical personnel, medical supplies, and materials re­quired to maintain minimum facilities.

(4)
    Provisions for the prevention, control, and treatment of endemic and epidemic diseases, e.g., malaria and insect control.

(5)
    Measures for the restoration and protection of food and water supplies.

(6)
    Measures for the disposal of sewage and waste.

(7)
    Arrangements for the treatment of sick and wounded civilians, including provisions for medical assistance by military units when required for humanitarian reasons.

(8)
    Promulgaton of local orders directing that civilians observe such other medical and sanitary measures as are deemed necessary.

(9)
    Supervision of civilian public health officials in the en- forcement of public health laws and the performance of public health services.

(10)
    Retention, removal, or appointment of public health officials.

(11)
    Plans and recommendations for rehabilitation or recon- struction of hospitals and other civilian medical facili- ties.

(12)
    Requisitions pursuant to established policy and issuance to civilian medical facilities and sanitation agencies of military medical and sanitary supplies.

(13)
    Recommendations regarding safeguarding supplies and facilities.

(14)
    Collection and burial of civilian and animal dead and maintenance of necessary records.

(15)
    Supervision, restoration, and maintenance of public health facilities and records.

e.
Public Welfare. This function is concerned with emergency and continuing relief measures essential to public order and wel-


AGO 6147B     
fare, including supervision and coordination of relief activities and welfare measures, supervision and control of public and pri- vate welfare institutions. Included are public and private insti- tutions for the care of children, the aged and handicapped, and miscellaneous charitable and relief organizations. Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged with such matters as the following:
(1)
    Analysis of public and private welfare institutions and applicable public law.

(2)
    Estimate of requirements for public welfare activities.

(3)
    Supervision of administration of public welfare laws and the regulation of public and private charitable insti- tutions.

(4)
    Plans for military assistance in public welfare activities.

(5)
    Supervision over voluntary agencies and contributions from such sources.

(6)
    Preparation and coordination of the public welfare por- tions of area defense and evacuation plans.

(7)
    Estimation of requirements, requisitions according to established policy, and supervision of distribution of relief supplies from military sources.

(8)
    Supervision of emergency shelter and feeding centers for indigenous civilians.

(9)
    Recommendations far safeguarding appropriate estab- lishments.

f.
Public Finance. This function is of vast importance in the conduct of economic welfare and economic stabilization measures and assists in reducing support contributions by the United States. It includes control, supervision, and audit of fiscal resources; budget practices, taxation, expenditures of public funds, currency issues, and the banking agencies and affiliates. It is essential that the function be performed in an integrated and uniform manner within each national area. Commanders having area responsi­bility, their staffs, and CA units may be charged with tasks such as­

(1)
Analysis of taxation systems and other sources of reve- nue, governmental expenditures, and estimates of ade- quacy of public funds for performance of governmental functions.

(2)
    Review of public laws and agencies regulating banking and financing.

(3)
    Analysis of financial structures including types and conditions of financial institutions.

(4)
    Analysis of types and amounts of circulating currencies,


AGO 6147B
acceptance by population of such currencies, and current foreign exchange rates.
(5)
    Recommendations as to designation of type of circulat- ing local currency.

(6)
    Recommendations as to provisions for military currency.

(7)
    Recommendations as to establishment of currency ex­change rates.

(8)
    Establishment and enforcement of restrictions on ex­portation of currencies.

(9)
    Recommendations for control of foreign exchange.

(10)
    Establishment of controls over budget, taxation, expendi- tures, and public funds and determination of appropriate fiscal accounting procedures.

(11)
    Reestablishment or revision of taxation systems in ac- cordance with policy directives.

(12)
    Liquidation, reorganization, opening, or closing of banks.

(13)
    Supervision over credit and provisions for credit needs.

(14)
    Regulation or supervision of governmental fiscal agencies, banks, credit cooperatives, and other financial institutions.

(15)
    Recommendations for advances of funds to governmental or private financial institutions.

(16)
    Recommendations as to emergency declaration of debt suspensions for specific types of debis.

(17)
    Recommendations for protection of public and private financial institutions and safeguarding funds, securities, and financial records.

g.
Public Education. This function is concerned with the super- vision of educational programs and institutions and public librar- ies within the area of operations. This includes the closing or establishment of public or private schools, determination of curric- ula, and selection of administrative and instructor personnel. Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA


,
units are charged, as appropriate, with-
(1)
Survey and analysis of school facilities, applicable laws, courses of study, procedures for training and selection of teachers, and text books.

(2)
    Recommendations for changes necessary to comply with national policy, e.g., screening teachers or changing text- books.

(3)
    Determination and enforcement of restrictions on the utilization of school facilities, e.g., prohibition against billeting in school buildings when other facilities are available.


AGO 6147B     
(4)
    Supervision of administration, safeguarding of records, and conduct of inspections of schools.

(5)
    Requisition and issuance of materials and supplies for use in schools.

(6)
    Removal of civilian personnel engaged in public educa- tion who are inimical to the United States or are not in sympathy with its policies and objectives.

h.
Labor. This function is concerned with assistance to, liaison and coordination with and, in appropriate cases, supervision, con- trol, or operation of governmental and private agencies and institutions concerned with labor. In addition to activities in the labor field directed primarily to the local economy, the CA or- ganization effects arrangements .to provide labor needs of the military forces in accordance with policies established by higher authorities and applicable provisions of law. Procurement of labor, training, relocation, housing, safety standards, policies respecting wages and hours, unemployment subsidies, compensa- tion for injuries and the like, may be governed by an applicable civil affairs agreement. Civil affairs operations subject to the provisions of the Hague Regulations and the 1949 Geneva Con- ventions, particularly the Civilian and POW Conventions, will pose special problems for civil affairs officers (see FM 27-10). Also of possible application are provisions of United States law and of local lzw relating to labor. The varying legal norms that may be applicable to civil affairs activities concerned with labor and the dual nature of the commander's responsibility as it re- lates to his own and the local economy's labor requirements combine to make the labor function of major importance. All facets of the labor function require the maximum of coordinating and planning effort. Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, for example, with-

(1)
Plans for use of labor.

(2)
Determination of labor availability and procedures for procurement of labor for authorized types of work.

(3)
    Review of applicable laws and policies respecting labor and review of status, operation, and effectiveness of local agencies, institutions, and organizations concerned with labor matters.

(4)
    Analysis of labor relations including studies of labor organizations and labor relations between employers and employees.

(5)
    Determination of extent and means of control or super- vision over labor markets and labor organizations.

(6)
Recommendations     as to priority of utilization of labor in rehabilitation of the economy.


26      AGO G147B
(7) Recommendations concerning utilization of civilian labor
to include-
(a) Wage controls including pay scales and schedules of hours of work.
(b)     
Labor relations including medical care and compensa-
tion.
(c)     
Payment of wages.
(8)
Recommendations as to changes in pertinent labor laws, regulations, policies, and practices.

(9)
    Coordination with governmental labor procurement agencies.


12.     Economic Functions
This grouping of functions includes those particularly con­cerned with the economic aspects of an area. The functions are of significance in considerations respecting support rendered the military effort and requirements for military support to the civilian economy. They require decisions from governmental agencies concerned and coordinated planning to insure integration of the functions in overall operations.
a. Economics. This function includes the general matters per- taining to the economy of an area, including specialized economic functions of civil affairs for which appropriate specialized person- nel are not otherwise available. Commanders having area re­sponsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, for example, with­
(1)
Development of plans for the maintenance, preserva- tion, rehabilitation, or restmation of the local economy.

(2)
    Determination of the availability of local resources for military use.

(3)
    Determination of location, type, and availability of na- tural resources.

(4)
    Economic stabilization measures.

(5)
    Preparation or implementation of economic warfare plans.

(6)
    Surveys of legal provisions applicable to economic mat- ters and public and private agencies and institutions concerned with economic activities.

(7)
    Determination of those business activities essential to the

continued production and distribution .of essential goods and services.

(8)
Compilation and analysis of statistics on domestic and foreign trade.

(9)
    Information and advice to local business and commercial


AGO 6147B     
institutions concerning policies of the military com­mander.
(10)
    Preparation of requirements for materials to be diverted to military use in accordance with policy guidance pub- lished by higher headquarters and applicable require- ments of law (see FM 27-10 and DA Pam 27-1).

(11)
    Determination of specific types of business enterprises including brokerage houses, markets, and banks to be opened or closed, taking into account policies of higher headquarters and applicable provisions of law.

(12)
    Recommendations on allocation of resources between military and civilian needs and between areas, indus- tries, and plants.

(13)
    Provisions of bonuses, subsidies, and price adjustments to encourage production and movement of required goods and materials.

(14)
    Restrictions on exports or imports.

b.
Commerce and Industry. This function is concerned with developing local commerce and industry in accordance with an- nounced objectives, thus coordinating the commercial activities and industrial production of the area. Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, as appro- priate, with-

(1)
    Surveys of basic and essential commercial activities and industries of the area.

(2)
    Surveys of industrial potential.

(3)
    Determination of means of production and distribution considered essential for military or civilian use in ac- cordance with policy directives.

(4)
    Determination of requirements for machinery, raw ma- terials, and supplies from other than local sources.

(5)
    Determination of means for the development and use of natural resources.

(6)
    Measures to insure production of desired products.

(7)
    Supervision of commercial and industrial activities in- cluding foreign trade.

(8)
    Supervision of natural resources extraction.

(9)
    Recommendations for safeguarding materials, equip­ment, and facilities.

c.
Food and Agriculture. This function is concerned with the stimulation of food production and processing so as to eliminate or reduce requirements for shipment of food products for con- sumption both by military forces and the civil population. Long range planning may of necessity be subordinated to the need for early production. In general, local customs and farming


28      AGO 6147B
practices should be considered together with sound agricultural principles. Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, as appropriate, with-
(1)
    Surveys of agricultural production, farming methods conservation of lands and forests, food storage, marine food resources, and food processing.

(2)
    Surveys to determine the location of food surplus and deficit areas.

(3)
    Recommendations on degree of control of all govern- mental food and agriculture offices.

(4)
    Estimate of food requirements, agricultural production, and probable deficit during the period of operations.

(5)
    Estimate of requirements for food, fertilizer, and farm machinery from other areas or military sources.

(6)
    Measures to encourage earliest possible resumption of agricultural production.

(7)
    Recommendations as to restrictions on civilian circula- tion and transportation of non-essential supplies to per- mit distribution and movement of required agricultural supplies and equipment.

(8)
    Recommendations as to measures to avoid requisitioning the labor of farmers during critical periods, e.g., seeding and harvesting of grain crops.

(9)
    Recommendations for safeguarding supplies and equip- ment.

d.
Price Control and Rationing. This function includes meas- ures to insure the equitable and effective distribution of essential commodities. Control of prices, rationing, and other related restrictions may be required, from the initiation of operations in occupied territory, to prevent hoarding, inflation, black-market- ing, and diversionary activities injurious to the objectives sought. Commanders having responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are responsible for-

(1)
    Examination of price control and rationing measures instituted by the existing government to determine ex- tent and effectiveness thereof.

(2)
    Supervision of policies and officials in price control and rationing.

(3)
    Procedures to control and allocate imported supplies to uses which will further the objectives of the occupa- tion.

(4)
    Measures to prevent exportation of supplies needed in the occupied area.

(5)
    Restrictions to prevent purchases by troops of supplies required by the civilian population and to prohibit the


AGO 6147B     
sale by troops to civilians of items which harm the local economy.
(6)     and enforcement of measures for the
Determination control of rent and rationing of dwelling space and other scarce real estate.
e. Property Control. This function serves to protect property within established limits and to preserve negotiable assets and resources. It is based on a uniform and orderly system for the custody and control of property. Commanders having area re- sponsibility, their staffs, and CA units may be charged with-
(1)
Recommendations as to policies and procedures concern- ing the custody and administration of property.

(2)
    Review of types or classes of property to be taken into custody and analysis of civil laws pertaining to such property.

(3)
    Preparation of schedules of property to be placed under military controls as determined by policy directives, including­

(a)
    Property owned by enemy governments or nationals of those governments.

(b)
    Property of allied governments over which temporary control will be assumed.

(c)
    Private property susceptible of military use.

(4)
    Control and administration of certain categories of prop-

erty designated for control, appointing custodians where necessary.

(5)
    Protection of all records of title, transfers, and other property transactions.


(6)     
Review of evidence available to determine ownership.
(7)     Maintenance of registers for supplies and property transferred from civilian sources to military units.
f . Civilian Supply.
(1) Civilian supply will ordinarily be a primary problem in any civil affairs operations; it is related to virtually every other function of civil affairs. Because of the close interplay between the military and the civilian communities, the success of the military effort will fre- quently depend upon the degree to which a civilian pop- ulation affected by military operations can sustain itself or even contribute to the military effort. In a civil affairs relation governed by a specific civil affairs agreement, the military commander's responsibilities for logistical support to the civilian economy and, correspondingly, the measure of the local population's contribution to the military effort will be defined by the agreement. Even
AGO 6147B
30     
 

where the scope of the civil affairs operation is clearly defined by agreement there will be instances where the necessities of the case will require additional measures to ameliorate civilian supply deficiencies. Operations conducted in friendly territory in the absence of an agreement, or in domestic territory, or in hostile terri- tory, will in each case present problems in civilian sup- ply peculiar to the circumstances. The measure of a military commander's duty to assist in the maintenance of food and medical supplies and other commodities essential to the health and well being of the inhabitants is circumscribed by the necessities of the case taking account of the commander's own resources and capa- bilities.
(2)     Specific treaty requirements may cast upon a com­mander the burden of bringing in to an area affected by military operations necessary foodstuffs, medical stores, and other articles essential to the sustenance of life if the local resources are inadequate. (See Articles 55 and 56 of the 1949 Geneva Civilian Convention.) Like obligations may be imposed by provisions of United States law or policy directives from higher authority. For civilian supply activities involving procurement with appropriated funds, see DA Pam. 27-153, Procurement Law .(1961). Efficient and resourceful civilian supply measures will advance all other objectives of the civil affairs operation. In addition to emergency relief sup- plies of whatever source, this function concerns supplies for use in or the enhancement of the civilian economy. Goods and services may be obtained from governmental organizations and individuals by voluntary contributions, purchase, requisitions, confiscation, seizure, condemna- tion, or other method sanctioned by law and applied to such military or civilian needs as may be authorized or required by applicable provisions of law. Civilian supplies may be obtained from adjacent surplus areas within the country in which the military forces are de- ployed, from neighboring countries, or from the Zone of the Interior. Types of supplies that may be approved for issue from military stocks consist principally of food, clothing, engineer equipment to insure operation
of essential utilities, medical supplies, transportation equipment, fuel, and lubricants. Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, for example with the following:
AGO 6147B     
(a)     
Planning activities on the basis of strategic-logistic
studies.
(b)     normal standards of living, including
Surveying
health and dietary factors.
(c)
    Reviewing agricultural and industrial patterns of the area to determine the effects of administrative poli- cies on civilian supplies.

(d)
    Estimating adequacy of available civilian supplies.

(e)
    Making recommendations as to movements of essen­tial civilian supplies, particularly food and fuel, from surplus to deficit areas.

(f)
    Recommending supplies which should be made avail- able from military sources and allocations to be made of such supplies.

(g)
    Making recommendations as to supplies available for military use from civilian sources in accordance with the rules of international law.

(h)
    Negotiating with civilians to obtain support for mili- tary units.

(i)
Insuring coordination of transportation facilities for the distribution of civilian supplies.


(j)     
Analyzing the organization of collecting and distrib- uting agencies handling essential supplies.
(k)
    Purchasing, requisitioning, drawing, or otherwise ac- quiring, warehousing, and accomplishing distribution of civilian supplies in accordance with established policies and applicable requirements of law.

(1)
    Establishing and maintaining civilian supply records.

(m)
    Conducting liaison with supply agencies to insure that military supplies are provided for civilian use as approved by the commander.

(n)
Assuring adequate safeguarding of essential civilian supplies.


13.     Public Facilities Functions
Included in this group of functions are three related fields which generally can be considered on a national scale, although important subsidiary activities, particularly in utilities and trans- port, may be of special interest on the local level. These areas are of marked importance because of the probable direct utiliza- tion of their resources and support by military forces.
a. Public Works and Utilities. This function is concerned with the supervision and operation, where required, of such facilities as buildings, dams, water, gas, waste disposal, electrical, and other power systems, and restoration or introduction of such
32      AGO G147B
services. Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, as appropriate, with-
(1)
Survey of the organization and capabilities of key in- stallations including extent of damage.

(2)
    Analysis of the organization, functions, and authority of regulatory agencies.

(3)
    Recommendations as to the desired extent of operation of civilian facilities by military agencies.

(4)
    Determination of requirements of public utilities for labor, technical assistance, replacement parts, and fuel.

(5)
    Recommendations as to the allocation of public utilities for civilian and military use.

(6)
    Recommendations regarding police protection of essen- tial facilities.

(7)
    Requisitions of military supplies and materials through civilian supply channels to aid in rehabilitating public works and utilities.

(8)
    Supervision over facilities released from military to civilian control.

(9)
    Acquirement of essential public utilities services from military sources.

b.
Public Communications. This function is concerned with the supervision of the postal services and of those civil communi- cation facilities not under the direct military control of the signal officer. Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, as appropriate, with-

(1)
Analysis of the location, functions, means, and tech- niques of communication facilities and postal services existing in the territory.

(2)
    Study and supervision of the organization and adminis- tration of civilian communications. For example, postal services are often organized and administered in con­junction with telephone and telegraph services.

(3)
    Review of existing international agreements relative to communications.

(4)
    Analysis of requirements for communication parts and material and determination as to whether such require- ments can be supplied locally or whether other sources must be utilized.

(5)
    Review of the organization, authority, and functions of regulatory bodies.

(6)
    Study of requirements for and availability of civilian technical specialists.

(7)
    Recommendations as to the extent communication fa- cilities should be controlled, supervised, or operated by


AGO 6147B     
the technical services, the CA organization, or other units.
(8)
    Recommendations, in accordance with policy directives, as to the allocation of communication facilities between military and civilian use and determination of alternate means of communications available to support the local administration in the event facilities are required for military use.

(9)
    Control, supervision, or operation, in accordance with established policies, of civil communications facilities and postal services.

(10)
    Requisitions, in accordance with policy directives, of military supplies and equipment for rehabilitation and operation of communications facilities.

(11)
    Recommendations as to measures for protection of es­sential communications facilities.

(12)
    Supervision of return to civilian control of facilities no longer required for military use.

c.
Public Transportation. This function is concerned with supervising those transportation facilities which remain under or are transferred to the civil government or private operators. The railways, highways, airways, and waterways form a system of public transportation, and this system must serve our armed forces as well as the civilian economy of a country. Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, as appropriate, with-

(1)
    Survey of the organization, routes, and capacities of the transportation system including extent of damage and requirements for restoration.

(2)
    Analysis of the organization, powers, and functions of regulatory agencies.

(3)
    Recommendations as to the desired extent of operation of the civilian transportation system by the military agencies.

(4)
    Determination of requirements of civilian transporta- tion system for labor, technical, engineer or other assist- ance, replacement parts, and fuel.

(5)
    Recommendations as to the allocation of transportation facilities for civilian or military use and coordination of such recommendations with the appropriate military agencies, e.g., operation of railways by the area military railway service or airlines by the Air Force.

(6)
    Arrangements for police protection of essential trans- portation facilities and installations.

(7)
    Requisitions, in accordance with policy directives, of


AGO 6147B
military supplies, fuel, and materials for use in rehabili- tating and operating transportation facilities.
(8)
    Acquirement of minimum essential transportation facili- ties for civilian use and assessment of civilian facilities available for military use.

(9)
    Supervision over facilities released from military to civilian control.


14.     Special Functions
These functions are concerned with people, their rights as individuals; their culture, religion, care, protection, and control. Planned direction and constant supervision are essential to uni- formity of operations and to the successful accomplishment of activities within this category.
a. Civil Information. The function of civil information is con- cerned with the operation of public communication media, such as the press, radio, motion pictures, and postal services. To assist in the conduct of this function, psychological warfare personnel may be attached to CA units to support CA operations (see FM 33-5). Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, as appropriate, with-
(1),Survey and analysis of available information media.
(2)
    Studies of the facilities employed to disseminate infor- mation to the people, the type and extent of the informa- tion disseminated, and the degree of its acceptance by the people.

(3)
    Preparation, distribution, and dissemination of informa- tion through Armed Forces radio stations and civilian information media.

(4)
    Recommendation of procedures for and supervision of civilian information media, including review and censor- ship of material to be disseminated.

(5)
    Removal of those civilian personnel, engaged in the op- eration of information media, who are inimical to the United States or not in sympathy with its policies and objectives.

(6)
    Recommendations regarding measures for protection of physical facilities of information media, e.g., newspaper plants and radio stations.

(7)
    Requisition, protection, and issuance of supplies includ- ing newsprint, ink, and radio parts.

(8)
    Coordination of civil information activities.

b.
Displaced Persoas, Refugees, and Evacuees. This function is concerned with the control, care, repatriation or resettlement of displaced persons, refugees, and evacuees. Consideration must


AGO 6147B     
be given during the course of military operations to the deliberate movement by the enemy of refugees, evacuees, and displaced per- sons into friendly areas of operations. Failure to control the movement of such persons may seriously interfere with the ac- complishment of the tactical mission. Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, as appro- priate, with-
(1)
Survey and analysis to determine-

(a)
Estimated numbers      of      displaced persons, refugees, and evacuees together with routes of movement to selected assembly points.

(b)
    Languages, customs, and attitudes of the people con- cerned.

(c)
Adequacy of facilities and local supplies in the area in which such persons will be found.

(d)
    Probable desires of such persons.

(e)
Attitudes and policies of the governments of the native countries toward such persons.

(f)
    Acceptability of such persons as immigrants to other nations.

(2)
    Preparation of plans for control and supervision of the welfare of refugees, displaced persons, and evacuees (movement, housing, feeding, and medical service) and administrative processing thereof.

(3)
    Operation and administration of refugee camps and planning for required construction.

(4)
    Requisition and issuance of supplies for support of refugee camps.

(5)
    Maintenance of liaison with appropriate agencies regard- ing plans to repatriate, resettle, or move displaced per- sons and refugees.

c.
Arts, Monuments, and Archives. This function, in its broad aspects, seeks to protect the traditional culture, customs, and arts of an area. It is specifically concerned with maintenance or estab- lishment of protective measures for cultural property such as important religious edifices, monuments, and movable objects including archeological, historic, scientific, and artistic objects and collections. (See FM27-10, DA Pam 27-1, and App XXIII.) This function also includes duties and tasks concerned with safe- guarding and accounting for archives and official public records. The function may include concern with cultural patterns and respect for local customs and traditions. Commanders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, as appro- priate, with-


AGO 6147B
(1)
    Surveying and preparing-

(a)
    Lists of individual objects of fine arts and monuments known or believed to be in the territory, showing their location and the names of persons or organizations having custody thereof.

(b)
     of repositories of archives, museums of art,


Lists
libraries, and collections of archives and objects of fine
arts showing their locations and caretakers.
(c)
    Lists of names of known authorities on fine arts and archives within the country.

(2)
    Preparing and publishing directives and instructions concerning the care and protection of fine arts, monu- ments, libraries, archives, and other objects of historical and cultural value.

(3)
    Advising commanders and other staff sections concern- ing fine arts, monuments, libraries, archives, and records that are or will be uncovered.

(4)
    Locating, identifying, ascertaining ownership, and safe- guarding objects of fine art, monuments, libraries, archives, and records.

(5)
    Requesting technical services for such logistical support and technical assistance as may be required and author- ized.

(6)
    Recommending return of property to rightful owners.


I---------­
' Signature of bearer
I Photo of or fingerprints or
r bearer 1 both
I I
I
I




w     v
IDmmm          I
 I
 I
 
for personnel engaged in the
 protection of cultural property
 
,E665s&d
stamp',Surname bf authorit$
First names \ issuing I Date of Birth \, card ,'Title or Rank
..
Function      --1'
 
is the bearer of this card under the
 terms of the Convention of the JIague,
 
Height Eyes Hair dated 14 May, 1954, for the Protection of Cultural Property in the event of Armed Conflict.     
Other distinguishing marks
.......................................

Date of issue Number of Card
.......................................
 

--------------------------------.......................................
 

.......................................
 

.......................................
 

Figure 2. Identity card of persons engaged i?a protection of cwlt~rral property. The emblem alone may be afioed to protected property.
AGO 6liiB     
(7)
    Marking protected property with such identifying sym- bols as may be designated by appropriate authority or international agreement.

d.
Religious Aflairs. Personnel charged with this function seek to foster or preserve religious freedom ;protect shrines, buildings, symbols, and devices associated with religion ; support and en­courage clergy of all faiths and creeds in their practices except those facets of a religion inimical to the U.S. war effort or any rites detrimental to the life or health of the practitioners. Com­manders having area responsibility, their staffs, and CA units are charged, as appropriate, with-

(1)
    Continuing studies on religious practices, structures, physical symbols and devices, hierarchies, and major personalities.

(2)
    Fostering and encouraging religious freedom except where the beliefs or practices pose a security threat to


U.S. forces or endanger the lives of participants.
(3)
    Developing areas of compromise and arbitration to lessen friction and hostility between diametrically opposed religious groups.

(4)
    Determining restrictions on the use of religious fa- cilities. Religious buildings, shrines, and consecrated places employed for worship may be used only for aid stations, medical installations, or for the housing of wounded personnel awaiting evacuation, providing that a situation of emergency exists.

(5)
    Seeking methods of effecting compromise between dietary habits, based on religious beliefs, and the production and distribution of foodstuffs.

(6)
    Developing codes of behavior and educating troops to reduce possibilities of offensive acts contrary to religious customs and practices of the area including any mission- ary activities on the part of U.S. Armed Forces personnel.


AGO 6147B
 

CHAPTER 3
 
ORGANIZATION FOR CIVIL AFFAIRS OPERATIONS
Section I. GENERAL
15. Basic Concepts
a. The CA organization serves as an agency at the disposal of the military commander to assist in the accomplishment of his assigned mission and to combat enemy action which may be either planned or unplanned. In addition to assisting the commander in combating enemy action, the civil affairs organization is available to support him in accomplishing other missions which might be assigned. Examples might include training indigenous allied forces; supporting civilian authorities in the United States in emergencies ; supporting activities of field representatives of the Department of State in negotiating and implementing provisions of civil affairs agreements, and developing supplemental agree- ments between allied military commanders during deployment of
U.S.
forces in friendly foreign countries. Planned enemy action may consist of driving refugees into friendly lines to disrupt mili- tary operations ; sending infiltrators into friendly lines to gather information and attack vulnerable lines of communication and administrative installations, and disrupting the political, economic, and sociological structures of countries under enemy occupation in order to weaken the will of population to resist. Unplanned enemy action may include the damage to civilian economies and centers of population which normally accompanies full scale mili- tary operations. Resulting chaos and confusion must be reduced in the shortest possible time in order to lessen interference with the conduct of military operations.

b.
The CA organization must be flexible and adaptable to local political, economic, and sociological conditions. It must be pre- pared to implement policies transmitted by proper authority. It is responsible for recommending changes or modifications to policies and providing substantiation for such recommendations through the observation of results in the field.

c.
The CA organization is concerned with the regulation of those social processes which represent the changing ways in which human beings relate themselves to others. Social processes are complex and unpredictable. Detailed prior planning enables the commander to employ the CA organization in the regulation of social processes and in the control, supervision, or influence of


AGO 6147B
the local population, government, and economy. In order to utilize fully the capabilities of the CA organization, military commanders must provide adequate direction to the CA units, teams, or detach- ments placed under their control, and must insure that such units, teams, or detachments are effectively employed, adequately supported, and properly supervised. (For information on the doctrine and principles employed in military operations, see FM 100-5.)
d.
Fundamental justification for the civil affairs organization is found in the military principle of ECONOMY OF FORCE. One trained civil affairs officer or a small but qualified detachment working through and with civil authorities and population can accomplish what might be difficult, or even impossible, for a com- pany or battalion of troops.

e.
General principles of U.S. Army CA organization are appli- cable to any U.S. Army force, regardless of size or type, and will be applied to the extent possible within joint or combined commands.

f.
A considerable degree of CA area authority is usually dele- gated or sub-delegated to tactical commanders down to and in- cluding division commanders. CA area authority, when delegated, is normally given to the highest U.S. Army command in the area of operations. Decentralization of CA authority to other com­mands is usually required during fluid or rapidly moving or changing situations. In static or stable situations, as early as the situation permits, centralization of CA area authority normally is effected to relieve commanders to the maximum extent possible and to facilitate conformance of civil affairs areas of responsibili- ties with existing political boundaries.

g.
For field operations, commanders will require CA elements organized and trained for tasks indicated by assigned missions. Emphasis to be given each of the wide variety of functions will fluctuate with the progress of military operations and changes in national policy.


16. Theater Commander (U.S. Forces)
a. Conduct of relationships between foreign national govern- ments and the senior U.S. military commander in a theater of operations depends upon the degree of authority delegated to him. This policy will be decided at the highest level.
(1) When U.S. diplomatic representatives are in the area and functioning, relations between the senior military commander and such diplomatic representatives usually will be delineated by Executive Order and may include the organization of a Country Team.
AGO 6147B
(2)
    When U.S. diplomatic representatives are not in the area, the senior U.S. military commander is normally given full authority within national policy, to contact, advise, assist, coordinate, or exercise controls, as re­quired. Extent of such authority will vary.

b.
The theater commander implements his policy directives in planning, directing, and coordinating CA operations of all forces under his command, and in coordination with U.S., allied, and UN civilian agencies. He is authorized, but not required, to delegate CA authority. Such delegation will normally be to the senior U.S. Army commander in the area directly subordinate to the theater commander.

c.
In the conduct of his relations with the civil government of the area, the theater commander, within the designated limitations of his authority, establishes and delineates policies which are to be implemented, and assigns missons to major subordinate com- mands. However, he does not normally furnish detailed instruc- tions on the manner of execution. G5 staff sections and CA units within the theater of operations are appropriately employed at the various levels of civil government as the focal points of contact with local officials. CA elements of the military force are not used in substitution for agencies of civil government ex- cept where local government has ceased.

d.
In the conduct of civil affairs activities in friendly territory, the theater commander may exercise some or all of those func- tions normally exercised by the local government. The degree of control exercised by the military commander may be limited by a civil affairs agreement. Since it is normally desirable to restore governmental functions to the recognized central govern- ment of the area at the earliest practicable date, the military commander transfers the exercise of controls to the local govern- ment as rapidly as the military situation permits. It is desirable, prior to the initiation of civil affairs activities in friendly ter- ritory, to conclude a formal civil affairs agreement. Where an adequate civil administration is in existence, the theater com­mander's civil affairs activities may be limited to the conduct of proper relations between his forces and the civil population and such procurement or utilization of local resources or facilities in support of his military operations as may be authorized.


17.    Political Advisor
a. As the agency within the United States Government pri- marily charged with the development and implementation of foreign policy, the Department of State may furnish a political
AGO 61473     
advisor to the staff of the theater commander having civil affairs responsibilities.
b.
The duties of the political advisor are limited to advising the commander on established policies in such matters as govern- mental affairs and relations with other allied and neutral coun- tries and to furnishing informal contact with the Department of State.

c.
Contact between personnel of the CA staff section and of the office of the political advisor should be habitual, informal, and characterized by mutual confidence.


18. Subprdinate Commander
a.
Each commander of a military unit, regardless of its size or subordinate position, must comply with the applicable pro- visions of international law with respect to the inhabitants, gov- ernments, and economies of occupied, liberated, or host territory.

b.
Ordinarily, a commander will depend upon CA units and personnel to deal with local civilians and governmental agencies and to secure for him necessary assistance, supplies, and facilities from local sources.

c.
He may be required to perform CA missions in the field in the absence of CA personnel or units.


19. Combined Operations
When United States forces operate in conjunction with allied troops, the responsibility for conduct of CA operations may be assigned to a combined command.
a.
Directives covering broad aims and policies for initiation or conduct of CA operations by combined or separate allied commands are promulgated preferably by a higher international policy-forming body. If such an organization is not in existence or if international representation is not supplied at the head- quarters of a combined or allied command, an advisory or con- sultative body may be established for the purpose of furnishing policy guidance and effecting coordination with the governments concerned. The composition of this body is not limited to repre- sentatives of allied nations responsible for conduct of the operation; it may include representatives of other nations not participating in, but concerned with, the operation.

b.
A United States officer commanding a combined command complies with CA operational instructions, formulated at inter- allied governmental or command levels, which are transmitted to him through normal command channels. He not only insures adequate CA coverage in his operation plans and in plans of his subordinate commanders, but he also makes an equitable allocation


42 AGO 6147B
of responsibilities for the implementation of CA plans among na- tional forces under his command, to include, when appropriate, provisions for CA units and personnel. Responsibilities of the senior United States commander serving under a combined com- mand are similar to those described above. In addition, he brings to the attention of appropriate authority those policies or actions in the field of CA operations that are believed to be contrary or prejudicial to international law, United States law, United States national interest, United States war objectives, or the postwar international position of the United States.
c.
When United States and allied forces are employed under a single commander, staff representatives from each force are provided. Although the organization of the CA staff section and the principles of staff operations are the same as in unilateral operations, it may be necessary to develop common staff proce- dures. Methods of representation on combined staffs are similar to those for joint staffs and are described in FM 101-5.

d.
In the conduct of combined operations, reference will be made to the various intergovernmental agreements which have been concluded for the purpose of standardizing civil afTairs operations, organization, training, procedures, and methods. (See apps. XV through XX, and FM 41-5.)


20. Delegation of Authority
a.
A theater commander is authorized but not required to delegate his authority for CA matters in all or a part of the theater of operations to a designated deputy or to the theater army, navy, or air force commander. In a theater containing army units of significant size, the army component commander is normally the officer to whom this delegation is made. He, in turn, except as limited by the theater commander, may in his discretion subdelegate this authority to subordinate commanders. Each commander who delegates authority to conduct CA operations will define the extent and degree to which this authority may be subdelegated. All delegations of authority are accompanied by the transmission of appropriate policy guidance, orders, and in- structions.

b.
A commander delegated CA area authority is responsible for CA operations within his assigned area. He may subassign areas of responsibility to subordinate commanders in accordance with the overall theater plan.


21. Requirements for CA Units
On the basis of politico-military objectives, the task organiza- tion, and detailed study of target areas theater requirements for
AGO 6147B
CA staffs and operating units should be determined sufficiently in advance of an operation that personnel and units can be organized and trained for their specific assignments. Criteria for estimat- ing requirements include-
a.
Number and types of tactical and administrative echelons of command to which CA authority will be delegated.

b.
Attitude of target population.

c.
Geographical size and population distribution.

d.
Complexity of economic development and socioethnic struc- ture.

e.
Type of mission.

f.
Length of time operations will continue.


22. Coordination
a.
Theater Army G5 is responsible for general staff supervision of CA matters within the theater army (TA). Under guidance and directives of the TA commander, CA aspects of plans and operations are coordinated at all echelons between Theater Army Civil Affairs Command (TACAC), when established, and other major subordinate commands of theater army by exchange of liaison officers, command and staff liaison, or both. Lateral com- mands are mutually responsible for exchange of information, requests for supporting action, and coordination of activities in areas of mutual concern.

b.
Operations of Theater Army Logistical Command (TALOG) and TACAC are very closely related and mutually supporting in many fields. Continuous liaison must be maintained at all levels. CA staff sections within TALOG will be the normal point of con- tact for informal communications with CA units that support and are supported by TALOG.

c.
TACAC will normally be required to conduct relationships with external commands and agencies through theater army head- quarters. Theater army may authorize TACAC to establish and maintain liaison with theater air, theater navy, allied commands, or other agencies engaged in CA operations or supported by theater army in CA operations. Activities of external agencies directly affecting the civilian population, its government, economy, and institutions, conducted within the area for which TACAC has civil affairs responsibility, are normally subject to coordina- tion and control by TACAC.

d.
The theater commander may authorize other U.S. govern: mental or private agencies to conduct activities of a CA nature. As the principal operating agency available to the theater com- mander for handling relations with the civilian population, its government, economy, and institutions, TACAC should usually be


44 AGO 6147B
given the authority and responsibility for control and coordina- tion of such activities.
e. Commands and agencies under the control of the U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, allied forces, or theater headquarters may be authorized to conduct civil affairs operations, or such organi- zations may be stationed within the area for which TACAC is responsible. On matters pertaining to civil affairs, TACAC should be authorized direct communication for interchange of informa- tion, requests for action, and coordination of activities affecting the local population.
Section II. ORGANIZATION OF STAFF SECTIONS
 
AND UNITS
 

23. Elements of Organization
The CA organization consists of staffs, units, and teams. Through these staffs, units, and teams commanders discharge their CA responsibilities. Technical channels of communication will normally be established between CA staff sections and com- parable echelons of higher and subordinate commands to insure uniform implementation of plans and policies and maximum co- ordination of overall CA operations. Due to the extraordinary scope of CA activities, CA elements require great flexibility. Every effort should be made, however, to plan organizational structure, to select personnel, and to train individuals and units for employment at specific echelons of command or levels of gov- ernment. CA units, as such, are not organized for and cannot simultaneously perform the functions of a staff section and an operational command.
24. Staff Sections
a.
The Assistant Chief of Staff, G5, is established as a general staff officer at all echelons of command down to and including the division and comparable units. On a directorate staff, the CA staff officer is designated Director of Civil Affairs. In lower com- mand echelons a CA subsection, operating as an element of the G3 Section, can perform the required functions until a G5 has been made available.

b.
The G5 Section has primary staff responsibility for planning, coordinating, and supervising CA operations to include relation- ships, between the civil population, its government, economy, and institutions and the military forces. In a large command, or where CA may become a major or primary mission of the com- mand, the commander may appoint a deputy for CA operations or may make the CA staff officer a member of his personal staff. The.G5 or CA staff section must be of sufficient size and flexibility


AGO 6147B
to meet the needs of its command echelon and the situation. The nature of CA operations at levels below division normally does not impose a requirement for separate staff sections. At these levels, military-civil relationships become a matter of more im- mediate and personal concern of the commander. Staff responsi- bility for CA activities is assigned to a coordinating staff officer, normally S3, designated by the commander.
c. In joint or combined commands, the CA staff section will be given an appropriate designation. Standardization agreements provide that armies of NATO countries will accept responsibility for appropriate CA administration and support and will have CA staffs and units. See appendixes XC-XX, inclusive.
25. Composition of CA Units
a. The organization of CA units is based on the following con- siderations:
(1)
Efficient command and control.

(2)
Utilization of improved technological means.

(3)
Flexibility with associated economy of personnel.

(4)
Pooling of critical specialist personnel at the highest echelon consistent with centralized control or decentralized opera- tions.

b.
Each element of CA organization is specifically designed to conduct CA operations at a specific echelon of command or level of government. Each CA unit is organized on a cellular basis, with a headquarters administrative and command team supple- mented by appropriate functional teams and service teams. The flexible composition of this organization permits varying require- ments to be met without the creation of special units or the sub- division of fixed units. However, for the purpose of simplifying training and providing guidance for unit organization and for calculating requirements for units, type organizations for the CA units are prescribed by the Department of the Army.


26. Command Support Units
a.
CA command (tactical) support units are those provided for operational use to army groups, field armies, corps, divisions, and other commands, as required to perform recurring CA tasks. Units may be either assigned or attached and accompany the command in movement. Size of command support units will vary, but the following will normally be the minimum:

b.
CA support for a brigade, task forces, and special com­mands will vary greatly, and units assigned or attached, if any, will be tailored for specific circumstances.


S~~pportedOrganization  CA Unit  
Army Group  Area Hq Unit  
Field Army  CA Group  
Corps  CA Company  
Division  CA Platoon  
AGO 6147B  

27. Area Support Units
CA units which provide area support are attached to major tactical or administrative units to augment the units which pro- vide command support and to perform continuing CA functions in specific geographic areas.
28. CA Command
a.
Any commander delegated authority to conduct CA opera- tions normally will exercise these activities through a single CA command consisting of a headquarters unit and its subordinate units and teams.

b.
CA commands are flexible organizations capable of perforrn- ing command or area support operations, which may vary widely in scope and complexity. Flexibility is based on availability of cellular type functional teams from which appropriate combina- tions can be selected to form the CA command organization required.

c.
A CA command structure, with central control over all subordinate area support units, provides maximum continuity and minimum fragmentation of supervision, policy, and authority. In the interest of economy of personnel, stability, and efficiency a CA command normally should be activated at the highest com­mand level.

d.
The smallest CA command is a platoon assigned or attached to a division or comparable headquarters. Next, in order of size, is the CA company, followed by the CA group and the area head- quarters units, B (reduced strength) and A (full strength), each with attached or assigned subordinate units.

e.
In civil affairs operations the issue of centralized versus de- centralized control is particularly significant. It is apparent that commanders to whom CA area responsibility has been delegated require the organization and authority to accomplish their mis- sion. This may involve at the apex a theater CA command, par- ticularly where there are combined operations (see app. XV), and, on a descending scale, a theater army civil affairs command (TACAC) or a TALOG civil affairs command with additional commands established at lower levels where authority is sub- delegated. The further delegation of authority is extended the greater will be the difficulties in effecting coordination and con- formity of national policy guidance. It is essential, even where decentralized CA operations are authorized, that strong central


AGO 6147B 47
direction be exercised through command channels. This neces- sitates CA staff sections possessing the size, functional breadth, and flexibility imperative for the development and dissemination of advisory guidlines to insure the implementation of national goals.
f. CA units required by a command for area support are nor- mally attached. Upon displacement of that command or when the CA units are no longer required, control of these units will pass to the commander designated to exercise CA authority in that area. To the maximum extent practicable, area support units will be organized and trained for deployment in specific areas well in advance of commitment.
29. CA Group
The CA group may be employed in either command or area support roles; group headquarters may be used alone or it may command up to ten companies. It may be assigned responsibility for CA operations of theater army, an army group, a field army, or for CA area support in a province or a very large city. When used in a province, its functional teams would advise, assist, supervise, or direct appropriate departments of the provincial government, with its attached companies and their functional teams performing a similar role in political subdivisions. It may receive and hold for training or deployment individuals, teams, and smaller units. It may conduct schools or other training.
COMMANDING OFFICER
I
 

EXECUTIVE 0mcER
I 1
 

ADCWISWTION OPERATIONS
FUNCTIONAL TEAMS
SECTION SECTION
I
 
Figure 3. Type organization civil affairs platoon.
AGO 6147B
 

30. CA Company
The CA company may be employed in either command or area support roles; a company headquarters may be used alone or it may command up to fifteen platoons and the necessary functional teams. It may be assigned responsibility for CA operations of a corps, or for CA area support in a large city, a major subdivision of a province, or function as part of a CA group. Its organization generally parallels that of a CA group headquarters. The com- pany is the smallest CA unit that can adequately conduct its own supply, mess, and personnel operations.
31. CA Platoon
The CA platoon may be employed in either command or area support roles; it may be used alone or may be augmented with a
=
COMMANDING omcm
I
ADMINISTRATION OPERATIONS SLPPLY AND IvKixmmAI?CE SECTION SECTTON SECTION

I I I
 
PUBLIC SPECIAL ECONOMIC GOVERNMENTAL FACILITIES FUNCTIONS SECTION SECTION
SECTION SECTION
Figure 4. Type organization civil affairs company.
AGO 6147B
 

variety and number of functional teams. It may be assigned responsibility for CA operations of a division, or other command with comparable CA responsibility, or for CA area support in a city, a subdivision equivalent to a county, or function as part of a CA company; It is the smallest CA command. It includes no organic specialists except a public safety NCO but may be aug- mented with those functional teams required for its specific mission.
32. CA Area Headquarters (Type A-Full Strength)
The Type A Area unit may be employed as the national head-

COMMANDING OFFICETI

L
I
mmVE OFFICER
I

A'ITACHED
 
COMPANIES FUNCTONAL TEAMS
 

Figwre 5. Type organization civil affairsgroup.
50 AGO 6147B
quarters unit for a country or as the headquarters of a Theater Army Civil Affairs Command (TACAC) .
33. CA Area Headquarters (Type B-Reduced Strength)
The Type B Area unit may be employed as the national head- quarters unit for a small country or as the headquarters of a
ECONOMIC DIVISION
Economics Commerce and Industry Food and Agriculture Price Control & Rationing Froperty Control Civilian Supply
I
m C FACILITIES DIVISION
BRANCW Public Works and Utilities Public Comunications Public Transportation
OPERATIONS mUARTERS

1
 
LOGISTTCS COMMANDANT SECTION
GO-DIVISION
BRANCHES Civil Government Public Finance
Public Safety Public Welfare Legal Lzbor Public Education Public Health
SPECIAL FtJNCTTONS DMSION
BRANCHES Displaced Persons Public Information Arts, Monuments, & Archives Religious Affairs
Figure 6. Type organization civil affairs area headquarters "A" (full strength) or 'dB''(redr~ced strength).
AGO 6147~
.
...
..


DECEWEKLZED CHAIN OF COMMAND
,,-POLITICAL BOUNDARY NOTES: 1. Additional units attached by size and nmber required.
2. Other Corps and Divisions not shown.
Figure 7. Command and area stcpport chains of command in a field armv area.
AGO 6147B
 
~
o
THEATER ARMY
.......0...­'" ~
HEADQUARTERS
G-5
....         I
b:I
II         I
TACAC TARS
TALOG
DIRECTOR TACTICAL
~
-
HEADQUARTERS HEADQUARTERS OF CA
COMMANDS
I     I
I
I I II         2.
r1.
BALOG         ADLOG
CA OPERATING
CA OPERATING AREA
THEATER
II
Figure 8
UNITS
CA SCHOOL
UNITS
COMMA.N1lS
I
,..------­
OF CA II DIRECTOR OF CA IS-5
3·         3.
i,
AREA COMMANDS AREA COMMANDS
S-5
S-5
 
NOTES:
 

1. G-5 staff sections in Army Group, Field Army, Corps , Division and comparable command headquarters.
2.         CA operating units assigned or attached for combat and administrative support to Army Group, Field Army, Corps, Division and comparable units.
3. As required.
(,1'1         Figure 8. Theater army civil affairs organization.
Co)
Civil Affairs Command (CACOM). It is also adaptable for spe- cial type missions which may be assigned by theater or theater army commander such as an advisory staff for a restored national government or a government-in-exile and may serve as a sub­ordinate unit of a CA command.
34. CA Schools and Training Centers
a.
School units serve as administrative and instructional or­ganizations. In a theater of operations they provide special area and refresher training to CA units and personnel and develop and present instructional courses to other units and personnel, as required. In the continental United States, training may be broader in scope, although area and language training may be in- cluded. All instruction will adhere to established doctrine and principles of both civil affairs and general military subjects. (See AR 350-25 for standardization agreements on civil affairs train- ing.)

b.
Training centers receive, activate, organize, equip, and dis- patch CA units. Training may be individual or unit. They may hold units or individuals until they are sent overseas, committed, or reassigned.



Section Ill. CELLULAR TEAMS
35. Types of Teams
Cellular teams of various sizes and capabilities are provided to permit their combination into organizations appropriate for CA command support or area support missions of distinctive character. The teams are of four types-
a.
Administrative and command teams. Providing platoon, company, group or other headquarters personnel (TOE 41-500 and appropriate TD's) .

b.
Functional teams. Each specially qualified in one of the functional areas of civil affairs as previously described in chapter 2 (TOE 41-500).

c.
Language teams. With personnel qualified to provide trans- lator-interpreter services appropriate to the area (TOE 41-500).

d.
Service teams. Food service, automotive maintenance, and signal personnel (TOE 41-500, TOE 29-500, and TOE 11-500).


36. Functional Teams
a. Specialization. Functional teams in different sizes are or- ganized to deal with every facet of the socio-politico-economic life
54 AGO 6147B
of the civilian community. They are formed as cells for attach- ment or assignment to any CA unit where their services have application. Teams are organized for each function discussed in chapter 2 except civil government which is a general unit task.
These teams are-
(1)
Arts, Monuments, and Archives

(2)
Civil Information

(3)
Civilian Supply

(4)
Commerce and Industry

(5)
Displaced Persons

(6)
Economics

(7)
Food and Agriculture

(8)
Labor

(9)
Legal

(10)
Price Control and Rationing

(11)
Property Control

(12)
Public Communications

(13)
Public Education

(14)
Public Finance

(15)
Public Health

(16)
Public Safety

(17)
Public Transportation

(18)
Public Welfare

(19)
Public Works and Utilities

(20)
Religious Affairs

b.
Assignments. Teams are capable of assisting, supervising, or directing civilian offices performing the same or related func- tions at the level of government at which their headquarters operates. Functional teams are attached or assigned to units on the basis of organization and need, and the size of the unit and the nature of its mission determine to a large degree the employ- ment of the teams. Personnel assigned to an area headquarters unit, for instance, may be employed more generally in advisory, planning, and supervisory roles, whereas specialists assigned to groups and companies are more likely to be engaged directly in field operations. Teams are similarly composed but vary in size and in rank of personnel concerned.

c.
Flexibility. Organizational flexibility, based on requirements of the situation, is essential to all CA operations. For purposes of training and operational control the functional teams may be grouped into general categories. Separation into groups does not


AGO 6147~
necessarily reflect essential functional relationships, since each function is related to a certain extent to every other function. In the interest of operational expediency and administrative effi- ciency, the commander of the CA unit may consolidate functional teams into operating echelons on the basis of common interest, rank, or individual capabilities of personnel under his command.
d.
Command representation. Functional teams may, when au- thorized by their commander, represent him in direct contact with civilian officials of their corresponding function. All official com- munications are made in the name of the commander. The teams give technical advice and assistance as needed and evaluate the results. If the commander is authorized to exercise control over civilian officials, the teams supervise and coordinate the execution of orders and instructions issued.

e.
Military liaison. Teams maintain close liaison with military agencies having corresponding functions; for example, public safety with the provost marshal and military police, public health with the surgeon, and legal with the judge advocate.

f.
Team chiefs. The chief of each functional team directs the activities of the team members and keeps them informed as to the general mission. Through close cooperation and observation he keeps himself acquainted with the progress and problems of the unit to which his team is attached or assigned.

g.
Relationship to platoons. In order to maintain flexibility and to make full use of the capabilities of functional teams it is usually preferable to retain command of the teams at the company level, assigning team missions in support of specified platoons. If func- tional teams are attached to a platoon, it is normally preferable that team leaders not be superior in rank to the platoon com­mander. In the event a team leader is superior in rank, the com- pany commander should prescribe relationships and authority.


Section IV. PERSONNEL
37. Qualifications
Since personnel assigned to CA duties act as representatives of the United States in political, economic, and sociological aspects of military operations, extreme care in selection of personnel is essential to assure that representation is of the highest quality. It is desirable that personnel selected for CA duties be familiar with the basic principles and institutions of the United States; it is equally essential that such personnel possess and demonstrate complete loyalty and fidelity to the United States. The extent of
AGO 6147B
authority exercised by CA personnel, the far-reaching conse­quences of their routine decisions, and the lack of close supervision that is inherent in their functions necessitate that such personnel possess a high degree of integrity, judgment, initiative, ingenuity, and decisiveness.
a.
Integrity. CA personnel must possess absolute personal honor and integrity. Since they may be authorized to remove and appoint officials and to grant privileges and licenses, they are subject to various influences and temptations in the conduct of their activities. They must, therefore, act with propriety and must possess a high degree of personal dignity. Under no circum- stances should CA personnel allow themselves to become in the slightest degree compromised or indebted, socially or otherwise, to any local individual or group. Integrity must be rezdily ap- parent as well as actual in practice.

b.
Judgment. CA personnel must deal wisely with the local inhabitants, individually and collectively. They must be able to act with sound judgment and discernment in confused and un­familiar situations and be able to analyze intelligently the various elements of a complex problem, to foresee the long range effects of taking various courses of action, and to make sound recom­mendations. They must possess a mature attitude and avoid an appearance of conspicuous luxury in the midst of desolation and human want. Judgment must also include a ready comprehension that what is best in the United States is not necesszrily always best in other social, political, and economic circumstances and thzt the United States is less concerned with making over other nations in its own image than in helping countries to help themselves.

c.
Initiative. CA personnel must possess initiative. Manuals, directives, and policy decisions usually do not provide detailed instructions on the diverse types of situations which may be pre- sented. CA personnel may have to make decisions on matters of an urgent nature that cannot await referral to higher hesdquar- ters. They may, likewise, find it necessary to motivate the local inhabitants of the area into taking the initiative. When local officials are newly appointed to their positions, CA personnel must imbue them with the desire to act, whenever possible, on their own initiative in the accomplishment of desired objectives.

d.
Ingenuity. In the field of civil affairs the need for ingenuity must be specially stressed. Pressure and demands upon the civil populace may accomplish short-range goals but will seldom stimu- late long-range developments and solutions in a relatively un­familiar cultural setting. Sensitivity to local values and a creative imagination will be necessary to accomplish the CA mission. Un-


AGO 6147B 57
usual ways and means may have to be devised and often introduced in ingenious ways.
e. Decisiveness. The CA unit commander is responsible for operations of his unit. He meets his responsibilities by planning, by timely decisions and orders, and by personal supervision. Exercise of his authority must be based on a thorough understand- ing of the administrative and functional elements of his command, its capabilities and limitations, and proper methods of its employ­ment. It is important that decision responsibilities be discharged in such a way as to build confidence among CA personnel and civilians alike.
38. Assignment
a.
In assigning personnel to CA duties, it must be recognized that there is a scarcity of individuals qualified to conduct the various specialized functions. Every effort must be made to em- ploy the most technically qualified personnel at those echelons and in those positions for maximum utilization of capabilities.

b.
Consideration is also given in the assignment of personnel to such factors as age, military experience, and physical qualifica- tions. Personnel assigned to CA units or to the staffs of tactical commands employed in the combat zone should be 'physically capable of serving under combat conditions.

c.
Chiefs of G5 staff sections and their deputies assigned to the headquarters of major tactical and administrative commands should possess broad military education, experience, and back- ground. They not only should be familiar with correct staff pro- cedures and the operations of army forces in the field but should also have a thorough knowledge of the principles, doctrine, poli- cies, techniques, and procedures of the organization which con­ducts CA operations.

d.
Officers assigned as commanders and executive officers of CA units should have a thorough knowledge of military operations in the field, army administration, and specific training in CA principles, doctrine, policies, techniques, and procedures. Other unit officers, not assigned to the various functional teams, must be trained or experienced in general military subjects and in the conduct of CA operations and be qualified by military occupational specialty to perform their principal duties.

e.
Functional specialists assigned to the staffs of major tactical or administrative commands or to CA units should by reason of education, civilian occupation, or previous experience have a specific working knowledge of the specialty to which assigned and possess the appropriate military occupational specialty. All


58 AGO G147B
specialists assigned to CA duties should possess previous military training or experience. Personnel who have demonstrated out- standing competence should be assigned to high level staffs and commands in order to facilitate the furnishing of guidance and advice to other less qualified individuals assigned to subordinate elements. Personnel must have current knowledge of local condi- tions that might affect operations in their areas of specialization.
f.
Enlisted personnel assigned to special functions must possess, in addition to general military training, military or civilian ex- perience or training in the specialty to which assigned. Enlisted personnel assigned to general military duties must be qualified in the appropriate occupational specialty. Qualifications outlined in paragraph 37, apply to enlisted personnel as well as officers.

g.
For further information on personnel, see FM 41-5 and AR 350-25. Military occupational specialties for officers and warrant officers are contained in AR 611-112 and AR 611-101. Enlisted occupational specialties are contained in AR 611-201. For utiliza- tion of scientific and engineering assistants see AR 611-211.


39. Civilian Specialists
a. Civilians possessing acceptable qualifications in the various CA functional specialties may be procured in accordance with ap- plicable authorizations and policies for employment on the staffs of theater headquarters, CA area headquarters type units, or on staffs of other comparable levels of ~m~loyment
command. of foreign civilian personnel depends on the extent of allied partici- pation in the operation, the availability of United States military and civilian personnel, the level of command, and applicable policies.
b. In many oversea areas U.S. civilians living in the place, who possess a wealth of current information with respect to the area, specialized functional knowledge, and language capabilities, may be hired or temporarily transferred from another governmental agency to supplement the CA organization. Sources for these per- sonnel may be any other governmental agency which has tem- porarily suspended operations in the area because of hostilities, civilian employees of the armed services, commercial representa- tives, exchange students or professors, expatriates, or representa- tives of private or religious organizations who have the necessary qualifications. Personnel thus selected will require a certain amount of formal or on-the-job training for assignment varying with their age, education, occupation, and previous military experience.
AGO 614'iB
Section V. TRAINING
40.     General
a.
The ultimate purpose of all CA training is to prepare per- sonnel in CA assignments to carry out efficiently and expeditiously their CA missions.

b.
CA training comprises the training of individuals and units. See ATP 41-200.

c.
Trainees progressively receive individual basic combat, MOS, and CA training. In CA training, the trainees are first trained in basic subjects; then, the individuals are trained within the teams; next, the teams are merged and trained as units; finally, the units are given training tests to measure their proficiency.


41.     Continental United States
CA training is normally accomplished in the continental United States. The U.S. Army Civil Affairs School furnishes the training for individuals. Reserve units receive training as U.S. Army Re- serve units during peacetime and at CA unit training centers upon mobilization.
42.     Theater of Operations
In a theater of operations, CA units and personnel awaiting assignment receive supplementary training with emphasis on the area of operation. When it is necessary to procure additional personnel from theater forces, such personnel are normally trained in the theater of operations.
43.     Categories
CA training encompasses the following broad categories: gen- eral CA training, functional CA training, area CA training, and lznguage training.
44.     General Training
a. All Army personnel on active duty will be given a basic orientation in civil affairs matters. Instruction will be given on the following subjects:
(1)
The mission of civil affairs.

(2)
    The individual soldier's key role in civil affairs.

(3)
    Rules and conventions governing war, with emphasis on the enforcement of law, preservation of order, and the prevention of wanton destruction of civilian property, communications, records, and other items of value which are a part of the civilian economy or civilian institutions.


AGO 6147B
(4)     
Organization and functions of civil affairs staffs and units.

b.
Additional general instruction will be given to all Army offi- cers on active duty to impart a knowledge of civil affairs organi- zation and operations equivalent to that required for officers of the combat arms with respect to the organization and operations of administrative and technical services.

c.
Advanced instruction, as appropriate, will be given at the


U.S. Army War College and the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College to include the following subjects:
(1)
Comparison of systems of government.

(2)
Training     and     employment     of civil affairs units and personnel.

(3)
    Civil affairs planning.

(4)
    The combined or inter-allied aspects of civil affairs operations.

(5)
The methods of including civil affairs problems in in- structional and training exercises.

d.
Personnel assigned or selected for assignment to civil affairs staff sections or units will be given training to include the follow- ing special subjects:

(1)
History of civil affairs.

(2)
Comparison of systems of government at the national, state or provincial, and lower levels.

(3)
    National policy concerning civil affairs operations.

(4)
    Rules of land warfare and appropriate maritime law.

(5)
Civil affairs organization and functions.

(6)
    Local procurement in support of military operations.

(7)
    Logistical organization and procedures of the Armed Forces as pertains to civil affairs.

(8)
    The nature of inter-allied civil affairs operations.

(9)
(On mobilization) Area Training to include language. In this category of training, emphasis should be placed on the similarities of peoples and their institutions. Stress should be placed upon the similarities between various geographical and national areas, rather than upon their dissimilarities, such as in the outward forms of institutions, languages, or governmental structures. In addition, attention will be given to sociological consideration of the persons and institutions composing a complex modern society and of the techniques available to manipulate them for the accomplishment of the CA mission.


AGO 614713     
45. Policies
a.
Maneuvers and other training exercises will when practicable include problems requiring the participation of civil affairs units and staff sections.

b.
Instruction on civil affairs organization and operations will include principles contained in STANAG7s and SOLOG Agree- ments on these subjects (apps. XV-XX).


46. Functional CA Training
It is contemplated that functional personnel will have had prior professional or technical training appropriate to the specialty for which they are selected. Such functional personnel and teams receive additional specialized instruction and training in their various functions at appropriate Army installations and civilian institutions.
47. Area CA Training
a.
Students are trained in area study techniques to develop an understanding of the principles involved in area studies. Regard- less of the place of employment, a CA unit must be able to adjust itself, with a minimum of effort, to operate efficiently in any area.

b.
When the area in which units and personnel are to operate is known, area training is given in the history, geography, econ- omy, psychology, customs, institutions, government, and language of the area.

c.
When for political or security reasons it is not possible to train units and personnel for a specific area operation, training in the techniques of collecting and applying information is accom- plished through the study of the United States, of the areas of previous CA operations, or of fictitious areas prepared by the training authority.


48. Language Training
a.
Language specialists are trained in language training facili- ties available to the Armed Forces.

b.
Language training given to other than language specialists during the unit training program is conducted concurrently with area training for the primary purpose of providing familiariza- tion rather than fluency.


49. Enlisted Personnel
a.
All enlisted personnel must have some training in the CA principles, policies, organization, operations, and procedures.

b.
The additional training of enlisted men varies with their assignment:


62 . AGO fj147B
(1)
Administrative and service personnel are qualified by military occupation specialties acquired through attend- ance at appropriate military schools or on-the-job training.

(2)
    Enlisted specialists, selected by reason of military and civilian background and experience, are given additional training in their functional specialties at appropriate military schools and training centers.


50.      Objectives
Among the objectives of unit CA training are the following:
a.
Prepare the CA unit for the accomplishment of its assigned mission.

b.
Stress the importance of the CA activity in assisting military operations.

c.
Promote knowledge and skill in the controlling and govern- ing of the inhabitants of an occupied area.

d.
Provide a working knowledge of the drafting, promulgation, and enforcement of proclamations, laws, ordinances, and orders.

e.
Develop an understanding of the principles of area study.

f.
Develop an understanding of the factors involved in the restoration of civil government and the cessation of the CA operation.

g.
Provide practice'in coordinating procedures for the effective administration of CA functions in an occupied area.


51.     Conduct
a.
In training, emphasis is placed on the practical application of the principles and policies presented.

b.
Instruction in a subject once completed is applied, whenever possible, to other training.

c.
All instructional personnel must be qualified instructors. When required, appropriate courses in methods of instruction are provided.


52.     Standards
CA training is designed to promote knowledge and skill in in- fluencing, controlling, or governing populations. Standards for this objective require the development of a high sense of responsi- bility which is characterized not only by the attainment of exemplary deportment, manners, and morale, but also of technical branch knowledge.
AGO 614iB     
53. Supervision of Training
a.
The quality and efficiency of training is directly proportional to the amount and degree of continuous personal supervision of the unit commander and his supervisory staff. Interference with the training schedule by such activities as administrative, service, and housekeeping duties should be kept to the minimum.

b.
Records of training completed are kept timely and accurate in order that personnel may be promptly and properly accredited with such training.

c.
Observation, inspection, periodic tests, and exercises are utilized to determine the progress of training. Though modifica- tions in training schedules may be necessary, no part of the in- struction prescribed by the appropriate army training program is omitted.


AGO 6147B
 

CHAPTER 4
 

CIVIL AFFAIRS STAFF FUNCTIONS AND PROCEDURES
54. CA Staff Officer (G5)
a.
The general staff acts as a single agency in the coordination of all of the principal functions of the commander. Each general staff officer is charged with primary responsibility for assisting the chief of staff in the coordination of those activities included within a specified functional field. For functions and relationships of various general and special staff officers within a headquarters, see FM 101-5.

b.
The Assistant Chief of Staff, G5, is the principal staff assistant on matters pertaining to the civil population, its govern- ment, economy, and institutions.

c.
G5 is assigned primary general staff responsibility for preparation and execution of CA policies, plans, orders, and direc- tives, and is charged with keeping the commander and members of the staff informed on all matters of CA interest. Other general staff sections of the headquarters likewise keep the G5 informed, as appropriate, on personnel, intelligence, planning, and logistical matters. Since activities of one general staff section have a bear- ing on the activities of other sections, close mutual coordination and support are essential to the preparation of plans, policies, and programs.


55. Staff Supervision
a.
The G5 insures that CA plans, orders, letters of instruction, and other documents are received by subordinate units of agencies. He makes certain that the documents are correctly understood and, when necessary, advises on methods of imple­mentation. Close supervision is necessary to assure carrying out the intent of orders and instructions. Supervision is effected by visits and by study and analysis of special and routine reports of subordinate units. G5 staff section officers, in their inspections, determine whether policies of the commander are being followed and advise subordinate units and their staff sections on actions they should take to assure conformance with these policies. Staff supervision of civil affairs units is of particular importance to insure proper conduct and effective coordination of various func- tional specialties.

b.
Staff visits are made in the name of the commander as his designated representative. Visiting staff officers conduct them-


AGO 6147B
selves in such a manner as to promote cordial relations and cooperation with the commander and staff of subordinate units and refrain from criticism of, or interference with, the responsi- bilities of the subordinate commander.
c. Personnel of G5 sections are advisors, planners, coordinators, and supervisors. As members of the coordinating staff, they should not allow themselves to become too engrossed with the details of administration and operation. A general staff officer
(G5) has no authority to command subordinate elements of the command. He conducts staff supervision of those activities for which he has primary general staff responsibility.
d. In those CA units not possessing a staff of sufficient size to administer and coordinate unit activities the unit commander may find it advantageous to assign certain of his functional specialists additional duties as unit staff officers. This procedure is especially warranted where the unit is employed as a CA com- mand with control over subordinate units, and, under any cir- cumstance, it provides a standard and workable structure for internal administration and coordination of the functional teams.
56. Command and Staff Relationships
a.
Relationships between the G5 of a major tactical or adminis- trative command and CA units operating in the particular area are primarily dependent on whether the commander of such major echelon has the responsibility for CA operations within his area.

b.
When the commander of a major tactical or administrative command is delegated CA area authority, the commander of the unit assigned or attached to form a CA command normally should be authorized to exercise command over subordinate CA units attached to the major echelon. The commander of the CA com- mand receives his orders and instructions through command channels. His contacts on matters of plans, policies, and pro- grams are primarily with G5; however, he may also deal with G1 on matters of personnel, with G2 on intelligence, with G3 on the , organization for and conduct of tactical operations, and with G4 on the logistical support of his operations.

c.
Although contacts with the CA commands of higher or sub- ordinate major echelons niay be extensive, such contacts are normally confined to technical matters for the exchange of special- ized information, techniques, and procedures, and are always in accordance with the commander's policy on use of such channels. Prescribed command channels between higher headquarters and subordinate CA units are followed except in emergencies. In such emergencies, bypassed commanders are promptly informed of any instructions that have been issued. When the commander of a


AGO 6147~
major tactical or administrative command is not delegated CA authority, the G5 section coordinates mutual support with CA units operating in the area.
d. While the G5 has primary general staff responsibility for the coordination of matters involving military-civil relationships, this in no way subordinates the specialized interest and activities of other elements of a command, particularly certain of the special and administrative staff sections. Examples can be cited in every area of staff interest-e.g. the responsibilities of the provost marshal with respect to mtitual problems of military and civilian law and order, traffic control, and the circulation of individuals, and the responsibilities of the transportation officer in operations and allocations of the means of public transport used for the movement of military personnel, supplies, and equipment (figs. 16-27, FM 101-5).
57. Estimates of the Situation
a.
The commander's decision is influenced by the political, economic, and sociological characteristics of the area of opera­tions in addition to other considerations. A CA estimate, accord- ingly, assists the commander in reaching a decision by evaluating for him political, economic, and socioIogical conditions and weighing the effects of these conditions on differing courses of action.

b.
FM 101-5 contains detailed information on preparation of estimates of the situation and a form and example of a CA esti- mate for use as guides. The form of CA estimate described therein is particularly suited for use by the G5 of a major tactical or administrative command in selecting the actions that best support the accomplishment of the mission of the command as a whole and in determining the major CA features that must receive the commander's attention. In the analysis and compari- son of appropriate CA actions, the various functional specialties are grouped in such a manner as best to facilitate their considera- tions.

c.
Appendix I1 shows a sample form or format for a CA unit commander's estimate of the situation suitable for use by the commander of a CA area headquarters, group, or company. This guide for preparation of an estimate is a modification of the basic form contained in FM 101-5; it is a logical and orderIy examina- tion of the factors affecting the accomplishment of the mission to determine the most suitable course of action for the unit as a whole. The basic form for the commander's estimate is arranged to insure investigation of all pertinent factors. When time per- mits, a complete written estimate may be made. When time does


AGO 6147B
not permit, as is usual in smaller units, the form may be used as a checklist to insure consideration of all factors essential for a decision.
58.     Plans
a.
General. The successful accomplishment of national objec- tives in military operations in which United States Armed Forces participate depends in large part on recognition of the necessity for prior planning at the theater level for conduct of CA opera- tions. Since detailed prior planning is also essential at all echelons of command within the theater, the theater or senior United States commander must provide an overall CA plan for guidance of his subordinate commanders in order to prescribe the objectives of operations and insure continuity of policies and uniformity of their application. Authority and responsibility for CA activities during military operations should be vested in mili- tary commanders and not divided between military and civil agencies.

b.
Policzj Guidance. Since planning at all echelons of command is dependent on the receipt of adequate and timely policy guidance, each headquarters within the theater concerned with planning for CA operations must incorporate policy guidance in its plans and disseminate applicable instructions to its subordinate units. Such guidance must relate not only to ultimate objectives but also to pertinent operational phases and functional specialties.

c.
Planning Proceclu~es. Planning procedures to include the formulation of plans, coordination in the preparation of plans, assignment of planning tasks, determination of planning phases and programs, and the preparation of outline plans are fully described in FM 101-5. Planning for the conduct of CA opera- tions, which is a continuous process, consists primarily of three basic steps :


(1)
Compilation of essential information and data relative to missions and proposed actions of the commands con- cerned.

(2)
    Analysis and evaluation of assembled information to determine feasibility, capability, and method of accom­plishing the stated objectives.

(3)
    Preparation and dissemination of plans, directives, orders, and instructions necessary for subordinate units to plan for and execute the functions involved in their CA operations.

d.
Planning Considerations. At all echelons of command plan- ning considerations include, but are not limited to­


68      AGO 6147B
(1)
Manner in which CA operations may best contribute to the overall mission of the command.

(2)
    Coordination of CA operations with other operations.

(3)
    Requirements of CA operations for unit and administra- tive support.

(4)
    Capability of the command to support CA operations.

e.
Development of Theater Plan. The military force serves primarily as an instrument of national policy in the attainment of political objectives. Accordingly, the theater or senior United States commander insures that primary attention is given in the preparation of his plan to the politico-military objectives which he has been directed to attain and to limitations which may be imposed by the rules of customary international law, terms of treaty or agreement, and policy guidance received from higher authority. Preparation of the overall CA plan necessitates a determination of the precise depth of area to which the military operation will penetrate. A detailed study mu'st be made of area intelligence to include geographical and economic features; the density and composition of the population; forms and levels of government and attitudes, customs, and traditions of the people. Information on sources of area intelligence is contained in chapter 9.

f.
Content of Theater Plan. The overall theater CA plan prescribes the objectives of operations; specifies the depth and extent of the area to be cove;ed by projected operations; provides information on the anticipated phasing of the operation; assigns CA missions and furnishes guidance on the delegation of CA authority to commanders of major tactical and administrative commands ;establishes the CA organization and requirements for units, and includes direction on deployment of command and area support units. The overall plan furnishes general instructions on relationships with national or local civilian authorities and the degree of control, influence, or supervision to be utilized. Policies are set forth pertaining to conduct of the various functions and levels of government at which they will be conducted. Guidance is also included on the extent of procurement of local supplies, equipment, and services for military use, the furnishing of civilian relief and economic aid from the United States or other countries, and on other matters essential to the conduct of CA operations. When projected operations are to extend into the territories of two or more nations, variations of objectives and policies with respect to each nation necessitate clear differentiation in plans. Planning for deployment of units should stress simplicity and flexibility so that unforeseen requirements can be met readily with


minimum disruption of the planned organization. Each Theater
AGO 6147B     
CA plan involving operations in countries with which suitable civil affairs agreements have not been negotiated should include drafts of agreements which are essential to the accomplishment of the plan as a basis for agreement negotiations.
g. Implementation of Theater Plan. Since army forces have the unique capability of providing control of land areas and the popu- lation therein, implementation of CA portions of the theater plan is normally an army responsibility. The theater or senior United States commander is responsible for insuring that subordinate commanders receive the means for implementing the theater plan by insuring that qualified personnel are provided for staffs of subordinate commands, providing command and area support units for deployment at the required time and place in accordance with the overall theater plan, and insuring the timely issuance of the theater plan.
59. Orders
a.
The CA plan is put into effect by issuance of appropriate orders and instructions. The five-paragraph form of operation plan or order prescribed in FM 101-5 is particularly suitable as a guide in the preparation of the CA annex to the operational or administrative orders of a major tactical or administrative com- mand. Since the preparation and issuance of an operation order is the staff responsibility of G3, other staff officers concerned, including G5, furnish G3 with drafts of paragraphs or annexes pertaining to their activities for inclusion in the resulting order. As the preparation and issuance of an administrative order is the responsibility of G4, G5 submits to G4 paragraph 5 and other related subparagraphs and annexes pertaining to CA functions for inclusion in the complete order.

b.
Determination of whether CA instructions are to be included in the operation or administrative order, or both, and the manner of their inclusion is normally made by the chief of staff. This determination is based on type and level of the command con­cerned, nature of the operation, and necessity for direction of subordinate elements on such matters as objectives, delegation of CA authority, deployment of CA units, and policy guidance per- taining to the various CA functional specialties.

c.
In continuing situations, CA instructions previously issued in orders may be included in standing operating procedures with additional instructions issued in fragmentary form.

d.
Since annexes to operation and administrative orders are authenticated by the general staff officer having primary responsi- bility in the field of the annex, G5 authenticates annexes, appen- dixes, tabs, and inclosures pertaining primarily to CA activities.


70 AGO G147B
e.
CA units publish their instructions in appropriate orders.

f.
Form and example of a CA annex are shown as appendixes I11 and IV.


60. Standing Operating Procedures
a.
The purpose, scope, and form of standing operating proce- dures (SOP) are set forth in FM 101-5. In general, standing operating procedures prescribe routine methods. Their prepara- tion or development frequently requires prior operational experi- ence. Standing operating procedures should not repeat matters already specifically covered in field manuals. They are intended to simplify orders, assist training, promote understanding and teamwork, and make operations more effective.

b.
The standing operating procedures of a major tactical or administrative command may be supplemented by staff section standing operating procedures and may include references thereto. Standing operating procedures may be prepared to govern pro- cedures used by assigned or attached CA units or by subordinate commands. Standing operating procedures of a division or higher echelon may contain a CA paragraph or separate annex. An annex should not repeat matters otherwise covered in the standing operating procedures but may include reference thereto.

c.
Standing operating procedures applicable to CA operations may include a statement of application ; appropriate instructions pertaining to the delegation of CA area authority; assignment or attachment of units; sources of area intelligence; procedures for area surveys; measures for handling suspected personnel and documents of intelligence value; establishment of civilian check- points; measures and procedures on conduct of the various func- tional specialties; handling and issue of civilian supplies; per- sonnel matters not otherwise covered in standing operating pro- cedures of the command concerned; instructions pertaining to the location of command posts ;establishment of liaison ;responsi­bility for communications, and submission of reports.

d.
The form shown in appendix VI may be used as a guide.


61. Handbooks
a. CA handbooks may be published by the theater headquarters or, in combined operations, by the senior allied headquarters to serve as a basis for the training of personnel assigned to CA duties and to provide information and guidance on applicable policy directives for the use of all concerned with the planning for and conduct of CA operations. Due to variations in objectives and
AGO 6147B
policies, it is normally desirable to provide separate handbooks for each country in which CA operations are to be conducted. Hand- books of a general nature setting forth basic policies pertaining to the general organization and conduct of CA operations and containing basic documents such as initial proclamations, laws, and ordinances, or the provisions of civil affairs and other agree- ments, as applicable to the situation, are of particular value to non-specialist officers. Such handbooks may be supplemented with other technical handbooks containing detailed procedural guidance on the various functional specialties primarily for the use of specialist personnel. Although handbooks must include sufficient information on the political, sociological, and economic structure of the area of concern to permit an understanding of the actions which are to be taken, they do not constitute a primary source of area intelligence.
b. A handbook for commanders of units other than CA units may be published by the theater headquarters or, in combined operations, by the senior allied headquarters for each country in which operations are to be conducted to furnish general informa- tion and guidance which will be of assistance to tactical or admin- istrative unit commanders in the conduct of their relations with the inhabitants of the area. Such handbooks should be prepared in the form of ready reference guides and may contain informa- tion on the historical background and social and economic develop- ment of the country ; governmental structure at national, provin- cial, and local levels; organization of political parties; police, security, and legal systems; banking and monetary systems; civil service system; treatment of civilians ;establishment of courts, as appropriate; anticipated problems of a unit commander in the area, and measures for the protection of United States and allied elements of the military force. Handbooks for tactical or adminis- trative unit commanders provide only limited assistance to CA unit commanders, since the latter require information and guid- ance of a more detailed and comprehensive nature.
62. Reports
a. The periodic CA report is valuable to commanders and staffs for providing an accurate picture of the situation at regular inter-- vals. .It furnishes information relating to areas of jurisdictiol,, locations of units, results of operations, area and political intelli- gence, actions taken, outstanding problems pertaining to the various functional specialties, and special recommendations and requests for actions necessary to accomplish objectives. When the periodic report is prepared by divisions and higher echelons, portions of the report included in the periodic intelligence, per-
72 AGO 6117B
sonnel, and logistics reports of the command may be summarized or deleted to prevent repetition.
b. A specific form for the periodic CA report is not required by regulations. The headquarters requiring the report prescribes the form, content, and frequency of submission. Regardless of the format, clarity and accuracy must be carefully considered in prep-
'aration of the report to prevent misunderstanding or misinter- pretation and to insure reliability. Annexes consisting of maps, overlays, and other data, should be used whenever practicable to shorten the body of the report.
c. The format and example of a periodic CA report provided in appendix XXI and in FM 101-5 may be used as guides.
AGO 6147B
CHAPTER 5
 
THE ARMY IN THE COMMUNITY
 
63. Military-Civil Relations
a.
Introducing a military unit or installation into a civilian community, either on foreign or domestic soil, has a social, economic, and often political impact on civilians in the area. From the standpoint of both civilian and military personnel, plus and minus values develop from the relationship. Civilians who cater to supporting the military unit in goods and services profit eco- nomically, but dislocations and a high friction potential are inher- ent in the relationship. Competition develops for real estate, goods, labor, and other area resources. Civilian facilities may be crowded by military personnel ;there is an increase in traffic con- gestion; prostitutes, gamblers, and purveyors of alcoholic bever- ages gravitate to the vicinity of military installations, offending citizens and creating new problems of discipline, control, security, and troop welfare. Military forces in cantonments occupy ground which may have been previously in civilian possession, and in maneuvers and training they destroy or damage crops, livestock, forests; fencing, roadways, and other civilian facilities and pos- sessions.

b.
It is important that the commander inculcates in his per- sonnel a sense of civic responsibility and, simultaneously, attempts to develop new reserves of civilian good will. The extent of par- ticipation in the affairs of the civilian community is as diverse as the varied situations of locale, mission, and political climate. When civil administrative machinery is rendered incapable of functioning, the commander may have complete responsibility for administering the affairs of a normal civilian jurisdiction. In the United States and its possessions or in a friendly foreign country he may command a unit or an installation where he not only encounters almost complete jurisdictional limitations outside the physical bounds of his installation, but, also to some degree, shares internal jurisdiction with constituted civilian authorities.


64. Programming Relationships
a. Contacts between military personnel and civilians run the gamut from individual, person-to-person relationships, informal and by chance in nature, through multiple degrees of official guid- ance. In some cases the individual relationships are given some pattern and direction through loosely organized programs where
74 AGO 6147B
successful achievements are geared to a large extent to individual initiative and voluntary effort. Married military personnel, because of common interests, housing, and facilities, often tend to isolate themselves to a considerable degree from the civilian popu- lation, and the civilians are more exposed to, and formulate their opinions of a military unit from younger soldiers who seek recrea- tion away from their installation during off-duty hours.
b. To promote better understanding and warmer military-civil relationships, various programs are used to encourage more inti- mate contacts between military units, personnel, their families, and civilians. Discussion of military-civil relationships in cold war and during hostilities will be treated in greater detail in chap- ters 6 and 7, respectively, but following are some of the programs, projects, and activities in which military units may participate in CONUS or overseas during peace or war:
(1)
Information activities. Normally the Information officer is charged with developing a good public image of the Army by information activities which tend to place the Army in a favorable light and insuring fair and impar- tial news coverage. Normally the Army has no censor- ship over media of public expression in the U.S., its possessions, or in friendly foreign countries, therefore cooperation obtained often reflects cooperation extended.

(2)
    Open houses, exhibits, and demonstrations. Within limi- tations imposed by security and operational considera- tions, good will and community understanding are stimu- lated by opening military facilities to visitors, showing informative and educational exhibits, and giving demon- strations which simultaneously provide entertainment and emphasize the posture of U.S. military strength. An extension of the same general program can be conducted in the civilian community by participation in parades, providing concerts by military bands, demonstrations by drill teams at public functions, and furnishing speakers for appearances before selected opinion-influencing groups.

(3)
    Participation in athletic leagues OY events. Joint mili- tary-civilian participation in athletic contests or leagues, if properly handled, can engender good will, but undue partisanship will destroy any advantages accrued.

(4)
    Orientation of personnel going abroad. Orientation pro- grams vary in scope from passing out circulars contain- ing helpful hints and short orientation lectures to more sophisticated orientation programs such as the instruc-


AGO 6147R
tion given at the Military Assistance Institute for per- sonnel assigned to MAAGs and missions. The institute provides concentrated briefings on the area and country to be visited, supplemented by kits of material for indi- vidual reference and study. In many cases, further orientation of personnel is conducted on the ground during the first days after arrival in a foreign country.
(5)
Joint civil programs. Military participation in such pro- grams as support for orphanages or similar indigent groups, cooperation in the sponsorship of youth organi- zations, and fund drives develops warmth and approba- tion. In general, it can be said that making personnel, facilities, and equipment available in programs of general or specific welfare within limitations imposed by capa- bilities and policy directives promotes friendly attitudes proportionate to efforts expended.

(6)
    Counterpart cooperation. Many general and special staff officers in military units, including CA functional special- ists, have counterparts in the civilian community. Close liaison and cooperation in programs of mutual interest to military and civilian agencies are advantageous to both. Where a G5 is assigned to the military unit these relationships should be coordinated through his office; otherwise civil affairs considerations should be focalized through one office, that of the commander himself or of his chief of staff or executive.

(7)
Armed forces disciplinary control boards. Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Boards are established under AR 600-10 with membership normally composed of the sur- geons and provost marshals from military installations in a designated area. In meeting with invited civilian representatives from nearby communities they make a major contribution toward improving the health and moral climate of the civilian community in the vicinity of the military installation to the advantage of both military personnel and the community.

(8)
U.S. Information service program. The USIS, operating under direction of the American Embassy and conduct- ing a broad program of information, cultural, and edu- cational services for the population of a foreign country, usually will have an activity located in the vicinity of


large U.S. military installations. Where such activities are located in the vicinity of a military headquarters, the military units normally have representation on plan-
76      AGO 6147B
ning committees for liaison purposes and to provide support from the military for the USIS program.
(9)
    Bi-national associations. In most areas there are organi- zations, associations, or committees with joint military and civilian membership, some of which are organized primarily to improve relationships. Meetings may be held in which mutual problems are discussed, and sup- port for various charitable, patriotic, cultural, educa- tional, and recreational programs, events, and facilities may be made matters of joint sponsorship.

(10)
    Unit and individual projects. Individual military units may organize a program of support for some orphanage, school, hospital, or similar facility on a continuing basis or in connection with specific events or holiday periods. Individual personnel may be encouraged to accept invi- tations to visit with local families. and to reciprocate with invitations to meals in unit messes on special occasions. Military equipment and volunteer manpower may be used to assist civilian communities in the de- velopment of playgrounds, athletic fields, or other com- munity facilities. Families may be encouraged to accept children guests in their homes for extended periods particularly during summer school vacation. Many mili- tary personnel and members of their families are well qualified to lend assistance with local education programs in English and in other subjects. Assistance with local USIS programs and other educational and social welfare activities is one of the most important individual means of building good will in lands where people are still thirsting for knowledge and where social needs are fre- quently great.


65.     Advisory Councils
Aside from civil affair units, the apparatus by which military- civil relationships are conducted differs from command to com- mand. Frequently community relations organizations are estab- lished which may include as members the commander, selected members of his staff, and representatives from national or re- gional (depending on the locale) governmental and civic organi- zations (see AR 360-55). These committees, which may be set up either in CONUS or oversea areas, can serve any or all of the following purposes:
a.
Medium of official liaison.

b.
Action agency for joint programs.


AGO 611'iB
c.
Sounding board for official and unofficial civilian and military reactions to specific incidents and conditions.

d.
Agency through which diverse requirements and counter- requirements can be weighed and compromised.

e.
Policy group for the allocation of aid and assistance.


66. Joint Commissions and Committees
To achieve essential coordination in the resolution of mutual problems and the drafting of status of forces and similar agree- ments when U.S. forces are stationed in oversea areas, Civil Affairs Commissions may be established. The commission mem- bership should include the senior civil affairs officer of the com- mand, representation from the embassy and other U.S. organiza- tions, and central government level official(s) of the host country. The same organization can be expanded in scope by the formation of regional committees with comparable local level representation. Additionally, closer cooperation and unity of purpose can be ob- tained between G5 and embassies by the establishment of a liaison office or offices.
67. Cold War Activities
In the interest of promoting security, political stability, and economic development of other nations the United States since World War I1 has been committed to an extensive program of foreign military and economic aid. These programs have neces- sitated the stationing of U.S. troops on the soil of other sovereign powers under the authority of negotiated bilateral and multilateral agreements either as security forces or to provide training assist- ance for foreign military units. The terms of agreements involved and the scope of missions assigned are diverse, but, in every instance, U.S. commanders and their personnel have significant capabilities for furthering U.S. foreign policy and fostering deep- er appreciation in host countries for the essentiality of mutual military-civil understanding, cooperation, and support. Within the limitations of primary mission, funding, terms of assignment agreement, and national policy, U.S. military units possess equip- ment, facilities, supplies, technologically qualified individuals, and labor resources which provide a direct capability for improving the image of the United States among people in the locale of their assignment. Personnel in the units and their dependents, as indi- viduals, have an even greater potential for favorable influence by their personal conduct, courtesy, and attitude of friendly coopera-
tion toward citizens of the host country. Except in those cases where relatively large security forces are involved, however, the greatest contribution which can be made by U.S. military
78 AGO 6147B
organizations abroad is in the nature of guidance, advice, and planning assistance for numerically superior host country forces in the promotions of military-civil rapport. Results will be mea- sured in strengthened economic and political bases, divorcenlent of the general population from dissident elements, and reduction in underprivilege and tension. Chapter 6 contains more detailed discussion of army cold war activities.
68. Disaster Relief
Nature on the rampage can promote destruction and suffering comparable to the ravages of war. Floods, earthquakes, storms, and tidal waves on a large scale produce devastation, dislocation, and untold human misery. At the same time the sophisticated in- dustrial and transportation equipment of modern civilization in- volves hazardous by-products of explosions, fires, and other accidental destruction. Military units with their disciplined man- power, technical experts, emergency equipment, stockpiled supplies, and transportation and communication capabilities normally receive first call for disaster relief missions. Operations vary with the locale and nature of the emergency. In the initial phases, certainly, there will be rescue operations, distribution of relief supplies, care for the injured, burial of the dead, prevention of the spread of disease, preclusion of looting, control of traffic, and restriction on the circulation of individuals. The situation and the terms of any agreement entered upon may involve control measures, some degree of civil administration, or important con- siderations of liaison and coordination when relief forces are international in character or involve several U.S. agencies. Dis­aster relief teams usually are composite organizations consisting primarily of technical service personnel, while civil affairs units possess specialists with training and skills appropriate and adaptable to provide either staff planning and direction or operat- ing elements. (See Public Law 875, as amended, and AR 500-60.)
69. Civil Defense
a. The U.S. homeland, except for one aerial attack on Hawaii during World War 11, has been largely inviolate from external threat for a century and a half. Modern day missilry, rocket bearing submarines, and high performance aircraft have neu­tralized the invulnerability of distance, and today continental United States is geographically only minutes away from the danger of hostile operations with incomprehensibly destructive weapons. Nuclear bombs and rocket warheads have the capability of destroying the largest cities and contaminating thousands of
AGO 6147B
square miles of contiguous area with lethal, radiological fallout. New developments in chemical and biological warfare can spread death and lingering pollution. Civilians, civilian agencies, facili- ties, and resources are potential targets in any future conflict.
b.
All military units of the regular and reserve establishment are charged with planning and training for a possible civil defense mission and have been assigned zones of responsibility for em- ployment. Any military organization with its disciplined man­power, equipment and capability for quick reaction toward emergency can be usefully employed in civil defense operations, but of particular value, because of special skills and equipment, are civil affairs, military police, and all of the technical service troops. Reserve forces, because of their wide dispersal, have exceptional possibilities for employment in civil defense support, and, because active forces will likely be preoccupied with immedi- ate active defense and retaliation, the reserve structure may carry primary responsibility for passive defense, recovery operations, and reconstitution of civilian processes and administration.

c.
Civil Affairs units represent the only organizations in the military establishment which have planning, operational, and ad- visory capacities in most, if not all, aspects of civil defense. The functional structure of civil affairs organizations covering such important activities as safety, health, communications, transporta- tion, utilities, refugee handling, and governmental administration not only provides operational support capabilities but the organi- zation and ability to administer required military control pending the reestablishment of any segments of government rendered temporarily impotent by attack. The character and degree of military participation in affairs normally reserved to the civilian population will be a matter for decision on the highest govern- mental level and will be based on an assessment of considerations of both national survival and the preservation or reinstitution of civil democratic government. Following the initial chaos and dis- ruption involved in a massive attack, civilian lawyers, bankers, doctors, engineers, industrialists, educators, administrators, and all the other rank and file of the civilian economic socio-political apparatus will return from shelters and evacuation areas. They will possess a far more extensive aggregate capability for re­construction and reconstitution than military agencies, but civil affairs units have greater initial cohesion and discipline, can implement emergency controls, and can act as the nucleus force upon which civilian institutions may be reestablished.

d.
As a corollary to civil defense commitments, agencies of the regular military establishment should review passive defense plans and programs with a view toward placing more emphasis


80 AGO 6147B
on shelters and less on evacuation to escape anticipated fallout patterns. Where fallout is the primary planning criteria, there would be less military casualties, a higher commitment potential, and an immediate framework for mobilization if active units re­mained in place with their facilities, equipment, and supplies. Aside from the tactical advantages of adequate defensive meas- ures, a program of shelter construction within the military establishment would provide a psychological stimulus for family and institutional shelters in the civilian community. Costing for a program of this nature could be held within modest bounds, since most installations possess ample supplies of timber, earth, tools, engineering skills, and manpower. Commitments of per­sonnel to construction projects could be charged to physical fitness and important training for passive defense.
e. For more detailed information on civil defense see Public Law 920, AR 500-70, and FM 20-10. Civil defense in oversea areas is covered in section IV, chapter 7.
70. Martial Law
a.
Among the domestic emergency situations that may, depend- ing on the necessities of the case, justify recourse to a regime of martial law are flood, earthquake, windstorm, tidal wave, fire, epidemic, riot, civil unrest, or other extraordinary circumstances beyond the control capability of normal governmental officials. In such circumstances, a military commander may, on instructions from higher authority, or on his own initiative, if the circum- stances do not admit of delay, take such action necessary to main- tain law and order and assure the performance of essential governmental services. As government in the United States is a civil responsibility, the degree of military intrusion into the field of government, and correspondingly, the scope of military au­thority, is circumscribed by the necessities of the case. Civil and military officials in foreign states have similar powers with the extent of authority varying from country-to-country and regime- to-regime.

b.
Although, in the U.S., no declaration of martial law is necessary, it is customary for the President, the governor of a state or territory, comparable officials of other political subdivi- sions, or the military commander in question, to publish a Proclamation informing the people of the nature of the emergency and the powers which the military authorities feel justified in assuming. Such proclamation by itself confers no authority on the military commander. It does serve, however, to define the area of military control and the specific governmental functions and responsibilities to be exercised by the military authorities.


AGO 6147x3
c. As martial law is a temporary, extraordinary regime, great care must be taken in drafting proclamations, orders, instruc- tions, regulations, or any other martial law directives, lest such pronouncements assert more authority than is justified under the circumstances, fail to particularize the powers to be exercised, or have the effect of perpetuating the emergency or enlarging its scope. For more detailed information concerning martial law,
(see DA Pam 27-11), Lectures on Martial Law (1960), FNI 19-15, and AR 500-50. To the extent that they are applicable to domestic emergencies the control techniques outlined in chapter 8 may be utilized.
AGO 6147B
CHAPTER 6
 
CIVIL AFFAIRS COLD WAR OPERATIONS
 
Section I. GENERAL
71. Definitions
a.
Cold War. The term cold war has been variously defined (par. 2k). Most of the definitions interpret cold war as involving the use of political, economic, technological, sociological, and military measures, short of armed conflict between regular forces, by which one nation seeks to gain an advantage over another. More simply, cold war in essence covers all aspects of the struggle between the Communist bloc and the free nations other than active hostilities between regular forces.

b.
Civic Action. Civic action, an aspect of civil affairs, is any function performed by military forces in cooperation with civil authorities, agencies, or groups through the use of military man- power and material resources for the socio-economic well-being and improvement of the civil community with a goal of building or reinforcing mutual respect and fellowship between the civil and military communities.

c.
Irregular. Irregular is a term applied to all types of non-conventional forces, persons, organizations, operations, and methods, including guerrilla, partisan, insurgent, subversive, resistance, terrorist, and revolutionary. Irregular activities in- clude acts of a military, political, psychological, and economic nature, conducted predominantly by inhabitants of a nation for the purpose of eliminating or weakening the authority of the local government or an occupying power.


72. Mutual Security
a. Purpose. The purpose of the mutual security program is to help develop and strengthen the nations of the free world in a common effort to maintain peace and achieve progress. The mutual security program is a major instrument of United States foreign policy. It reflects the fundamental fact that the security and prosperity of this nation cannot be separated from that of other nations. The United States Congress recognized this fact when it passed the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948. During the intervening period this ,country has worked through the normal channels of diplomacy and through international con-
AGO 6147B
ferences of many kinds to reach solutions of new problems, thus increasing international responsibilities of the United States. A series of treaties of friendship, commerce, and navigation have been negotiated. A program of investment guaranties and special tax measures with respect to oversea profit has encouraged United States investments in foreign economies. Participation in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the Inter- national Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Export- Import Bank, and the Development Loan Fund has sponsored trade and industry in many lands.
b.
Military Assistance. A major part of the United States mutual security program is military assistance. To deter general or local war, the United States has military alliances with a large number of the nations of the free world-bilateral treaties with a few and multilateral agreements with others through NATO, SEATO, the Rio Treaty, and ANZUS. In addition, the United States works with committees of CENTO. The Military Assist- ance Program (MAP) may be divided into two broad areas, materiel and training. The system of defensive alliances, coupled with MAP has built up a total strength which is several times larger than the United States armed forces. If the United States had to supply an equivalent amount of manpower and armament, the drain on American resources would be enormously increased.

c.
Training. The training program provides the following specific types of CA assistance to foreign military forces sup- ported by MAP on either a grant aid or military sales basis, or both.


(1)
    U.S. Schools and facilities. All U.S. Army schools and units include instruction in civil affairs (see AR 350-25) ; the U.S. Army Civil Affairs School presents courses to both American and allied students.

(2)
Mobile training teams. Mobile training teams are com- posed of U.S. military or civilian personnel on temporary duty in a foreign country to provide instruction to cadres of that country. Civil affairs teams may hc designed to emphasize one of the following: Academic Instruction, Civic Action (see pars. 79-84), Civil Defense (see pars. 69 and 106-107), Survey of Country, and Survey of Military Force.

(3)
    Technical representatives. Technical representatives are provided to assist recipient countries as advisors on the operation and maintenance of specific items of equip­ment. While such persons are used more in other activi- ties, they are not unknown in civil affairs. For example,


84      AGO 6147B
equipment used in language instruction and in mass communications often requires the services of technical representatives.
(4)     Missions and groups. This part of the program which provides for personnel assigned to MAP is very im­portant and is discussed in paragraph 77.
73.     Nationalism
Especially vulnerable to encroachment by the international Communist conspiracy are the underdeveloped countries. The forces of nationalism are gaining momentum as is the concurrent drive to modernization, wherein national interest and individual interests are torn between commitment to the old and familiar way of life and the attractions of a modern way of life. United States policy is dedicated to assuring that new nations are able to go forward in independence, with increasing degrees of human freedom and greater political and economic stability within the sociological fabric of cultural heritage and aspirations peculiar to each political sovereignty or coalition. To this end, economic aid, technical assistance, and military assistance programs are negotiated and implemented.
74.      Civil Affairs Organization
a.
Cold war operations of the civil affairs organization develop good working relationships between U.S. military forces and the local population as well as between host military forces and their own people. Individual civil affairs functional specialists and teams are available for assignment to assist in the development and implementation of a definite program for the conduct of relationships with the people, both as individuals and as members of the community. Fostering satisfactory military-civil relation- ships in a country is an effective means of utilizing military capabilities in fighting and winning the cold war. Civil affairs personnel dedicate themselves to techniques which will achieve this purpose. Proper attitudes, programs, and methods of opera- tions of military forces which provide for the rights and welfare of the population not only generate confidence and'cooperation on the part of the population but also have the effect of bringing together the military and the people into an effective composite working team. To accomplish this, civil affairs personnel must analyze and solve problems deriving from the political impact of military forces in the area; the use by military forces of local areas, facilities, goods, and manpower; the application of local laws and customs to the military forces, and the social relations between military forces and civilians.

b.
Planning for civil affairs cold war operations is comparable to other civil affairs plans in that policies and objectives must be clearly defined to provide operational guidance and instructions to the military commander. Provisions should be made for a draft civil affairs agreement which considers the political as well as the military aspects of the planned operation. Thus, as the need for such an agreement arises, it can be negotiated without delay with such modifications as may be required. Also provided in plans are procedures for procurement and training of civil affairs personnel to support operations. When U.S. diplomatic representatives are present and functioning in a country, an executive order delineates the authority and responsibilities of the commander and the diplomatic representatives, respectively.


75. Other U.S. Military Units
U.S. military units, wherever they are stationed and particularly in foreign areas, have a dual capability of participating in civic action projects and assisting host country military personnel with planning, technical assistance, and available resources in the development of their civic action ventures. Technical service units, in view of their equipment and training, are especially adaptable to performing many civic action type functions, but all elements of the army have capabilities for assistance in the form of labor, subsidiary skills, and loans or donations of equipment and supplies. Similarly, indvidual contributions of funds, sup-' plies, and effort cumu!atively may total impressive assistance. To the extent that the U.S. through its representatives abroad, both individuals and organizations, wins the trust, confidence, and gratitude of foreign peoples it will have contributed to the con- struction of another bastion of defense in the cold war. Personal friendships, individual and collective, strengthen diplomatic, economic, and military alliances ; provide sources of intelligence, and facilitate accomplishment of primary missions.
76. Country Teams
In every foreign country where U.S. troops are stationed, other governmental departments and bureaus, international agencies, church groups, and private institutions may be working toward common ends in at least some aspects of providing assistance and stimulating development in the host country. The number of U.S. government agencies alone is impressive, and close cooperation and cordial liaison are essential if optimum results are to be achieved. Coordination, not only on the policy but also at operating levels, will reduce costs, prevent duplication of effort,
AGO 6147B
lessen the friction potential, and increase tangible results. Gen- erally in peacetime the ambassador is the coordinating authority for civil assistance programs. Country Teams are often established consisting of representatives of various national agencies, includ- ing the Chief of MAAG or Mission or senior military commander as the Department of Defense member, and with the Ambassador functioning as head of the team. In all of these civil and military relationships a CA officer and, in major operations, CA units are equipped to furnish essential liaison, develop plans, and provide functional aid and guidance.
77. MAAGs and Missions
a.
Military personnel, and their families, assigned to Military Assistance Advisory Groups and similar missions in countries of the free world have significant capabilities, disproportionate to the relatively small size of units concerned, to promote under- standing, cooperation, and kinship not only between their own personnel and the civilian population but also (through example, demonstration, and guidance) between the military forces and civilians of the host country. In many countries there is an unsatiated demand for education and development in various voca- tional and technical skills, and in every military unit and their associated families there are untapped reservoirs of knowledge and skills which can be channeled through voluntary efforts into programs of education and assistance. The very nature of the advisor's role-his daily and intimate contacts with host unit personnel, participating in their daily activities, sharing in their ceremonies, bringing them a better understanding of the United States, and showing a sincere interest in their language, culture, and welfare-goes far toward building bonds of mutual respect and loyalty.

b.
Much of the effectiveness obtained from individual and informal efforts of personnel in missions and advisory groups stems from their spontaneity, but no program can attain maxi- mum results without some degree of fixed responsibility within a unit. To that end, a section, even if it involves only one officer, should be established to coordinate military-civil relationships in each military unit, and assist in the development of similar pro- grams in the military forces of host countries. No less important than providing instruction in training procedures, the techniques of warfare, and the handling of military equipment is the con- current requirement for promoting an awareness in the host country forces of the necessity for military-civilian affinity and furnishing procedural guidance directed toward securing better relationships.


AGO G147B 87
78. Limited Actions
a.
The interplay of power politics, mutual security pacts, inter- national organization commitments, and considerations of national security may produce a situation at any time in which U.S. Army Forces will be committed under limited circumstances as to area, mission, type of operation, or weapons used. These actions may be variously categorized as police action, intervention, show of force, truce enforcement, retaliation, mutual assistance, preventive action, protective custody, blockades, or any of a number of other designations. Troops will be committed to active operations, including possible combat, within the bounds of whatever restric- tive policies may be in force, and the ever-present military-civilian relationships will be an important and continuing consideration for commanders concerned.

b.
Prior to commitment, in every case practicable, commanders engaged in operations of this nature should endeavor to obtain a signed agreement with host governments covering relationships between military forces and the civilian authorities and popula- tion. These agreements are normally negotiated at national gov- ernmental level, but where long-range agreements have not been reached prior to commitment or in any circumstance where iriitial agreement details are left to commanders, draft agreements covering command requirements should be prepared in advance as a recommended basis of negotiation. Expeditious concord in writing will go far toward preventing operational handicaps, pro- viding a basis for troop education and orientation and fixing positions of host governments in areas of possible friction. Regard- less of whether a government-to-government agreement has been reached, it is mandatory that commanders develop necessary func- tional working arrangements to establish coordination and har- mony between military forces and local governments.




Section II. CIVIC ACTION
79. Civic Action-General
a. Current U.S. military assistance legislation and directives provide that military assistance programs should encourage the use of local military and paramilitary forces in developing coun- tries on projects helpful to economic and social development, pro- vided such activities do not detract from capabilities to perform primary military missions. Military Assistance Advisory Groups (MAAG) or Military Missions assure that host military forces realize the importance of good military civil relationships.
88 AGO 6147B
b.
Contributions in facilities and services of military units can often meet the needs of a community or province in ways beyond the capabilities of the civilians and their authorities to supply. Military forces oftep possess better resources of manpower and material, organization, and communications, than do local civil- ians. Military participation in public projects with the civilians not only contributes materially toward socio-politico-economic progress in the area but builds up cumulative civilian good will for the military unit.

c.
By strengthening the socio-economic posture of the country, the military forces are able to reduce sources of civilian discontent and add materially to political stability. Even more highly developed areas provide a potential for military programs of joint military-civilian benefit especially in time of war or disaster when destruction has disrupted normal administration and activities. In some cases civic action may be a well-developed program involv- ing an established organization and careful planning.


80.     Civic Action Projects
The civic action program by the military forces of a nation can encompass everything from an individual imparting his par- ticular technical skill to another in order to help him solve a problem or better his condition, to the organization and function- ing of a duly authorized quasi-military organization for opening up and settling remote areas by providing security and aid in developing living needs. Care must be exercised not to impair the military effectiveness of participating units and that the projects should complement those of other U.S. agencies, such as the Agency for International Development (AID). Examples of civic action projects and objectives are listed below together with the type military individuals or units which might assist. These are to be considered representative and not all-inclusive.
a. Agriculture and Natural Resources.
(1)
Increase or improve production of animals, grain, or vegetable food products-individuals with farming experience, unit transportation, veterinary personnel.

(2)
    Insect and rodent control-troops or units with land or aerial spraying devices, medical, veterinary, and certain chemical warfare personnel.

(3)
    Transportation of agricultural produce, seeds and fer- tilizers-units with transport facilities.

(4)
    Construction of simple irrigation and drainage systems

(5)     
Clearing areas-units with equipment or tools or labor potential.

(6)
    Grading operations-engineer units.

(7)
    Forestry activities such as planting, thinning, and har- vesting-troop units with labor potential.

(8)
    Setting up and operating saw mills-engineer units.

(9)
    Devising and constructing flood controls--engineer units and troop labor.

(10)
    Reclamation of land and draining of swamps-troop labor units.

(11)
Harvesting of crops-all troop units.


-units  with equipment or tools, engineer units, or troop  
labor.  
AGO 6147B  89  

b. Industry and Communication.
(1)
    Assessment and development of acceptable sand and gravel resources for road work and general construction --engineer units.

(2)
    Installation, operation, and maintenance of telephone, telegraph, and radio systems-signal units.

(3)
    Construction of housing and buildings--engineers for designing and supervising, troop units for construction.

(4)
    Setting up and operating emergency communication centers, especially in times of disaster-signal units par- ticularly and any unit with communications equipment and personnel generally.


c. Transportation.
(1)
    Construct, repair, or improve roads and bridges-engi- neer- and troop units with labor or trucks available.

(2)
    Construct, repair or improve railway equipment-trans- portation, ordnance, and engineer units, and troop units with labor available.

(3)
    Construct, repair, or improve inland waterways, wharves, and harbors-engineer, transportation, and Navy units.

(4)
    Construct, repair, improve, or operate airfields-Air Force, transportation, engineer, army aviation, and troop units with labor available.

(5)
    Removal of individuals from disaster areas-all units with land, sea, or air transportation facilities and a capability for controlling circulation of individuals.


d. Health and Sanitation.
(1)
    Improve sanitary standards-medical and engineer units.

(2)
    Set up and operate dispensary units for outpatient treat- ment or to give first aid-medical units.

(3)
    Devise acceptable methods of disposing of human waste-medical units and engineer units.

(4)     
Provide safe water supply systems-engineer units, medical units, and troop labor.

(5)
    Eradicate malaria and other insect-transmitted diseases -medical units and troop labor.

(6)
    Teach sanitation, personal hygiene, and first aid-medical units and military units that train and operate under field conditions.

e.
Education.

(1)
    Give basic education training (i.e., reading and writing) to military personnel-all military units.

(2)
Provide technical training to military personnel which will be useful when individuals return to civilian status- all military units, especially technical service units.

(3)
Provide instructors for schools for basic education to youth and technical training for adults-all military units.

f.
Public Administration.

(1)
Provide guidance and assistance to public administrators in fields of organization, personnel selection, work proce- dures, etc.-civil affairs units and personnel and qualified personnel throughout military units.

(2)
Inspire confidence in and enthusiasm for the government the Army represents-psychological warfare units, public information units, military bands, and any organi- zation with a capability for public demonstration of esprit and military effectiveness.

(3)
Provide guidance and assistance to public safety admin- istrators in their police, fire protection, and civil defense activities, including disaster relief-civil affairs, military police, and engineer units and personnel, and qualified personnel throughout military units. Agencies or func- tions carrying heritages of notoriety, such as reputa­tions for arbitrary arrests, unethical or harassing investigations, or irresponsible property management, should be considered very cautiously.

g.
Community Development, Social Welfare, and Housing.

(1)
Preparation of plans, surveying, and construction super- vision and assistance for houses and community build- ings such as schools, civic centers, churches, orphanages, medical centers, etc.-engineer units particularly and all military units generally.

(2)
    Sponsorship of worthy community projects such as orphanages, schools, and medical centers-all military units.


AGO 6147B     
h.
Mass Communication. Provide advice and assistance on best methods of informing the people through such devices as publications, film, or broadcasting-public information, intelli­gence, and psychological warfare units.

i.
Mapping and Project Surveys.


(1)
Preparation of such necessary maps and charts for-

(a)
Planning road and railroad projects.

(b)
Irrigation and land development.

(c)
Political subdivisions and geographical features.

(d)
    Land use. engineer and individuals with ability in the fields of surveying, geodetics, and charting.

(2)
Preparation     of      nautical     charts and coastal surveys-Navy units.

j.
Paramilitary Organization.

(1)
Analysis of      mission, structure, functioning, equipping, and training of any existing paramilitary organization- civil affairs units and personnel.

(2)
Consideration     of      possible application     of para-military organization in accomplishment of national objectives in any of the fields mentioned in a through i, above- persons or units named in a through i above.

(3)
    Guidance and assistance in planning, organization, per- sonnel selection and training, project selection and imple- mentation and administration-civil affairs units and personnel.


81.     Criteria for Civic Action Projects
Experience has proved the guidelines listed below to be sound. Local circumstances may impose other standards.
a.
A project originated by the local people is much more desirable than one that developed elsewhere even though the latter seems obviously superior to an outsider.

b.
A project must have a fairly short completion time or have phases that provide frequent opportunities to evaluate its effec- tiveness.

c.
Results should be observable, measurable, or tangible. They should also lend themselves to publicity designed to inspire emulation by other military units.

d.
Results should make visible to the public eye the benefits that spring out of association of the military authority and civil government. Credit for results should be attributed to both the local military and the local civil administration.


92          AGO 6147B
e. ~achproject should be initiated in the name of the ministry having jurisdiction over the particular function, assisted by local military units or persons.
82.      Civic Action Operations
a.
While some civic action operations entail a major effort and funding, in general the emphasis is on assistance, guidance, and the initiation of self-help programs within the scope of existing resources. Teams of specialists with appropriate technical skills are established and work directly with the population and with civilian agencies. Military units join with other agencies of their government such as public health, public welfare, education, agriculture, and interior ministries. Individual members of a unit or their dependents who possess special skills and are motivated by humanitarian reasons, patriotism, or desire to pursue off-duty avocations may engage in independent civic action projects of significant benefit to a community or some segment of it.

b.
Civic action operations involve two avenues of approach, directed national activities and voluntary efforts on the local level. Both have generally similar goals, and the major dissimilarity hinges upon whether the activities are directed or are voluntary.


(1)
    Directed activities usually involve specific assignments, central government funding, and authorization to use indicated military resources.

(2)
    Voluntary activities may follow some general stimuli or guidelines from the national government, but they involve greater initiative and resourcefulness on the local leveI. Unit equipment and facilities may be utilized in projects undertaken, however major effort is directed toward encouraging, directing, and supporting self-help programs.

(3)
    Regardless of the approach and whether the civic action operations are directed or are voluntary, activities must be coordinated closely among all action agencies to avoid duplication of effort, to channel misdirected idealism, and to secure maximum benefits from skills, labor, sup- plies, equipment, and funds involved.


83.      Civic Action Teams-General
a. Military Assistance Advisory Groups (MAAG) and Military Mksions. Military assistance is furnished to friendly nations in order to promote the foreign policy and international security of the U.S. and to facilitate the effective participation of such nations in arrangements for individual and collective defense. To accomplish this objective MAAGs and Missions have a training
goal for the armed forces of their host nations. Military Civic Action Mobile Training Teams have been formed (see AR 551-50) for specialized assistance to other nations. When deployed, these teams become a part of and work through the MAAGs and Mis- sions. Requests for a team will originate with the MAAG or Mission. The work of a team may include :
(1)
Orientation of      the MAAG     or Mission staffs and other members of the Country Team as appropriate on the civic action concept and the role of the MAAGs and Missions in the program.

(2)
    Survey of the country for needs which can be met through civic action.

(3)
    Development of a civic action program for the specific country.

(4)
    Training and guidance of local forces and specific technical assistance on projects.

b.
Organization. Military Civic Action Mobile Training Teams will normally consist of from one to five people. In some cases more than five are justified. The teams may be composed of military officers, enlisted personnel, civilians from one of the serv- ices, or civilians from any governmental agency. One officer, usually the senior military person or civilian, will be designated as chief of the team and furnish team leadership. The team chief will be responsible for seeing that proper procedures are followed, necessary contacts are made, reports are prepared and forwarded, and that his team functions as a unit. Team composition is determined by the needs of the area requesting the team. Mem­bers of a team should be qualified by an aggregate of training, knowledge, or experience in the following fields :

(1)
Government (Political-Economic Affairs).

(2)
    Military-Civil Relations.

(3)
    Engineering.

(4)
    Sanitation.

(5)
Medicine or Public Health.

(6)
    Community Development.

(7)
    Commerce and Industry.

(8)
    Agriculture.

(9)
    Education.

(10)
Psychological Operations.

(11)
Public Relations.

c.
Functions. Examples of functional areas within the above fields, which may impinge on planning or implementing a civic ac- tion program, follow to illustrate the breadth that may be en- countered.


94      AGO 6147B
(1)
    Government.

(a)
     


Relations with neighboring nations and membership in international bodies.
(b)     
Structure, stability, bases of support and opposition.
(c) Public administration and local government.
(d)     
Influence of nongovernmental organizations.
(e)     
Loyalty and respect for government.
(f)     U.S. Embassy, AID/USOM, USIA/USIS, and other
U.S. governmental agencies, international agencies, private foreign agencies.
(2)     Military-Civil Relations.
(a)     or customary class or occupational attitudes
Legal
or distinctions.
(b) Ethnic, linguistic, educational, or other differences between military and civilian communities.
(c)     
Official and unofficial relationships at all social levels.
(3)     Engineering.
(a)     bridges, highways, Construction and maintenance of
railroads, and waterways.
(b)     
Construction, maintenance, and operation of dams and irrigation canals.
(c)     
Construction and repair of buildings.
(d)     Construction, repair, and operation of utilities.
(e)     
Elimination of fire and flood hazards.
(f)
    Insect and rodent control.

(g)
    Mapping and surveying.


(4)
    Sanitation.

(a)
     


Design and operation of water and sewage disposal plants.
(b)     
Insect and rodent control.
(c)     
Food inspection.
(d)     
Training of sanitation personnel.
(5)     Medicine or Public Health.
(a) Hospital and dispensary needs.
(b)     
Preventive medicine program.
(c) Requirements for drugs, vaccines, and equipment.
(d)     
Use of drugs, vaccines, and equipment.
(e)     
Instruction in sanitation, first aid, and hygiene.
(6)     
Community Development.
(a)     
Promotion of community councils.
(b)     
Sponsorship of projects for schools, children's homes, civic centers, churches, dispensaries.
(c)     
Plans for construction of buildings for community use and for domiciling those who are inadequately housed.
AGO 6147B     
(d)     Development of community interest on common ethnic, occupational, recreational, or cultural bases.
(7)
    Commerce and Industry.

(a)    
     


Encouraging exchange of local products.
(b)         
Developing transportation.
(c)         
Fostering local production.
(d)         
Instructing in trades.
(8)
Agriculture.

(a)    
     


Best crops and livestock for area.
(b)     Irrigation and water storage.
(c)         
Fertilizer and feed requirements.
(d)         
Prevention of destruction by game, pests, and disease.
(e)     Harvesting and marketing.
(9)
Education.

(a)    
     


Training military personnel in civilian occupations and for citizenship.
(b)     Requirements for school buildings, equipment, and teachers.
(c)         
Sponsoring basic education programs.
(10) Psychological Operations.
(a)
Recognizing and countering adverse propaganda.

(b)    
     methods of exploiting

Effective accomplishments through information media.

(c)
Training in use of mass communications equipment.

(d)
Requirements for mass communications equipment.


(11)
Public Relations.

(a)    
     


Consideration of MAAG or Mission image (usually no publicity regarding the team is desired).
(b)         
Open houses and similar type programs.
(c)         
Observation and analysis of trends in public opinion.
(d)         
Proper dissemination of information.
d. Assignment.
(1)    A    team assigned to a MAAG or Mission for temporary duty is requested by and provided for by the MAAG or Mission in accordance with normal procedures for Mobile Training Teams, as outlined in AR 551-50. The team is considered for all purposes of jurisdiction and responsi- bility to be a part of the MAAG or Mission and subject to the direction of its Chief. Team activities are carried out under the supervision of the Chief, in coordination with representatives of the other U.S. agencies making up the Country Team, and are subject to all regulations concerning conduct and duty of official U.S. personnel stationed in that country.
AGO 6147B
(2)     Unless     time or other circumstances prevent, the team is assembled prior to departure for the country concerned, for briefing and orientation by appropriate service, Army, Defense, State, AID, USIA, and other govern­mental agencies. Current political, social, and economic conditions prevailing in the country to which the team is assigned are given.
84.     Civic Action Teams-Procedures
a. Unified Command Headquarters. En route to the country where the team will work, a stop normally is made at the head­quarters of the unified command which supervises the MAAG or Mission of that country. The team briefs the unified commander and his staff on the mission of the team and receives instructions, guidance, and information concerning the target area. The unified command staff should be prepared to brief the team and provide essential information on the latest political, economic, and military situations. Methods of operation will vary from country to coun­try depending on the customs, social make-up, and political character of the nation as well as current U.S. objectives and policies for that nation.
b. MAAG or Mission Headquarters.
(1)     On arrival in the country the team reports at once to the MAAG or Mission Chief. The normal SOP for adminis­trative processing, quarters, messing, and transportation are followed. The team acquaints itself with the local SOPs, policies, and procedures.
(2)     As early as possible the MAAG or Mission Chief is briefed on the proposed plan of procedure for accom­plishing the civic action mission. Objectives of the team are stated clearly and positively. The MAAG or Mis­sion Chief either approves the proposed plan of proced­ure or directs modifications. The MAAG or Mission Chief is informed of progress and problems on a periodic basis. It is also necessary that the U.S. Embassy or Legation and the remainder of the Country Team clearly understand the objectives and progress of the team and that the team possess their support; therefore, it is essen­tial that other interested persons be kept informed. The MAAG or Mission Chief determines how best to accom­plish this.
c. Team Activities.
Local situations and conditions govern .procedures in each case. Actions given below are not considered to be all that is
AGO     6147B
required, and the sequence 'is suggestive only. It is considered, however, that the following are of major importance :
(1)
Determining what is being done or has been done by local forces in the civic action field. It is necessary to know the attitude of the local military forces toward the people and how the people feel about the military forces and what projects and programs, if any, have been undertaken by the military forces to gain the respect and confidence of the people.

(2)
Understanding the organization and capabilities of the , military forces to perform civic action type projects.

(3)
    Becoming acquainted with key military officials and other governmental officials.

(4)
    Learning the basic economic needs of the country. Each team member can concentrate on the needs in his specific field.

(5)
    Visiting all possible sections of the country to observe-

(a)
    Social conditions.

(b)
    Economic status.

(c)
    Conduct of military forces and any civic action or related programs.

(d)
    Support or lack of support given by the people to the military forces and to the governmental administration in general.

(e)
    Basic needs of the area.

(6)
    Preparing the portion of a program pertaining to the activities which each specialist on the team is qualified to judge and analyze. Some of the things which should be considered in such a program are-

(a)
What the military high command needs to do in the way of instructing the lower echelons.

(b)
What organization would be required to carry out a civic action mission.

(c)
    The training required in order to accomplish civic action projects or prepare personnel for useful roles in civilian life for-


1.
Key military personnel.

2.
All forces.


(d)
    The basic needs of the local areas with which the military can assist. These needs should be grouped into functional fields such as public health, transporta- tion, sanitation, engineering, public administration, agriculture, mass communications.

(e)
Specific projects in specific areas which the military forces can undertake with little or no additional funds.


AGO 6147B
(Primary responsibility for funding military civic action programs in a country rests with the host gov- ernment. Civic action projects which require major funding should be carefully evaluated.)
(f)
    Whether the military has traditions of participating in public affairs that bring the military and civilians to a cIoser understanding of each other.

(g)
Whether     local     community     councils of military and civilian representatives are used, and, if not, the desirability of instituting such a program.

(7)
    Discussing and coordinating the program or plan of action with the MAAG or Mission staff and other ele- ments of the Country Team staff members.

(8)
    Presenting the completed program or plan to the MAAG or Mission Chief and recommending its presentation to the Country Team for approval and implementation of those projects which may be undertaken at the Country level. Projects which require funding are presented to the Country Team for consideration and funding in accordance with current MSP proceiures. The MAAG or Mission Chief determines manner of presentation of the plan to the proper local military officials and assists in the development of required directives to subordinate commands.

d.
Reports.

(1)
    Interim reports are submitted monthly or oftener as indi- cated by progress, to the Office of the Chief, Civil Affairs, Department of the Army, with a copy to Commandant,


U.S. Army Civil Affairs School.
(2)
A final report is prepared by the team as prescribed in AR 551-50.

e.
Debriefing.

(1)
On completion of the assignment the team returns to CONUS by way of the unified command headquarters, where the staff is briefed on results of the team efforts, answers questions, and makes recommendations.

(2)
The team returns to CONUS and reports to the Chief of Civil Affairs for inter-agency debriefing to Defense, Army, Navy, Air Force, State, AID, USIA, and other interested personnel. The team gives consideration to-

(a)
Recommendations for courses of action to be taken in the country.

(b)    
     Recommendations on procedures for use of future teams.


AGO 6147B     

Section Ill. UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE (UW)
85.     Subversion and Political Instability
a. During their transition to modernization developing coun- tries are highly vulnerable to subversion and insurrection. This susceptibility may be prevented, neutralized, or even eliminated, by civil affairs operations. People develop a personal stake in the survival of their countries when they experience a sense of direct participation in the process of government. Populations of newly independent or developing countries have learned to demand manifestations of human dignity, freedom, and opportunity. If their desires are not gratified they may become sufficiently dis- satisfied that they provide primary targets for corruption of their governmental structures and social institutions. Subversive ele-
ments adapt their strategy to take advantage of growing political instability. Consequent guerrilla operations further exploit un­stable conditions.
b. Guerrilla forces are dependent upon support of the people which represent their main source of manpower, supply, and information. Guerrillas, therefore, need to gain long term support from the population. This political factor has special significance in the three fundamental aspects of counterguerrilla operations:
(1)
    Combat operations against guerrillas.

(2)
    Establishment of governmental authority in the area.

(3)
    Separation of guerrilla forces from civilian support


through joint political-military activities. To the recognized government the people are the strongest poten- tial force for combatting guerrillas. For the government forces, gaining influence over the people means insuring effective civil administration. Political and military matters are inseparable, and local military forces are engaged, to varying degrees, in sup- port of local governmental activities. Thus, gaining and main- taining control over the population is a primary objective of both sides. All of their activities are different shades of civil affairs.
c. Problems in such activities rarely involve a single civil affairs function. They involve parts of many functions in differing de- grees. Problems are resolved by taking appropriate action in each of the various civil affairs functions and coordinating the efforts of all to influence the outcome in the direction of overall policy guidelines. Representative of these civil affairs functions are the following:
(1)     Civil Governm~nt.Providing civil administrators at all levels of local government-village, district and region; installing officials; providing management and technical
AGO 6147B
guidance to officials; demonstrating interest in the wel- fare of the people; opening new areas for resettlement and rural development.
(2)
    Legal. Martial law administration; military courts to invoke punishment on terrorists; special rehabilitation system for former guerrillas; records of property own- ership.

(3)
    Public Safety. Police administration; coordination of actions of local police and civil guard with antiguerrilla forces; population, travel, and border control; anti­smuggling; fire protection.

(4)
    Labor. Movement and employment of available man­

power; furnishing military personnel to augment labor supply.

(5)
     Procurement of power and supplies;


Civil Information.
acquisition of news and information; dissemination of news and cultural material.
(6)
    Public Welfare. Orphanages and other institutions; care of refugees and displaced persons; organization of dis- aster areas.

(7)
    Education. Reduction of illiteracy rate among military and civilian personnel; vocational, youth and home eco- nomics programs; support of religious leaders may be cultivated.


(8) Economic.
(a)
Commerce and Industry.      Operation of factories for production of hardware, leather goods, woodenware, shoes, utensils, auto parts, clothing, cottage industries; assisting in procurement of raw materials and market- ing of products.

(b)
    Food and Agriculture. Advice on farming, fishing, poultry and livestock raising, forestry, and harvesting; furnishing farm tools, seeds and fertilizer.

(c)
Civilian Supply.      Establishment and maintenance of a system for distribution of essentials to the popula- tion and of materiel furnished from the local economy.

(9)
Public Health. Dispensaries and clinics are opened; sanitation measures are taken, and medical supplies are provided.


(10) Public Facilities.
(a) Public Works.     Dams, bridges, water supply, flood con- trol, irrigation, mapping, reconstruction, civic build- ings, temples, schools, markets, land reclamation,
AGO 6147B      101
sawmills, sanitary facilities, well digging, harbor dredging.
(b)
Public      Communications.      Postal service, radio, tele- phone, and telegraph constructed, improvised, recon- structed; or extended.

(c)
Public Transportation.     Trail, road, and railroad con- struction or repair; water transportation; airfield maintenance; navigation aids.

d.
The U.S. civil affairs organization is trained to exercise minimum necessary interference in maintaining stability and order among a population; civil affairs organizations of the host countries can be trained in a similar manner. By using a mini- mum degree of interference appropriate to the situation, rights of individuals and respect for democratic processes can be safe- guarded. Such a sensitive capability does not come about by chance. It results from organization, training, and supervision. The military furnishes support or conducts civil administration only as long as necessary and turns back to civilian control when a competent civilian organization and officials are in place and ready to carry out essential governmental functions.


86.     Operations Against Irregular Forces
Operations against irregular forces may occur in either cold or hot war. Methods of conducting such operations in both circum- stances are based on the same principles. See paragraph 110.
87.     CA Support of Evasion and Escape Activities
a.
Through contacts with persons in local communities who have relatives, friends, business associates, or organizational col- leagues in enemy territories and through interrogation of line- crossers, civil affairs elements may gain considerable information on disaffection which, after collation with leads from G2 sources, may give valuable insight into the underground potential. Such intelligence on the underground may constitute a basis for a net for returning evaders or escapees to friendly control.

b.
Favors to or controls exercised over persons in friendly ter- ritory can be used to gain trust and cooperation of their counter- parts in enemy territory.

c.
Through its area research activities the CA organization becomes an excellent source of information on factors of geog- raphy, weather, wildlife, vegetation, agricultural produce, cover, transportation, language, customs, evaluation of deception mea­sures, and identification of potentially safe contacts which can be provided special forces personnel for utilization and transmission to the Air Force or other interested agencies.


102      AGO 6147B
88.     Subversive and Clandestine Operations
a.
In contacts with professional, sports, religious, commercial, or ideological organizations, civil affairs elements may develop rosters for screening by specialized agencies desiring to recruit undercover operatives, interpreters, or other technically qualified craftsmen or workers. The same sources will also supply primary or confirmatory data on attitudes and reactions of various popu- lation categories and biographical data.

b.
Civil affairs units are also able to acquire needed material items listed in chapter 9.


89.     Political and Economic Warfare
a. General.
(1)
Political warfare has been defined as the framing of national policy to assist propaganda or military opera- tions, whether with respect to the direct political rela- tionships of governments with one another or in relation to groups of people possessing a political character. Political warfare also includes the implementation of some phases of national policy. Policy is sometimes formulated in actions and then crystallized into state- ments or declarations; therefore, acts having political consequences, including the indirect, may determine as well as express policy.

(2)
    Economic warfare has been defined as defensive use in peacetime as well as during war of any means of military and civilian agencies to maintain or expand the economic potential for war of a nation and its (probable) allies, and, conversely, the offensive use of any measure in peace or war to diminish or neutralize the economic potential for war of the (likely) enemy and his allies. Military operations are not possible in an economic vacuum. In domestic and foreign territories, friendly or enemy, military and civilian populations have eco­nomic relationships which may be mutual or divergent or even conflicting.

(3)
    In a broad sense, political and economic warfare are important aspects of unconventiona1 warfare. Military forces have been major instruments of national political and economic policy implementation throughout the course of history. A commander's political and economic missions affect his tactical and logistical operations un- avoidably and thus occupy much of his time and that of his staff and subordinate units. Civil affairs organiza-


AGO 6147B
tions are inherently involved in the political, economic, and sociological problems of their commanders and have marked capabilities for contributing to the implementa- tion of political and economic warfare programs.
b. Military Participation.
(1)
During combat and occupation phases military com­manders, their staffs, and subordinate units find it necessary to determine whether to retain current struc- tures and functions of agencies of civil government at various levels of administration. Criteria for decisions are indicated by basic policy emerging from the highest executive level of the United States Government, but mechanics of implementation of any policy invariably require a multiplicity of decisions. Organization struc- tures are influenced by and influence the amount and kind of control the commander desires to exercise. Com- manders may also change assignments of functional jurisdiction to civil agencies without altering the or­ganization in being. Still another area of authority open to a military commander is that of retention, removal, or appointment of officials and employees of civil gov- ernment.

(2)
    A commander's interest in economics is no less im­portant. Some enterprises he exploits for the benefit of his command. Others he protects for the sustenance of the civilian population to avoid having to divert military supplies or deplete CONUS resources. Still others are emphasized because of policy decisions from higher authority. Activities include finding, assessing, con­trolling, expanding, suppressing, developing, and exploit- ing economic resources as appropriate. This involves determining (and often amending) the amount and kind of emphasis to give to different industries, different products, and geographical areas.

(3)
    Civic action (see pars. 79-84) is one of the most im- portant approaches to political and economic warfare.

(4)
    In situations short of war the operational objective is to influence a political decision, which usually has economic implications. Whatever form the operation may take, if it is merely the presence of a few troops or even if no

physical troop movement occurs, some impact on the civilian population of affected countries is inevitable.

(5)
    In addition to their own normal operations, civil affairs staffs and units are able to render support to other


104      AGO 0147B
agencies in this effort. The following examples illustrate this:
(a)
Preparation of detailed, localized area surveys por- traying institutions, population groups, commercial establishments, and industrial developments sus­ceptible to attack or constituting a hazard to friendly operations.

(b)
    Surveys of attitudes and reactions to friendly pro- grams aimed at political or economic targets.

(c)
    Surveys of 'substantive effects of operations to disrupt or destroy governmental administration, economic production, commerce or trade.

(d)
    Intelligence on significant personalities or industrial capabilities.

(6)
    Political and economic warfare are inherent in uncon- ventional warfare conducted behind enemy lines in furtherance of military as we11 as political objectives. UW also includes guerrilla warfare, evasion and escape, subversion of hostile government and forces, and other clandestine or irregular activities. Usually such opera- tions are conducted principally by indigenous persons responsive in varying degrees to friendly control or direction, more particularly so in operations of a U.S. sponsored government-in-exile.


90.      Government-in-Exile Operations
The chronology of history includes many examples of plots, plans, and campaigns of former dynasties which sought to regain thrones usurped by others, of peoples deprived of their home- lands, and of adventurers who would found new nations. Some present day nations, including the United States, owe some parts of their development to similar activities. The current period is equally marked with similar efforts, some successful, some still potential and undetermined.
a. Recognition of a government-in-exile is a grave and delicate diplomatic act. Recognition in itself does not necessarily imply t,hat the United States will render any assistance to that govern- ment. If the framers of national policy decide to help a govern- ment-in-exile, such help might be restricted to advice and liaison necessary for preparing officials to perform duties to which they aspire. Civil affairs staffs and teams are especially qualified for assignment to the task of advising and assisting a government-in- exile. The responsibility may be given to a single liaison officer or to any size unit up to and including an Area Headquarters
AGO 614'1~     
depending on the degree and detail of guidance required and the complexities involved.
b. Resistance, rebellion, or civil war are other aspects of such operations. They begin in a nation where political, sociological, economic or religious division has occurred. They are caused by the desire of individuals to end conditions forced upon them by invasion, occupation, economic distress, sociological fragmenta- tion, or by an unpopular political regime. Success of these opera- tions depends upon the degree of support obtained from the civilian population in the area. Military operations are conducted to liberate the country for the benefit of the government-in-exile and may include tactical support and economic assistance as well as technical guidance.
AGO 6117B
CHAPTER 7
 
COMBAT AND POST COMBAT CA OPERATIONS

Section I. EMPLOYMENT OF CA ORGANIZATION
91. Civil Affairs Support
a.
While civil affairs operations, military-civil relationships, cover the spectrum between peace and general war, it is during combat and post combat periods that operations reach their zenith of essentiality, complexity, and organizational require- ments. Combat and post combat operations may occur in foreign or domestic territory, may involve friendly or hostile populations, and will be concerned with broad variables in policy and legal considerations. Except as otherwise directed, the commander of any unit of the U.S. armed forces will look to appropriate CA organizations to deal with local civilians and government on his behalf and to obtain necessary assistance, supplies, and facilities from indigenous sources.

b.
The scope of operations conducted by CA units vary accord- ing to the specific mission assigned in orders published by higher headquarters. In a fluid or moving situation, a command support unit normally initiates only limited emergency activities in an area prior to movement. The continuance or extension of these activities is carried out by designated area support units. In a static situation, a command support unit may perform many or all of those activities normally conducted by an area support unit.

c.
The various activities that are described in this section are primarily of an emergency nature directed toward the prevention of civilian interference with military operations and discharge of the commander's legal obligations toward the civilian population. In a fluid or moving situation, measures for the rehabilitation or restoration of the local economy are undertaken only when local resources in the form of labor and materials are available or when the objectives of the military operation necessitate the diversion of necessary supplies from military stocks.


92. CA Responsibilities
a. Relationships on the national level between military forces and established governments are as diverse as the potential range of situations. In the case of an occupied and previously hostile area the commander normally directs and controls officials of the central government and may relieve them of authority. In cases
AGO 6147B 107
of friendly governments the activities of the area headquarters unit may be limited to liaison and measures for providing support, advice, and assistance.
b.
In order to utilize fully the capabilities of his CA units the military commander must provide adequate direction to them to insure that they are effectively employed, adequately supported, and properly supervised. A commander delegated CA authority normally establishes a subordinate CA command, consisting of all assigned or attached CA units, to assist him in the direction of the CA effort.

c.
Relinquishment of CA area authority does not of itself deprive the relieved commander of his G5 staff section nor of his responsibilities for compliance with legal requirements with respect to the inhabitants, government, and economy within his area of concern and for the observance of humanitarian principles by his troops. A commander of a major unit, not delegated area authority, supports and assists the CA units operating in his area, and, in turn, is supported and assisted by them. He must be pre- pared at all times to assume the direction of CA operations in his assigned area in the event he is delegated CA area authority. To assure uniformity and continuity of operations, it is essential that plans for the relinquishment of CA area authority include such matters as liaison between responsible commanders, channels of command, augmentation of units, and other related matters.

d.
When one CA unit is directed to relieve another, the com- mander and principal members of the staff of the relieving unit make a personal reconnaissance of the area and confer with the staff of the headquarters to which the unit will be assigned or attached and with the commander and staff of the unit being relieved. The commander of the unit being relieved insures that necessary actions are taken to familiarize the relieving unit with the current situation. These actions include but are not limited to­


(1)
Acquainting the commander and staff of the relieving unit with designations, locations, and commanders of higher, subordinate, adjacent, and supporting units in the area.

(2)
    Acquainting the commander and staff of the relieving

unit with the characteristics and peculiarities of the area.

(3)
    Furnishing copies of current operational directives, standing operating procedures, and policy checklists.

(4)
    Furnishing copies of reports and records summarizing previous activities in the area of the unit being relieved.

(5)
    Describing activities in progress, their relative impor-


108      AGO 6147B 1
tance, and pointing out additional measures that must be taken.
(6)
    Documenting commitments made to civilians or civilian officials.

(7)
    Furnishing a list of individuals, not appointed as officials, but of value to the CA unit.

(8)
Furnishing information and recommendations on other items outlined in the periodic CA report shown in FM


101-5.
 

e.
In order to effect economy of units and personnel, there should be a continuous process of consolidation. For instance units that were deployed in the course of combat may be regrouped or redeployed according to the requirements of the situation ;as local governmental agencies become increasingly able to function with decreasing support or control, the number of CA units required can be reduced. Disposition of units made surplus by consolidation is accomplished in accordance with the theater plan.

f.
Whenever feasible, CA command and area support units employed in the combat zone are allocated areas of responsibility based on local political boundaries. When such a procedure is not feasible, areas of responsibility are based on applicable tactical boundaries. In areas to the rear of field army rear boundaries, where the situation is normally nlore stable, CA areas of responsi- bility are based on political rather than military boundaries. In the initial stages of a military operation or campaign, military boundaries usually cut across the borders of provinces or states, and it may not be feasible to establish complete units of civil administration therein. However, military boundaries should be relocated to coincide with political limits as soon as the military situation permits the consolidation of political entities. During static conditions or after the cessation of hostilities, authority for conduct of CA operations is normally withdrawn from subordinate tactical and administrative commanders. Consolidation of political segments increases efficiency of operations, requires less military personnel, and provides for greater continuity of policy.

g.
When enemy territory is occupied by allied forces of which United States troops form a part, control over CA operations is centralized in a combined command as rapidly as practicable to avoid division of occupied territory into national zones. Other­wise, national zonal boundaries may later become international boundaries and the occupied country partitioned in contradiction to the policies of the United States. In addition, the consequent disparities in policies and practices may severely prejudice the success of the occupation.


AGO 6147E      109
93. Need for Flexibility
a.
The CA organization within a military command must be flexible and adaptable to local political, economic, and sociological conditions. It must be prepared to implement policies transmitted by proper authority. It is responsible for recommending changes or modifications to policies and providing substantiation for such recommendations through observation and reports of results in the field. Economic, sociological, and political situations within the area of operations will often be complex and may be unpredict- able. Detailed prior planning, however, enables the commander to employ his CA organization to exercise effective control, super- vision, or influence over the local population.

b.
CA units must initiate activities in the combat zone as soon as an area comes within the control of the military force.


(1)
During fluid situations in forward areas, CA activities primarily support tactical military operations.

(2)
    In fluid or unsettled situations, authority for conduct of CA operations must be decentralized to the tactical commander within the area in which he conducts his tactical operations.

(3)
    Since uniformity and continuity of policies and opera- tions are essential to success, tactical commanders exercising CA area authority conform to available guidance and directives issued by higher authority.

c.
During static situations, a realignment of priorities among the activities of the various functional specialties may occur. Cer­tain activities, such as the restoration of public order and safety, control of refugees and displaced persons, and furnishing of emergency relief, which may have received primary attention during a fluid situation, will share importance with such func- tional specialties as public works and utilities, public transporta- tion, and civil information.

d.
In a static situation or when political entities are consoli- dated, primary attention may be given to long range policies for the restoration of local institutions. Consideration may be given to reformation of institutions and the adoption of more liberal policies in the control of the inhabitants, depending on the provi- sions of applicable treaties or agreements and United States objectives. It is essential to establish a stable government and to confirm its exercise of authority.


94. Command Support Units
a. A CA command support unit performs recurring operations that are generally similar in nature, regardless of the level of
110      AGO 6147B
command at which the unit is employed. The commander of a command support unit is responsible for performing the following recurring tasks and functions :
(1)
    Furnishing his superior commander and staff with infor- mation, estimates, and recommendations pertaining to civil affairs activities.

(2)
    Planning and supervising the training of his own unit and the training of other attached CA units.

(3)
    Exercising command over CA units that have not been assigned or attached to subordinate units.

(4)
    Receiving, holding, and orienting CA area support units to be deployed in the area.

(5)
    Recommending employment of CA units designated to provide area support.

(6)
    Establishing liaison with CA units assigned or attached to higher, lower, or adjacent commands.

b.
In order to insure the success of CA operations, directives of higher headquarters must provide detailed policy guidance on the initiation of the various functional activities with which the divi- sion may be concerned. Since all personnel are to some extent concerned with CA functions, major units, such as a division, must provide adequate direction, support, and supervision to its subordinate elements.


95.      Area Support .Units
a.
Units providing area support are deployed for operations in designated areas in accordance with the overall theater CA plan. Plans for the allocation and deployment of area support units are based primarily on the number of inhabitants within an area, their political organization, the economic environment, and the nature of the operation. In determining requirements, consideration is also given to levels of government, number of localities, size of area ; degree of economic, social, and political development; the required degree of control, and other related factors. Area support units normally focalize their activities in centers of population, cities that are seats of government, or control points of industrial complexes.

b.
To the maximum extent practicable, area support units are informed in advance of their deployment regarding the specific areas where they are to be employed to permit their making detailed analyses of pertinent area intelligence. When area train- ing is not provided prior to the departure of these units from the continental United States, it should be furnished upon their arrival in the theater by a theater school.

c.
Since a command support unit normally accompanies in movement the major unit to which assigned or attached, it is the responsibility of a commander delegated CA area authority to call forward an area support unit of the type designated in the theater plan in time to permit its deployment prior to the movement of the command support unit from the area.

d.
As rear boundaries are moved forward, area support units deployed in designated areas in accordance with the theater plan pass from the control of the subordinate major commander dele- gated the authority for that area. For example, when division or corps rear boundaries are moved forward, area support units deployed therein remain in place and pass to the control of corps or field army. As the rear boundary of a field army is moved for- ward, area support units remain in place and pass to the control of headquarters theater army, parent unit, or TACAC.

e.
While a certain amount of shift in responsibility from unit to unit may be necessary as boundaries displace forward, particu- larly in rapidly moving situations, the theater commander should strive for minimum disruption and maximum stability by moving pre-designated and pre-trained area support units into their specific areas or assignments as quickly as practicable. ~hese organizations normally would have been activated, trained, oriented toward their future assignment, and moved to theater assembly areas as required. It is recognized that this ideal situa- tion may not always be obtained, and, under some circumstances, area support operations may be conducted indefinitely by the command support units of successively higher echelons. In other instances, area support units previously planned for other assign- ments or interim composite organizations developed from theater personnel resources may be used.

f.
Upon entry into his assigned area or city, the commander of an area support platoon confers with personnel of the command support platoon, the commanders of units remaining in the area, and with local officials in order to obtain information that will enable the platoon to continue effectively any CA functions initi- ated prior to its arrival. Area surveys are conducted promptly with assistance from personnel of the command support platoon in order to verify information previously received and to provide a basis for adjustment of area requirements. An attached area support unit remains under control of the supported command until the command rear boundary is moved forward of the area in which the CA unit is employed or the commander is relieved of CA authority in the area. When CA area support units required are not provided by higher headquarters, the area commander utilizes


112 AGO 6147B
his command support unit to conduct CA activities in his area and requests necessary augmentation from higher headquarters.
g.
CA operations at a provincial or comparable level of govern- ment involve a higher degree of specialization and a greater need for supervision and policy direction than operations at a municipal level. An area support unit, usually a CA group, is deployed as soon as the military situation permits in order to serve as a pro- vincial headquarters. The group commander directs or supervises CA activities at the provincial level through his functional teams. He is normally directed to assume area jurisdiction of activities in the lesser political subdivisions of the province as soon as condi- tions therein become sufficiently static to permit conformance with political boundaries. He controls or supervises activities in the political subdivisions through previously deployed area sup- port units which are attached to his command. He provides tech- nical support and assistance to his attached units or furnishes such functional teams or specialists as the subordinate elements may require from his headquarters.

h.
CA activities are generally similar in nature, regardless of the size or complexity of the area. However, the sequence of actions to be taken varies according to local conditions. Priority is generally given to the most essential activities. Operations in a small city are normally conducted by a CA platoon augmented as necessary with functional teams or specialists. Operations of a CA unit in a large city such as the capital city of a country or state or a principal center of population cover the various functions in greater detail and are of a more complex nature than the opera- tions in a small city.

i.
The size, composition, and number of units required depend on the size and attitude of the population, extent of destruction, availability of services and supplies, and complexity of the area. When a large city is not divided into geographical subdivisions, the commander employs both his functional specialists and subordi- nate units at the center of government. In the event that the large city is divided into geographical subdivisions, the commander may find it advantageous to employ his principal functional specialists in the supervision of the major administrative functions of the city government and his subordinate units in the various geo- graphical subdivisions.

j.
Since it is desirable to focalize the conduct of CA operations at seats of local government or centers of population, the overall theater CA plan normally provides for the deployment of area Support units in cities. When an area support unit in a division area, such as a platoon, is initially deployed in a city during a


AGO 6117~ 113
moving or fluid situation, the jurisdiction of the unit may include surrounding rural areas. As the unit comes successively under the control of higher echelons, the extent of area over which the unit exercises jurisdiction is adjusted in accordance with the overall plan, modified by the exigencies of the situation. The extent of area over which an area support unit may effectively exercise control or supervision varies according to such factors as the size and geographical nature of the area; locations of politi- cal boundaries; attitude of the local population and amount of guerrilla activity; extent of agricultural and industrial develop- ment; condition of routes of transportation; existence of com­munications facilities, and other pertinent considerations.
k. Activities of CA units in rural areas devoted to agricultural production include initial surveys to determine the location of food surplus and deficit areas and continuing studies of agricul- tural production, farming methods, reclamation, conservation of lands; food processing and marketing systems, forestry, and fisheries. Estimates are made, as necessary, of requirements for food, fertilizer, and farm machinery. Measures are normally taken to facilitate and encourage the earliest possible resumption of agricultural production. When authorized by higher head- quarters, military assistance may be provided during the course of operations in the form of supplies such as fertilizers and farm machinery. Appropriate recommendations may be forwarded by the CA unit to higher headquarters on the imposition of restric- tions on civilian circulation and transportation of nonessential supplies in order to permit the movement and distribution of required agricultural supplies and equipment. During critical periods involving the seeding and harvesting of crops, it may be undesirable to requisition the labor of farmers for the perform- ance of other tasks. When any area includes extensive lands devoted to agricultural production or contains significant quanti- ties or types of natural resources, the CA unit should be aug- mented with appropriate functional teams or specialists by higher headquarters.


Section II. UNIT OPERATIONS
96. Platoons in Support of Divisions
a. CA activities in division operations are primarily directed toward the support of military missions and the fulfilment of the division commander's legal obligations. The complexity of CA operations, which are principally concerned with the control and care of the local inhabitants, varies according to such factors as the mission of the division, fluidity of tactical situation, density and attitude of the population, partial or complete disruption of normal civil law and order, extent of interference with military operations by refugees, and use of mass destruction weapons.
b.
A CA platoon is attached or assigned to its division for training prior to commitment and remains with the division throughout a campaign. The platoon normally consists of a platoon headquarters, a language team, and required functional teams. The command support platoon headquarters usually op- erates in general support of the division. The size of the unit and the principle of command integrity do not favor fragmenta- tion of the organization, although under certain circumstances the platoon or a portion of the unit may be employed temporarily in direct support of a subordinate tactical command of the division in the interest of operational expediency. Regardless of method of employment, personnel of the command support platoon will conduct essential reconnaissance and surveys of forward areas and furnish advice and assistance necessary for the initia- tion of CA activities required to control or provide emergency relief for the civilian population.

c.
Additional CA platoons will be requested and attached to the division either to supplement the operations of the command support platoon or for a specific task such as initial administra- tion of an urban area, a political subdivision, a refugee collecting point, or to perform a direct support mission for a subordinate command of the division. These additional platoons are employed as an augmentation to the command support platoon in accordance with the CA tasks to be performed and area to be covered. When such platoons are required they will normally be attached for administration and logistical support to and under operational control of the division commander.

d.
Division orders will specify and establish responsibility for initial tasks to be performed by subordinate tactical commanders. Among these tasks may be-


(1)
Locating officials.

(2)
    Posting proclamations.

(3)
    Establishing and maintaining guards over civilian warehouses, supplies, and facilities for civilian or mili- tary use.

(4)
    Maintaining guard over local records, archives, libraries, and cultural objects and installations.

(5)
    Controlling civilian circulation.

(6)
    Requesting required CA unit support.


AGO 6147B
 

e. Planning by the Division G5 for the conduct of CA activities in areas that will come under division control must be coordinated with other interested staff officers and adjacent units. Timely planning provides ,a determination of requirements for area sup- port platoons, regulates phasing forward of such platoons in advance of operations, and facilitates the application of measures necessary for the control of local population upon entry into the area. Development of the division plans should allow sufficient time for preparation of supporting CA unit plans.
97. Reconnaissance, Surveys, and Estimates
The CA unit commander conducts a preliminary reconnaissance of his area upon arrival. He becomes thoroughly familiar with the area as soon as possible and instructs the members of his unit to conduct area surveys to determine area requirements. Higher headquarters is notified promptly of the results of the recon­naissance and initial survey. As detailed information is obtained, comparison is made with conditions described in preliminary area studies. Differences serve as a basis for revision of previous estimates of requirements. The commanding officer of the CA unit continues to revise his previous estimate of the situation; he reviews the effects of the significant factors described below on implementation af the course of action previously selected. He promptly advises higher headquarters of those changes which are necessary and requests policy guidance, as appropriate.
a.
Own Situation. In revising his estimate the commander considers changes in the friendly situation. During his recon­naissance he verifies the number, types, and locations of friendly military units in the area in order that he may plan for the security of his unit. He requests necessary assistance in the initial guarding of essential civilian installations and provides support to the military f.orce in the form of services and supplies from local resources.

b.
Enemy Capabilities. Enemy capabilities for interfering with the accomplishment of the mission of the unit through use of mass destruction weapons, conventional weapons, sabotage, espionage, subversion, and passive resistance are reviewed on the basis of information obtained from friendly units already in the area and from local inhabitants.

c.
Characteristics of the Area. The commander gives further consideration to the effect on the implementation of his course of action on significant characteristics of the area that differ from those which had been considered previously or on which specific information was not available prior to entry into the city. These


116 AGO 6147B
charqcteristics may include such matters as the extent of war damage in the city; availability of food, clothing, medical sup- plies, and shelter for the civilian population; numbers of refugees and displaced persons requiring care and control, state of repair of public utilities, present status of government, attitude and state of health of the civilian population.
d. Operations to be Supported and Special Factors. Considera­tion is given to the effect of changes in the nature of tactical operations on the activities of the CA unit and to special factors such as the possible employment of mass destruction weapons.
98.     Initial Actions
a. Upon entering an area or city, the CA unit commander insures that the necessary proclamations and ordinances are posted in public places frequented by the inhabitants. The CA unit accomplishes the initial or supplementary posting and main- tains an official record of the time, date, and place of such posting. Local officials who have been retained in office may be directed to post additional copies or make further distribution. Proclama- tions and ordinances may cover such matters as-
(1)
Authority exercised by the military command over civil matters.

(2)
    Collection of weapons and ammunition.

(3)
    Imposition of curfew regulations.

(4)
    Control of civilian movement and establishment of zones of circulation.

(5)
    Establishment of law and order and enforcement of public laws.

(6)
    Implementation of public health and sanitation measures,


including identification and burial of civilian dead. (For content and format of proclamations and ordinances, see ch. 8 and apps. X through XIV.)
b.
The unit commander makes frequent inspections to insure that operations are being conducted in accordance with established policies and applicable provisions of law. The commander insures that all essential measures are taken to maintain law and order and to prevent disease and unrest. He insures that local officials, agencies, and installations are functioning in compliance with CA directives and in a manner which best achieves the objectives of the operations.

c.
The headquarters of the CA unit is located where it can best control or supervise activities within its assigned area of jurisdic- tion. The location of the headquarters is marked by a sign designating the unit, its area of jurisdiction, and the hours dur-


ing which local inhabitants may visit. Since it is essential that both military personnel and local civilians be able to locate and identify the CA headquarters readily, the approaches must be clearly marked by signs in English and the language of the area.
d. The location of the headquarters is determined from prior reconnaissance and is coordinated with the headquarters exercis- ing military control of the area. In determining the exact location, appropriate consideration is given to-
(1)
Availability of necessary space, undamaged facilities, and all-weather hard standing.

(2)
Locations of governmental offices.

(3)
Local security.

(4)
Proximity to designated transportation routes.

(5)
Availability of communications facilities.

(6)
Location of higher headquarters.

e.
In the selection of a location for the command post of the unit, appropriate consideration is given to the advantage of security furnished by local troops in the vicinity. The presence of a sizable armed force near the CA headquarters enhances law and order and minimizes the threat of hostile measures from civilians, guerrillas, and partisan forces. In appropriate circumstances, other military units in the area may be directed by the area military commander to afford security to the unit.

f.
U.S. policy may require that public officials with undesirable backgrounds be removed from office. Retention of other public officials is normally a matter within the discretion of the CA unit commander. The latter selects and appoints persons to govern- mental positions vacated by officials who have disappeared or who have been removed for political reasons, inefficiency, or uncooper- ativeness. Selection of new officials is made in accordance with policy directives published by higher headquarters and is normally based on professional or occupational competence and the posses- sion of satisfactory political backgrounds. All appointments to key positions are usually temporary in duration and are subject to the approval of higher military authority. Individuals to be appointed to public ofice may have been designated in advance. Control or supervision of activities is conducted through local civil officials and designated agencies, whenever possible. Personnel of the CA unit act as operators rather than supervisors only when suitable officials cannot be found and then only until local per- sonnel can be located or trained.

g.
The major initial tasks of a CA unit upon arrival in an area or city in addition to the appointment of civilian officials and establishment of the local governmental structure include-


118 AGO 6147B
(1)
Civil information. Media of mass communication dis- semination, such as TV and radio stations, newspaper and periodical publishing plants, motion picture houses, central loudspeaker systems, or any other device employed to gain public attention, are brought under immediate control. Physical plants will be surveyed, and although the nature and degree of censorship imposed will be outlined in theater directives, the CA unit nor- mally will maintain continuing surveillance over com­munication agencies. Essential information with respect to policies and programs of the military forces can be disseminated, and enemy propaganda can be countered, by use of conventional communication media. Appro­priate psychological warfare consolidation company per- sonnel may be attached to the CA unit to support the information program or to prepare, disseminate, and evaluate friendly propaganda.

(2)
     A survey of available food resources,


Civilian supply.
means of transportation and distribution, and amount of
food consumption is promptly initiated. Unless changes
are required, existing systems of rationing and distribu-
tion are continued. Essential quantities of civilian relief
supplies, such as food, clothing, and medical supplies
required to supplement local stocks, are obtained through
prescribed military supply channels. The commander
supervises the establishment of local organizations for
the administration and distribution of civilian supplies.
In appropriate conditions, he may make arrangements
to obtain from civilian or military sources essential sup-
plies that are necessary to conduct those agricultural,
industrial, and commercial activities which may be of
direct benefit to the military force. Locations, types, and
quantities of locally available supplies surplus to local
needs, are reported to higher headquarters. See chapter
10.
(3)
    Displaced persons and refugees. If there are large groups of refugees and displaced persons, concentration camps are uncovered, or, if the local population is to be evacuated, a displaced persons team will be required to plan, coordinate, and supervise measures for care, con- trol, and movement. The CA unit to which the displaced persons team is attached requisitions such civilian relief supplies as are needed for operation of civilian collecting points and assembly areas.

(4)
    Labor. The CA unit commander initiates surveys to ascertain the amount and type of available local labor. He makes recommendations on local requirements for labor, arranges with local officials to provide labor for employment by the military force, and assists in direct- ing labor to the using military unit. In the event that existing registration practices are inadequate, a system for the registeration of local labor according to age, sex, skills, physical condition, and mobility is initiated. Direc- tives of higher headquarters are implemented with respect to such matters as the organization of labor; settlement of labor relations problems; wage rates, hours and working conditions, and medical care and compen- sation in cases involving disability. Measures to provide security screening of labor employed by the military force are coordinated with counterintelligence elements of the Intelligence Corps.

(5)
     The CA unit initiates surveys and


Natural resources.
analyses of natural resources in the area, such as mineral deposits, forests, water resources, and wild life. Meas­ures are promptly taken to provide maximum practicable protection of such resources from exploitation and to safeguard the records pertaining to their administration.
(6)     Public facilities. Initial activities include surveys of water supply and sewage disposal systems and deter- mination of requirements for the operation of essential services. Coordination is effected with the various mili- tary technical services in the reestablishment, control, and supervision of those public utilities, transportation facilities, and local communications systems needed for military or essential civilian use.
(7)
Public Health.

(a)
     


Initial basic and continuing public health activities will be directed toward determining what epidemics or other health hazards are present or developing which may adversely affect the health of troops, advising the surgeon of the command promptly, and taking neces- sary action to control these conditions.
(b)     
Local public health administration will be reviewed to include the principal legislative features, budget, and personnel, with considerations for retention or replace- ment of personnel. Appointment of a completely new emergency administration may be necessary when the local government is disrupted to the extent that no
120      AGO 6147B
public health administration exists. Through the administration, but with close supervision, the follow- ing activities are initiated:
1.     
Establishment of a system for the continuing review of communicable diseases (including animal dis­eases) and measures to control them.
2.
    Establishment of a system for continuing review of civilian casualties; survey of conditions, capacities, and locations of civilian hospitals, and availability of buildings as substitutes, and quantitative and quali- tative survey of medical, paramedical, and auxiliary personnel. (Supportive measures will be imple­mented to organize local resources to the maximum so that the local government and people can handle their own medical care problem.)

3.
Establishment of a system for continuing review and control of environmental sanitation. The public health staff will provide constant technical guidance to the other CA functional staffs having primary operational or supervisory responsibility in these areas. This guidance may relate to the provision of minimum sustaining diet, housing, fuel, clothing, soap, garbage and sewage disposal, removal and burial of the dead, water supply, management of displaced persons camps, and movement of masses of people.

4.
    Survey of existing civilian medical supplies and of civilian pharmaceutical industry potentials plus availability of civilian transportation to support essential health and medical activities. Action will be taken through appropriate CA functional staffs to provide necessary supporting measures.

5.    
Nutritional surveys may be indicated. If so, these should be initiated as early as possible by United States nutritional teams available from the theater level. (Inherent in all the above actions is the con- tinuation or establishment of a satisfactory system of reporting according to higher directives, local capabilities, and the local situation.)


(8) Public welfare. The CA unit initiates emergency and continuing relief measures essential to public order and safety, such as provisions for emergency shelter for civilians. It coordinates local relief activities and welfare measures, supervises and assists operation of public and
AGO 6147B      121
private charitable institutions and relief organizations, and monitors distribution of contributions from volun- tary agencies.
(9)     Public safety. Conferences are held with senior civilian police and fire department officials as soon as possible after arrival so that the status and capabilities of local systems may be ascertained and such reorganization as is immediately necessary may be accomplished. The police are instructed on the extent of authority which they may exercise under applicable proclamations, ordi- nances, or agreements, as appropriate, and on their re- sponsibility for enforcement of local laws. In order to insure the effective maintenance of law and order, plans are formulated for the coordination of civil and military police activities. When appropriate, arrangements are made to secure arms or special equipment for the civil police. Civil defense activities are initiated as soon as practicable upon entry.
(a)     
Curfew. When curfew regulations are imposed upon local inhabitants, they are informed by posted ordi- nances and by dissemination through civil information media. When local police are incapable of enforcing a curfew, it may be necessary for higher headquarters to provide assistance from military police or other units.
(b)     The CA unit issues passes to allow essential
Passes.
movement to doctors, midwives, key officials, utility repairmen, and other persons whose occupations may require special consideration. The unit commander may authorize key officials, such as the mayor or police chief, to issue passes to designated classes of civilians.
(c)     Travel. When it is necessary to impose travel restric- tions, military or civilian police establish checkpoints at road barriers, bridges, railway stations, airports, and docks to enforce such restrictions.
99.     Marches
a. General. The CA unit makes both administrative and tactical types of marches. Administrative marches are normally made prior to deployment when contact with an enemy ground force both en route and after arrival at the destination is a remote pos- sibility, or in neutral or friendly areas where enemy action is not an immediate consideration. When deploying for operations and when contact with an enemy ground force is possible, the unit
122      AGO 6147B
makes a tactical type of march. Marches may be made by infil- tration, close column, or open column depending 011 such factors as the mission of the unit, visibility, condition of the roads, traffic conditions, enemy air activity, and proximity to front lines.
b.
Organization for the March. The order and composition of the march column depend on the mission, terrain, the probable order of need of the subordinate elements, and any differences in relative mobility. In the movement of a CA unit larger than a platoon, reconnaissance or quartering parties usually precede the movement of the main body of the unit. The main body of the unit, which may move under the command of the executive officer, consists of the remaining members of the unit staff, the majority of functional teams, and the administrative teams. In appropriate situations, the administrative teams may be formed into a rear echelon and marched behind the main body under command of the motor officer or other designated individual. When sufficient organic transportation is not available to move all personnel and equipment of the unit in one tri~. and additional transportation is not furnished by other units, the unit moves its personnel and equipment successively by echelon until the entire movement has been completed.

c.
Reconnaissance Party. The unit commander's reconnaissance party consists of personnel and equipment needed to assist the commander in his reconnaissance, formulation of his plan, issu- ance of orders, and establishment of the unit headquarters. Com­position of the party varies according to the situation and the size of the unit. In a unit of group size, the party may consist of the group commander, S2, S3, public safety officer, sergeant major, interpreter, and messenger. Additional members of the unit to include the remainder of the public safety team are included ac- cording to the requirements of the situation.

d.
Quartering Party. The quartering party of a CA group may consist of the headquarters detachment commander (in charge), the communication officer, the assistant S4 (for assistance in bil- leting and local procurement), guides, route markers, and such other personnel as may be required by the situation. Composition of quartering parties for other type CA units varies according to the availability of personnel. The quartering party locates and lays out bivouac areas, selects and prepares actual command post sites for occupancy, and allocates space for the staff section, func- tional teams, messes, motor pools, and other facilities. It also provides guides to meet the column upon arriv81, performs route


AGO 6147B
reconnaissance and pioneer work, and prepares plans for defense of the area.
e.
Orders. A warning order for the march is issued by the unit commander as early as possible to give personnel of his unit ade- quate time for preparation. The warning order includes informa- tion that a movement is to be made, how it is to be made, and the approximate time it will begin. Any other pertinent information which is available and which does not conflict with secrecy re- quirements is also included. The march order for the unit may be written or oral. The amount of detail to be included in the march order depends on the tactical and traffic aspects of the situation, the state of training of the unit, and the amount of detail already included in standing operating procedure.

f.
Order Detail. A complete march order describes the situa- tion ;designates the mission, destination, formation of the column, initial point, control point, regulating or release point, times of arrival or clearance at these points, rate of march, route or routes of march; furnishes instructions to security detachments, recon- naissance, pioneer, quartering, route marking, and traffic control parties; prescribes restrictions on the use of roads, maximum speed of march, alternate routes and detours, restrictions on lights, halts, precautions during halts, special instructions on march discipline, and instructions on defense against air or ground attack, and furnishes instructions on administrative de- tails and communications.

g.
Route Reconnaissance. Route reconnaissance is made from maps, aerial photographs, or airplanes. Whenever practicable, map reconnaissance is followed by driving over the route. Route reconnaissance serves to determine the most suitable route, alter- nate routes, available cover and concealment, road conditions, locations of mine fields, road blocks, defiles, gassed areas, or other obstacles, condition and capacity of bridges, selection of sites for halts, bivouacs and assembly areas, and plans for route marking and pioneer work.

h.
March Security. March security necessitates the establish- ment of a warning system within the unit to include ground observers, security detachments, reconnaissance elements, and effective signal communication, when available. Unless augmented with air defense weapons, the CA unit commander relies primarily on passive defense measures for defense against hostile air attack. Passive security measures include marching at night, dispersion in column, concealment and camouflage, movement of march ele- ments by bounds, and mobility. Alternate routes and vulnerable points are determined by reconnaissance. At halts, vehicles are dispersed and march outposts established. March discipline in-


124 AGO 6147B
dudes the observance and enforcement of rules which govern a unit on th'e march, especially those involving correct formations,
'     distances, speeds, and the effective use of cover. March discipline is acquired through training and experience in marching. Effec­tive march discipline enables CA units to enter forward areas with combat forces and to take such action as is necessary to establish control of the civilian population.
100. Security and Communication
a.
The unit commander takes both active and passive security measures to protect the unit headquarters from hostile ground action, air action, covert threats, atomic attack, and CBR weapons. These measures, which are normally set forth in the unit SOP, are integrated in the consolidated defense and warning system which may be established for all military units in the area. Passive defensive measures against CBR attack include the use of protec- tive masks, special clothing and other protective equipment, use of protective shelters, immunization procedures and field sanita- tion, decontamination, self aid, and first aid. For information on the defense against CBR attack, see FM 2140 and FM 21-41.

b.
As conditions require, a guard system is established utilizing local civil police augmented, when directed by the area military commander, with Troops. Whenever practicable and as required, a perimeter defense is established, utilizing subordinate elements in assigned sectors of the perimeter. Effective utilization is made of terrain, fields of fire, individual cover, defensive works, and obstacles. Mutual support measures are closely coordinated with other units in the vicinity. In areas where only very limited sup- port can be provided by other military units, it may be necessary for the unit commander to request that higher headquarters aug- ment the defensive capabilities of the unit with automatic and other type weapons.

c.
Guards and outposts supplemented by motorized reconnais- sance patrols, within the capabilities of the CA unit, may be employed to give early warning of attack. In addition, contact is maintained with friendly civilians who are in a position to supply information. Effective communications are maintained with patrols, guards, outposts, other military units in the area, and higher headquarters.

d.
The unit commander insures that personnel of his unit are Prepared at all times during the conduct of its normal CA opera­tions to repel a security threat. Weapons are kept at hand in condition for use.

e.
The commander exercising control over the CA unit is responsible for including the unit in his communications network.


AGO 6147B      125
The CA unit commander insures that his unit is appropriately tied into the military signal communications system and is re- sponsible for the establishment and maintenance of signal com- munications with his subordinate units.
f.
Local civilian communications facilities are used for com- munications between the agencies of civil government. When local facilities have been damaged or have been taken over for military use, the unit commander requests an allocation of mini- mum military facilities or supplies to permit the conduct of emergency governmental services. When it is not possible to furnish military supplies or equipment, the unit commander arranges for the transmission of essential messages through the military communications system. The CA unit commander con- ducts the necessary liaison and coordination between military signal corps units and local officials. For information on the principles of tactical employment and techniques of operating the most commonly used signal equipment see FM 24-18 and FM 24-20.

g.
The unit commander is responsible for communications security including the imposition of all measures which prevent or delay the gaining of information by the enemy from friendly means of communications. Arrangements for the censorship of civil communications are made with G2 of the staff of the area military commander. See AR 380-83, AR 380-5, and the JANAP and ACP-122 series.


101. Retrograde Movement
a.
Primary CA tasks during a retrograde movement include control of the local inhabitants to prevent interference with mili- tary operations and evacuation of designated civilian personnel, essential resources, assets, supplies, and equipment. Prior to a retrograde movement, flow of civilian supplies to forward areas is reduced and rearward evacuation of supplies that may be of use to the enemy is accomplished with civilian transportation being used to the maximum. In order to neutralize the value of the area to the enemy, it may be desirable to destroy resources, assets, supplies, equipment, and local facilities that may be of use to his forces. However, this destruction is accomplished only in accordance with international law and upon the authorization of the commander directing the retrograde operation.

b.
Detailed plans for retrograde movements must be made in advance in accordance with overall plans. Effective liaison be- tween the CA unit and higher headquarters, adjacent, and sup- porting units is essential to the control and movement of civilians,


126 AGO 6147B
including establishment of checkpoints, the prevention of inter-
ference with tactical operations, and the utilization of all available
roads.
c, Commanders of major tactical units are responsible for
directing the movement of CA units assigned or attached to their
headquarters. In order to provide for continuing control of the
civilian population in forward areas, it is desirable for the com-
mand of designated CA units to pass to the last friendly major
tactical commander operating in the area. Thus, designated
area support units deployed in the army service area may come
under the successive control of commanders of corps and divi-
sions; orders for their rearward movement are issued by the
latter commands.
Section Ill. DISPLACED PERSONS, REFUGEES, AND
 
EVACUEES
 

102. Movement Control
a. Purpose. During combat operations effective control of the movement of civilians is of primary importance. Disorganized masses seriously impair the maneuverability of military units, endanger security, and threaten the health of the military force. In addition, refugees and displaced persons constitute a potent weapon which the enemy may use to disrupt friendly military operations. To prevent interference with military operations from the movement of the local population, it is essential that civil administration be reconstituted at the earliest practicable time and that constructive direction be given through civil authorities to the local population.
b. Definitions.
(1)
A displaced person is a civilian who is involuntarily outside the boundaries of his country in time of war, who may or may not be desirous of repatriation, and may require assistance in obtaining food, shelter, and clothing.

(2)
    A refugee is a civilian who by reason of real or imagined danger has left his home to seek safety elsewhere within his own country.

(3)
    An evacuee is a civilian removed from his place of residence by military direction for reasons of his own security or the requirements of the military situation.

c.
Responsibilities. The theater commander is responsible for planning policies and procedures for care, control, and disposition of refugees, evacuees, and displaced persons in accordance with


AGO 6147B     
directives of Department of Defense. subordinate commanders prepare detailed plans based on policies of the theater commander. All commanders are under the legal obligation imposed by the rules of international law, including the Geneva Convention of 1949, to provide a minimum standard of humane care and treat- ment, to establish law and order, and to protect private property. Additional humanitarian considerations are observed whenever possible providing they do not result in interference with military operations.
d. Planning Considerations. Detailed planning for the care and control of refugees, evacuees, and displaced persons should include consideration for such matters as the authorized extent of migration and evacuation, location and establishment of camps, sources of materials and personnel to construct camps, standards of care; status and ultimate disposition of refugees and displaced persons from allied, neutral, or enemy countries; extent of local governmental authority over nonnational civilians, designation of routes for refugee movement, military police units to provide traffic control, intelligence detachments to screen personnel, and CA units to operate camps.
e. Disposition.
(1)
During a fluid situation, it is desirable to billet refugees with the local population in nearby communities to the greatest practicable extent rather than to move them to the rear through assembly areas to camps. When frontline tactical units have advanced rapidly, it is advantageous to permit the early return of refugees to their homes. Logistical support requirements may, however, delay the return of refugees to centers of population. In a static or slow moving situation, it may be necessary to collect and move all refugees to the rear rather than to billet them in nearby communities.

(2)
    In either a fluid or a static situation, displaced persons are formed in groups and moved through assembly areas to displaced persons camps as soon as the tactical situation permits. All movements of refugees, evacuees, and displaced persons to the rear are made on designated secondary roads. Maximum utilization is made of local

transport.

(3)
    The ultimate disposition of refugees is to allow them to return to their homes as quickly as tactical and logistical considerations permit in order to lessen the burden on the military force and the civilian economy for their support and to lessen the danger of disease


128      AGO 6147B
which accompanies the grouping of peoples in restricted
areas. When refugees are returned to their homes, they
can assist in the restoration of their towns and con­
tribute to their own support. Continuing attention is
given by all commanders exercising control over refu-
gee camps to the early return of refugees to their homes.
(4)
    The ultimate disposition of displaced persons is to reset- tle them, preferably in their own country or in any area of their choice consistent with United States policy and international agreements. The early resettlement of such displaced persons shortens the period of time during which they are a responsibility of the military commander.

(5)
    The ultimate disposition of evacuees will vary with the reasons for evacuation, but generally they will be re- turned to their places of residence or other areas of their choice within the scope of United States policy and the terms of existent or negotiated international agreements.

f.
Screening. To prevent infiltration by guerrillas, enemy a.gents, and escaping members of the hostile armed forces, it is essential to screen refugees, evacuees, and displaced persons, set up control points, issue passes and other identification documents, search suspected individuals, enforce curfews, and impose restric- tions on movement. Although screening activities may be per- formed initially by military police, intelligence, or other type units, they are most effectively conducted by using friendly and reliable local civilians under the supervision of CA units. Ad­ministrative controls to prevent infiltration must be conducted with care to prevent the alienation of people who are sympathetic to United States objectives.


103. Evacuation
a. Whenever possible, the rearward evacuation of communities in forward combat or other areas is avoided. Evacuation removes civilians from areas where they can maintain themselves, provides material for enemy propaganda, arouses resentment, affords civil- ians an opportunity to observe valuable military installations, complicates the control of their movements, increases the difficul- ties of maintaining adequate security; necessitates the use of military transport and the expenditure of additional food, fuel, clothing, and medical supplies, thereby increasing the burden upon military resources, and may create epidemic conditions and de- crease availability of facilities to support military operations. Instructions may be disseminated by air dropped leaflets, airborne
AGO 6147B      129
loudspeakers, or portable speaker units. In appropriate situations, uroclamations, orders, and instructions are posted by advancing troops. Repeating evacuations because of unanticipated reverses or for other reasons is wasteful of personnel and equipment. It is also a source of irritation and unrest to the civilians. Repeated evacuation may also present a hazard to the security of the troops and interfere with military operations.
b. If tactical considerations so require, civilians may be re­moved from forward areas and not be permitted to return to their homes until the advance of friendly elements has resulted in the establishment of a new forward zone. The removal of civilians may be partial or complete, as security considerations require. If practicable, livestock may be evacuated with the civilians. In any event, provision should be made for protecting property, both real and personal, of the absent civilians, the feeding of remaining livestock, guarding of mines, and performing other essential services. When civilians have been removed from an area, they are not permitted to return to their homes until authorized. How­ever, when the military situation permits, civilians may be returned to their homes under escort in order to rescue livestock or minimize personnel losses which may impair the local economy.
(1)
The decision for such action must be made by the divi- sion or higher commander. For example, a rearward evacuation beyond the division rear boundary is made only after coordination with the corps or field army commander.

(2)
    Civilians are evacuated to the rear only when necessary to­

(a)
Remove them as a hindrance to military operations.

(b)
    Provide for increased security of troops and installa- tions and to safeguard information.

(c)
    Provide for their safety and welfare by removing them from the fontlines.

(3)
    Civilians may be evacuated when-

(a)
There is time for the evacuation to be accomplished.

(b)
    Density, character, and composition of the population render such evacuation necessary.

(c)
    Means are available to accomplish the evacuation.

(d)
    Routes are available for the evacuation.

(e)
    Areas are available to absorb the evacuees.

(f)
    Distances involved are not prohibitive.

(g)
    Fallout from nuclear attack has not made movement impracticable because of lethal radioactivity over escape routes.


AGO 6147B

130     
c. Duties of a CA unit commander in an evacuation include--
(1)
Executing plans for evacuation.

(2)
    Utilizing civilian transportation to the fullest extent pos- sible for the transport of civilians.

(3)
Establishing and maintaining feeding stations along routes.

(4)
    Insuring that plans for reception have been made.

(5)
Establishing civilian collecting points and civilian assem- bly areas or refuge evacuation centers.

d.
When a decision is made to accomplish the mass evacuation of a community, detailed plans are made to prevent stragglers or uncontrolled groups from disrupting forward movement of mili- tary units and supplies. Mass evacuation planning includes con- sideration of the following:

(1)
Transportation. Maximum use will be made of civilian transportation. If this is not available, military vehicles should be requested for the old, the very young, and the sick.

(2)    
     Distance. The distance of the move from the point of departure should be no greater than is necessary to meet the minimum objective for which the movement is planned.

(3)
Fallout. Where radioactive fallout has occurred, or is anticipated, precautions are taken to avoid moving civil- ians downwind from the actual or anticipated nuclear attack.

(4)    
     Security screening documentation of

Screening. and evacuees should be accomplished at the earliest possible moment-preferably not later than their arrival in as- sembly areas.

(5)
Identification. If possible, every evacuee is provided with and required to wear visibly on his person a tag identifying him by name, or is provided an official iden- tification card indicating the locality from which evac- uated and bearing other pertinent information.

(6)
    Briefing of evacuees. Briefing to explain the purpose of the move and the methods of passive air defense is accomplished by leaflets, loudspeakers, posters, or other means available prior to beginning the movement.


(7)         
Impedimenta. Each person is allowed to take a prede- termined allowance of personal effects.
(8)     Rations. If the move will require not more than two days, rations may be issued at the time of departure to
AGO 6147B          131
each person evacuated, or rations may be issued at desig- nated points enroute,
(9)     Housing should be such that
Holding areas and camps.
it will not endanger the health of the evacuees, nor unnecessarily increase the suffering caused by the evacu- ation. Issues of food, fuel, clothing, and medical supplies are furnished in advance to the holding area receiving the evacuee. .
(10)
Medical care. The health and physical well-being of the evacuees are difficult problems. Use of civilian medical personnel is highly desirable. Civilian medical personnel are supplemented by military medical personnel, if neces- sary and available, to assure meeting standards of medi- cal care required, to protect the health of military per- sonnel, and to comply with international law. Particular attention is given to elderly persons, pregnant women, the blind, crippled, and feeble, and very young children. Appropriate health measures will be taken prior to move- ment to prevent spread of infectious diseases and de- velopment of epidemics.

(11)
    ~eligiousneeds. When practicable, the religious needs of the evacuees are ascertained, and facilities are made available for worship, through the use of civilian religious personnel assisted by military chaplain personnel, if available and required.

(12)
    Duration. The duration of the evacuation should be no greater than that necessary to meet the maximum objec- tive for which the movement is planned.

(13)
    Return. Plans for mass evacuation also include pro- vision for the return of the evacuees as well as criteria for determining the duration of their absence. Areas subjected to CBR warfare are carefully screened for safety of occupancy before return movement is accomplished.

e.
In a retrograde movement, standfast orders normally are issued to civilians in order to prevent interference with military operations and to preclude disclosure of the plan of operation. However, experience has shown that such orders are ineffective if a population fears the enemy; therefore, the rearward evacuation of civilians in special categories and priorities may be authorized by policies of higher headquarters. Policies pertaining to evacua- tion are implemented by subordinate tactical commanders as the military situation permits. Evacuation priorities may include persons and resources according to the following priorities :

(1)
Civil officials and resistance leaders who have worked for the military forces of the United States and its allies and their immediate families who may be subject to reprisals.

(2)
Other civilians including medical and religious personnel, as policy directs and the military situation permits.

(3)
Civil police (other than (1) above).

(4)
    Items of immediate value to the enemy forces except such material as medical supplies and foodstuffs essential for civilian needs, personal property, or any other material covered by international law or humanitarian considera- tions. Equipment or materiel in certain categories, ca- pable of immediate conversion to military use by hostile forces and not capable of evacuation, such as petroleum products, weapons, means of heavy transport, and public communications equipment may be destroyed.


132      AGO G147B
104. Roads and Collecting Points
a.
Civilian collecting points are temporary areas designated for the assembly of small numbers of refugees, evacuees, and displaced persons prior to their evacuation to assembly areas, or refugee camps, or to their resettlement in local communities. At collecting points only minimum emergency relief for limited periods to in- clude food and medical treatment is provided. Appropriate dis- position of civilians held in collecting points is made as rapidly as the military situation permits. Collecting points should be in de- filade, accessible by road, and near water.

b.
Whenever practicable, civilians are searched for documents of intelligence value and unauthorized possessions. Prisoners of war are separated from refugees, evacuees, and displaced persons, and are turned over to military police for delivery to prisoner of war collecting points. Refugees, evacuees, and displaced persons are screened against listings furnished by G2 describing enemy civilians whose internment as "civilian internees" is considered necessary in the interests of security. Civilian internees are also segregated and turned over to military police.

c.
In the movement of refugees, evacuees, and displaced persons from collecting points in a division forward area to assembly areas in the division service area, corps rear area, or army service area, maximum utilization is made of civilian police in providing con- trol. Every effort is made to hold family groups together. Move­ment is made on secondary roads selected in consultation with interested staff officers including G3, G4, and the provost marshal.


AGO 6147B      133
105. Assembly Areas and Camps
a.
An assembly area or refugee evacuation center provides a temporary assembling place for refugees, evacuees, and displaced persons in preparation for further movement to refugee camps or for resettlement in local communities. Assembly areas, which are generally designed to accommodate a larger number of persons than a civilian collecting point, provide additional emergency re- lief to include food, clothing, medical supplies, medical treatment, and limited shelter. In assembly areas, the process of screening to segregate prisoners of war and civilian internees for separate han- dling by military police units is continued. In addition, action is commenced, whenever the requirements of the military situation permit, to segregate civilians by nationality or ethnic groups in preparation for movement to designated camps. A continuous effort must be made to identify and segregate individuals whose interests are inimical to those of the U.S. and its allies.

b.
Refugee or displaced persons camps or collection centers serve as temporary or semipermanent places for the grouping of refu- gees, evacuees, and displaced persons prior to the return of such persons to their normal places of habitation, resettlement in local communities, repatriation to their own countries, or other desig- ated disposition. They are normally located in communications zones. Camps may utilize available civilian accommodations or consist of military construction. In either instance, it usually is de- sirable to limit the size of camps to a maximum of 5,000 persons to facilitate care and control and to preclude requirements for military personnel to provide medical care, sanitation, and the preservation of order.

c.
In these camps a further segregation of refugees and dis- placed persons takes place according to nationality or ethnic group. Continuing action is taken to detect enemy civilians who should be interned, examine civilians for communicable and other diseases, prepare individual identification records, reestablish in- dividual family groups; provide food, clothing, and additional medical care, and prepare individuals for future disposition.

d.
Refugees, evacuees, and displaced persons may be accom­modated in hotels, schools, halls, theaters, unused factories, or any type of public buildings; they may occupy blocks of unoccu­pied houses or workers' camps. Local facilities are utilized when- ever practicable to reduce the requirements for engineer construction materials. In the designation of locations, care is taken to avoid those which are in the vicinity of such profitable targets as vital communications centers and large military instal- lations. In the selection of local facilities, general consideration is given to the temporary or semipermanent nature of the


134 AGO 6147B
facilities to be established and such factors as weatherproof roofing, solid floors, necessary ventilation, provisions for water supply, sewage, and waste disposal, and proximity to local soprces of food supply. Another factor in camp location is whether inhabitants will be a source of indigenous labor.
e.
The specific type of authorized construction, which is the minimum necessary to satisfy the requirements of the particular situation, varies according to local climate, anticipated perma­nency of the particular camp, number of camps to be constructed, extent of local sources of labor and materials, and the availability from military resources of engineer materials and assistance. Whenever possible, construction is accomplished by the refugees, evacuees, or displaced persons, themselves, or by local agencies of government employing civilian labor; local sources of ma­terials are utilized to the maximum practicable extent in accord- ance with legal limitations.

f.
The administration and operation of a refugee or displaced persons camp usually are directed by a CA platoon under the supervision of its company headquarters. The parent CA com- pany provides technical advice, support, and assistance, and may furnish additional platoons and functional teams or .specialists, such as displaced persons, public health, public welfare, or public safety, at any particular camp according to the requirements of the particular situation. In the event that additional functional teams or specialists are required beyond the capabilities of the CA company, the company commander requests the minimum necessary assistance from the CA group or major echelon to which assigned or attached. Because of the large numbers of refugees and displaced persons for whom control and care normally must be provided, maximum attention must be given to self-administration or the utilization of local civilian personnel to provide the cadre for camp administration. This cadre should be organized and trained prior to the opening of the camp. Whenever practicable, civilian personnel should be obtained from public and private welfare organizations and employed under military supervision.

g.
Inmates of camps should be required not only to establish and maintain the organization for internal camp administration but also to provide for security of the installation. Within the limitations imposed by international law, camps should provide the necessary labor for their own operations and within applicable limitations should be looked to as a source of essential labor. Allied liaison officers and representatives of international organi- zations and of local governments are conducted on visits to camps as required.


AGO 6147B

Section IV. CIVIL DEFENSE AND AREA DAMAGE CONTROL
106. Relationship and Mutual Support
a.
Civil defense includes the mobilization, organization, and direction of the civil population, designed to minimize by passive measures the effects of enemy action against all aspects of civil life. Because of the extensive damage to civilian populations and economies that may result from use of mass destruction weapons, careful development and effective implementation of civil defense plans are essential to preserve the stability and security of civil government. In addition, civil defense contributes to the protection of military installations from related damage, may minimize military casualties, permits the continuance of local support to military operations, and generally reduces the extent of disruption to military operations.

b.
Area damage control in military operations consists of the preventive and control measures taken prior to, during, and after an attack or natural disaster to minimize the effects on administrative support. It serves to assist in the continuation or reestablishment of administrative support. Responsibility for reestablishing administrative support rests with the command and the technical and administrative service officers, however, and is not a part of area damage control. Generally rear service areas are divided into sub-areas for damage control purposes, and a rear area security control center is established by the respon- sible commander to implement and coordinate rear area defense and damage control. Similar subordinate control centers are established in each sub-area. Area damage control planning is a general staff responsibility of G4, while rear area security plans are prepared under the supervision of G3, and civil defense is within the purview of G5.

c.
In territory assigned to a logistical command the deputy commander of the logistical command is given responsibility for general supervision of the planning and conduct of rear area security and damage control, and plans for these operations are prepared by the director of security. Execution of area damage control and rear area security plans is a responsibility of com­mand which may be delegated to a subordinate commandel* Civil defense is the responsibility of civilian authority, where it exists, coordinated by or under the supervision of civil affairs units.

d.
Civil defense and area damage control planning and opera- tions should be closely correlated and mutually supporting. Not only will hostile operations be of immediate security concern to the civilian populations and agencies and area troop units


136 AGO 6147B
and facilities, but passive defense measures must be coordinated for successful implementation. Some of the same personnel and equipment may be employed dually in civil defense and area damage control operations. Pre-attack planning will give consideration to such matters as camouflage, circulation of traffic, movement of individuals, blackouts, construction of shelters, warning systems, labor, fire-fighting and decontamination procedures, equipment, and personnel. In post-attack recovery operations radiological survey and decontamination processes will benefit both military personnel and civilians. Civilian and military fire-fighting equipment and labor potential can be co- ordinated or pooled, where advantageous, as can medical services. Any major movement of civilians as the result of an attack will have a direct bearing on the circulation of military traffic. In repair and reconstruction activities, equipment, technicians, labor, and materiel of troop units concerned and the civilian population should be coordinated and directed toward serving the maximum advantage of both.
107. Implementation
a.
Responsibilities. G5 is assigned general staff responsibility for civil defense planning and measures for the control of the civilian population. He coordinates his plans with appropriate staff officers in their respective fields of interest. In his assigned area of jurisdiction, the CA unit commander is responsibile for implementation of civil defense plans and for coordination of control measures with local agencies of government and with sub-area control centers, as appropriate. Within the CA unit, the public safety officer has primary staff responsibility for planning and supervision of all activities pertaining to civil defense. To the maximum practicable extent, local officials are held responsible for organization of local civil defense activities and effective conduct of civil defense measures.

b.
Planning. Civil defense planning is not confined to pro­tective measures against nuclear weapons in the mass destruction category but must include protection against all types of warfare, and against all forms of natural disaster such as floods, fires, and earthquakes. G5 submits to G4 those paragraphs of the area damage control plan pertaining to CA operations, prepares civil defense annexes to operation and administrative orders, and plans for related control measures applicable to the civil population. In development of civil defense plans, consideration is given to­


(1)
Correlation with the area damage control plan.

(2)
    Provisions for emergency repair of vital installations, fire prevention and protection, disposal of enemy ex­


plosive ordnance, and emergency hospitalization of civil- ian personnel.
(3)
    Maximum utilization of existing local plans, organiza- tions, and facilities.

(4)
    Mutual support provisions to enable both military and civilian rescue and working parties and their equipment to be employed, in emergency, in the installations and facilities of the other.

(5)
    Establishment of civilian control centers in the vicinity of sub-area control centers, whenever feasible, in order to receive air raid warnings, dispatch orders, direct emergency services, and coordinate measures for mutual assistance between military and civil organizations and facilities.

(6)
Coordination of neighboring civil defense organizations particularly when the boundaries of military sectors for damage control cross political boundaries.

(7)
    Establishment in towns and cities, where no operating civil defense organizations exist, of civil defense organ- izations with directors subordinate to the mayors or chief executive officers.

(8)
    Establishment of civil defense organizations at provin- cial and national levels as soon as the situation permits..

(9)
    Organization and training of fixed support installations, facilities, and personnel for emergency hospitalization, housing, mass feeding, and traffic control and of mobile reserves containing combined teams capable of rapid mobilization and movement for the purpose of perform- ing police, fire, medical, rescue, and engineering services.

(10)
    Provisions for the evacuation of cities and towns rendered unsafe as a result of contamination, radiation, flood, or other disaster to include the supply of necessary transportation, control of allocated transportation, and alternate traffic circulation plans. Such provisions must stress flexibility and mobility. In planning for any evacuation to avoid the blast and thermal effects of nuclear weapons, consideration must be given to the availability of shelter or cover, the speed of movement which can be achieved, and the difficulty of identifying areas of safety with reasonable accuracy.

(11)
    Development of protective measures against guerrillas, infiltrators, and subversive elements who can be ex­pected to take advantage of the disruption or disorgan- ization of local government.


AGO 6147B
(12)
Education of      the local population and provisions for the dissemination of information, orders, and instruc- tions requiring group action and assignment of in­dividual responsibilities to avoid extensive casualties that may result from mass panic.

c.
Operations. Provisions for civil defense are required from the instant operations are initiated. In order to establish tem- porary measures for the control of damage and to provide higher headquarters with a basis for planning, the CA unit, upon entry into its assigned area, promptly gathers information on the structure and capabilities of any existing civil defense organiza- tion and on the availabilities of local supplies and equipment. Sources, including neighboring communities, from which addi- tional equipment may be obtained are also explored. Under the direction of the CA unit commander, the public safety officer or other individual designated to act in this capacity, coordinates the activities of the various functional specialists. Functional specialists supervise those local agencies of government and civil defense services that normally are most closely related to their respective specialties. Organization of or augmentation to the following types of services is desirable in most situations :

(1)
Police services, consisting of community police organiza- tions and supplemented by an auxiliary corps of volun- teer policemen to restore public order and safety, prevent and detect crime, protect life and property, enforce civil defense orders, and control the movement of people.

(2)
    Fire services, consisting of existing fire-fighting units and supplemented by an auxiliary corps of volunteer firemen to combat large conflagrations and to perform rescue work related to fire fighting.

(3)
    Warden services to maintain liaison between locaI civil defense organizations and civilian populations and to assist in the dissemination of information, orders, and instructions to the public.

(4)
    Public health services augmented with nurses, aid work- ers and stations, and mobile casualty units to provide first aid treatment; to classify, evacuate, and hospitalize casualties; to operate blood banks and perform labora- tory services, to test the potability of water supplies, and to conduct other activities related to public health and sanitation.

(5)
    CBR defense services to minimize the effects of enemy attacks, conduct surveys to detect and establish bound- aries for CBR hazards, and advise civil defense workers


AGO 6147~     
on the maximum period of time they may remain in specific areas without risk of injury.
(6)
    Rescue and engineering services to release living persons trapped in debris or damaged buildings and to provide for a potable water supply, the disposal of garbage and sewage, and the clearance of debris from roads to permit the movement of essential traffic.

(7)
    Communications and transportation to provide services required for civil defense activities and to mobilize, organize, and deploy available civilian transportation facilities for the purposes of providing emergency ambu- lance and evacuation services in event of disaster and of facilitating such evacuation of cities and towns as may be directed.

(8)
    Public welfare services to assist in the supply and dis- tribution of food and clothing and to provide shelter for those who are homeless.

(9)
    Local information bureaus to prepare and disseminate information and instructions. To discourage local work- ers employed by the military force from leaving their jobs, .it is desirable to give assurances to workers that actions are being taken to provide care for their families and protection for their homes.

d.
Supplies. Logistical portions of operation plans should in- clude provisions for anticipated requirements of civil defense equipment and supplies so that later diversions from military stocks of supplies needed for the support of military operations will not be required. Civil defense equipment and supplies, which should be available for issue to the local government as soon as the reliability and capability of that government have been estab- lished, may include fire-fighting and heavy equipment, tools, chemicals, industrial gases, and civilian relief supplies.

e.
Training. All CA personnel should receive training in area damage control prior to operations and possess a working knowledge of the application of their respective functional special- ties to the planning for and implementation of civil defense measures. Public safety officers should receive intensive training in area damage control. The CA unit supervises the conduct of general and specialized training of all local civil defense personnel to provide a working knowledge of assigned duties and of the capabilities of civil defense equipment, devices, and materials. In the training of local personnel, flexibility and versatility should be stressed to permit the utilization of personnel both in their assigned duties and in the varied emergency tasks required under disaster conditions.


140      AGO 6147B ,
Section V. SPECIAL OPERATIONS
108. Airborne, Amphibious, and Armored Operations
a.
Although the conduct of special operations normally requires specially trained troops, special techniques, tactics, material, or an emphasis upon certain considerations, the CA principles, con- cepts, and techniques described in this manual generally apply. The flexible composition of CA TOE units permits the addition or deletion of specified functional teams to meet the requirements of particular operations.

b.
Following an airborne operation and when linkup with friendly forces has been accomplished, authority for the conduct of CA operations may be transferred to the commanders of those major tactical units effecting the linkup. To assure continuity of operations, particular attention must be given to providing information and making records available to other commanders who will subsequently enter the area.

c.
In the planning for and conduct of CA activities in support of airborne operations, the commander of a major tactical unit must provide, as a minimum, for the establishment of public order and safety, the discharge of his legal responsibilities, and such additional activities as the nature of the operations may require. These additional activities, which may be undertaken after the airhead is secure, may include the local procurement of motor and other forms of transportation to increase the mobility of airborne units; the utilization of local labor, supplies, and equipment, and the protection of local resources.

d.
CA planning, which is based on the tactical plan of opera- tions, necessitates accurate, detailed, and timely intelligence of objective areas on such matters as the attitude of the local popu- lation; movement by the enemy of inhabitants from the landing area; extent of disease, privation, and unrest among the inhab- itants which may necessitate the use of civilian relief supplies fro& military stocks; availability of local labor for military use, and availability of local supplies and equipment for military pro- curement.

e.
In airborne operations, the CA command support platoon, augmented as necessary with functional teams or other command support platoons, moves to the objective area with the assault echelons. Since the CA units normally will not be able to assume control over civilians in the airhead until some degree of stability is established, personnel of the unit act in advisory capacities to the commanders who are responsible for the control of civilians in their respective areas. As specified in division directives, initial actions may include measures to freeze the civilian population in


AGO 6147B
 
place in order to prevent interference with military operations; to establish law and order and prevent sabotage, and to provide shelter, rations, clothing, and medical care for civilians. In inde- pendent type operations, designated CA area support units should be deployed in the airhead prior to the exploitation phase. In linkup operations, area support units may enter the area with the force effecting the linkup.
f.
In amphibious operations, personnel of the division command support platoon, as augmented, are attached to the landing teams to advise and assist the commanders in initiating CA operations. In planning for amphibious operations, particular consideration is given to the vulnerability of beachhead operations; to activities by local inhabitants which may cause congestion or confusion; to the need for absolute control over civilian circulation so that movement from and to the beachhead areas will not be impeded, and to problems which may be created by refugees. Since econ- omy of force is a vital consideration, maximum permissible use is made of local resources. To the extent authorized by international law and when security considerations permit, it is desirable to employ local inhabitants for cargo handling, warehousing, and related activities.

g.
In armored operations, it may be necessary to accord priority to public order and safety measures at the expense of other CA activities because of the longer lines of communication and the extent of the area in which operations may be conducted. When an armored division is empIoyed in pursuit or exploitation mis- sions and is supported by an infantry division, coordination must be effected by commanders concerned on the conduct of CA activ- ities to include the initial establishment of public order and safety in order not to delay the advance of the armor and still to provide for full discharge of legal or treaty obligations. When an armored division is in a static situation or occupies a frontline defensive sector, its CA activities are conducted in the same general manner as those of an infantry division.

h.
Specialized operations require specialized training if CA personnel are to function at maximum efficiency. Airborne oper- ations require training in loading and unloading of equipment and personnel in aircraft and landing by parachutes or assault air- craft; amphibious operations require specialized training in em- barking and debarking procedures and special considerations of cover, security, and communications, while operations in the jungle, mountains, arctic, and in deserts necessitate training in procedures appropriate to the areas of operations in the interest of personnel survival and immediate and effective ability to sup- port the combat forces. Special operations in certain instances


142 AGO 6147B
require special equipment, and whether the operation is in the jungle, mountains, arctic, desert, or in areas with more conven- tional terrain and weather features, advance plans will cover specialized individual and unit equipment essential to the area of operations. Within limitations imposed by time and availability of source material intensive area study prior to any specialized operation is necessary.
109. Guerrilla Operations
a.
Guerrilla warfare is conducted in enemy held territory by independent or semi-independent forces, usually indigenous, organ- ized on a paramilitary or military basis for the purpose of reduc- ing combat effectiveness, industrial capacity, and morale of the enemy. It is usually conducted to hinder, harass, sabotage, or delay operations of enemy forces. It may be employed in friendly areas which are to be liberated from enemy occupation or in enemy territory which is to be seized and occupied by friendly forces. For details on the conduct of guerrilla operations, see FM 31-21.

b.
Operations of friendly guerrilla forces located in enemy con- trolled territory are closely coordinated with those United States political objectives and policies which are to guide the conduct of CA operations as the area of concern comes under friendly con- trol. Since friendly guerrilla forces endeavor to gain and maintain civilian support and to organize and control civilians, they pro- vide a valuable basis for subsequent CA operations to gain control of the civil population. Guerrilla forces may be employed to fur- nish valuable information about political, economic, and sociolog- ical conditions. Such current information, which supplements or modifies area intelligence previously obtained, is of particular value in planning for the conduct of CA operations. When guer- rilla forces are assigned a mission by the conventional force to collect data for intelligence, specific CA items of information, such as the suitability of individuals for appointment as local officials, are included.

c.
Since it may be necessary to provide CA trained personnel to assist in the collection of information, qualified CA personnel or reliable civilians may be introduced into guerrilla units. Dis­patch of such persons by the conventional force may provide valuable guidance to guerrilla forces with respect to United States objectives and may assist in gaining early control of the popula- tion after linkup is effected.

d.
CA units can provide effective support to special forces de- tachments in guerrilla warfare programs. Prior to linkup, infor- mation secured from local officials, political opposition groups,


AGO 6147B 143
civilian documentary matter, refugees, and other sources within
the civilian community may be useful to guerrilla forces. Pros­
pective recruits for guerrilla units will be uncovered in normal CA
Nonstandard supplies and equipment of civilian origin
required in guerrilla operations can be obtained, and other support
in the way of facilities, equipment, technicians, and labor for
special forces bases in non-denied areas can be provided.
e.
Subsequent to linkup, civil affairs units will have a major interest in the disposition and rehabilitation of former guerrillas. The nature of guerrilla activities and personality characteristics of many individuals attracted to guerrilla forces, present serious problems both of acceptability in the community and willingness for assimilation on the part of the former guerrillas. In many instances relocation will be the only solution where deep-rooted animosities and political friction have developed. When guerrilla forces are demobilized there will be administrative problems of record, final pay, decorations, collections of equipment, claims, in- vestigations of alleged atrocities, and protection of individuals.

f.
Work must be found for those persons who need work. Some guerrillas may be absorbed in conventional military units ;others may be retained in paramilitary organizations for security and counterguerrilla operations, while individual personnel can be em- ployed in various capacities, depending on their capabilities and requirements of the area, by local governments and as civilian employees of the armed forces. Those who return to civilian occu- pations may need assistance in training and economic support. In some instances, where the political climate is favorable, out-stand- ing guerrilla leaders may be nominated or selected for important assignments in the reconstitution of civilian administrations.

g.
The degree of foresight, planning, initiative, and good judg- ment brought to bear on the problem by CA units will go far to- ward determining the amount of success they will achieve. From the outset of any organized guerrilla operations, plans for the eventual disposition of the force should be prepared on the theater level and kept current with changes in tactical and political situations.

h.
Prior to linkup guerrilla organizations can assist future civil affairs operations in the area when it is uncovered by providing supplementary information on socio-politico-economic conditions in denied areas, developing personality files on the ability and re- liability of local leadership, identifying possible trouble makers and resistance groups, and reporting locations of hidden commodi- ties, funds, records, and other essential assets. Most important, if guerrilla forces have built up an attitude of good will on the part of civilians through the manner in which they have conducted


144 AGO 6147B
their operations, that good will can be exploited by civil affairs units particularly in initial phases of their operations.
1 10. Counterguerrilla Operations
a.
Since combat forces normally are not used in rear area security roles unless absolutely required, it is essential that initial CA operations be directed primarily toward gaining early control of the population in land areas occupied or liberated by the military force. Guerrillas depend on the active support of the local in- habitants for food, medical supplies, shelter, intelligence, and per- sonnel. No effective guerrilla movement can exist without, as a minimum, the passive sympathy of the local population ;therefore, a basic objective of counterguerrilla operations is to separate guerrilla forces from civilian support. Since guerrillas thrive on confusion and the disorganization of government, CA operations are so conducted as to engender stable conditions which are un- favorable to guerrilla activities through the relief of local destitu- tion, restoration of law and order, resumption of agricultural production, reestablishment of local government, and measures to enlist the active support and sympathy of the local population.

b.
It is essential to induce the local population to support the conduct of CA operations and to establish good will between the population and the military force. Appropriate consideration is given to the use of rewards for friendly assistance, imposition of punishment for collaboration with guerrillas, ultilization of propa- ganda followed by the implementation of promises, and the utili- zation of necessary restrictive measures. The threat of hostile guerrilla operations necessitates extensive security measures to safeguard troops, military installations, lines of communications, local institutions, and the resources of the area from guerrilla attack, and to protect the local population from guerrilla coercion and exploitation.

c.
When the local population collaborates with hostile guerrilla forces, rigid controls and restrictions are imposed. Such controls and restrictions may be relaxed subsequently according to the requirements of the situation. Punishment for violation of regu- lations and restrictions must be just and deserved to prevent ex- ploitation by guerrillas. Maximum publicity is given to those offenses for which punishment is imposed. In order to reduce collaboration with guerrillas, it may be desirable to impose strict rationing controls on the production, distribution, and consump- tion of food, clothing, and medical supplies.

d.
Planning for rear area security is initiated without delay, is continuous, and includes plans to prevent, minimize, and combat


enemy guerrilla activities. Planning for defense against guerrilla action necessitates a detailed analysis of intelligence of the area of operations including the enemy, weather, terrain, national charac- teristics, customs, beliefs, and desires of the people. In planning, consideration is given to political and economic policies that are necessary to gain control of the area and its population and to pre- vent development of an enemy resistance and guerrilla movement. Policies must be intelligently conceived and wisely executed to gain the respect and cooperation of the civil population. Plans must be effectively coordinated with adjacent commands and vigorously implemented in all areas to prevent the movement of guerrillas into such other areas.
e.
Since hostile persons disguised as civilians may mingle with refugees passing through frontline areas and operate as guerrillas upon arrival in rear areas it is essential to effect systematic con- trol of all civilians moving toward the rear, strict channelization of their movement, and the establishment of collecting points for detailed processing.

f.
Local and national police security detachments and other formations of local personnel are organized and utilized to guard critical installations against sabotage by infiltrators and guerrillas and to function as information collecting agents by the com­mander charged with rear area security. In rear areas local civilians who are dependable and sympathetic are employed to the maximum practicable extent in security units and as agents and informers to infiltrate guerrilla units and report their move- ments and locations. Labor and service units may be utilized in the storage and distribution of supplies and the preparation of defensive works.

g.
Screening of local civilian employees is essential to prevent accurate information of military operations and troop movements from falling into the hands of guerrillas and infiltrators. Use of enemy nationals to combat guerrillas not only requires the careful screening of individuals based on reliable intelligence but demands that particular attention be given to measures which will prevent treachery and exploitation of such units by the guerrillas them- selves. Civil information activities supported by consolidation psychological operations are essential to widen differences between opposing factions. In liberated areas, CA operations must furnish maximum support and assistance to the reestablished government and facilitate the use of the organized forces of the government to combat and destroy guerrillas.

h.
It may be necessary to provide essential items of supply to portions of the civilian population including victims of resistance force attacks, groups which have been relocated or concentrated


AGO 6147B
for security reasons, and any other civilians whose receptivity to resistance may be increased by hunger and distress. These sup- plies initially will be limited to such survival items as food, medi- cal supplies, clothing, fuel, and construction material. Emergency supplies must be safeguarded and controlled to insure equitable distribution and their denial to hostile elements.
i. No resistance movement will achieve any marked success without the willing or coerced support of a portion of the civilian population. Means of securing separation between guerrillas and sources of civilian support are covered in detail in FR'I 31-15 and chapter 8 discusses general control measures. The following list will suggest some methods of control or division which may be adopted by CA units :
(1)
Confiscate weapons to reduce their availability to guer- rilla seizure and set up an accountability system for those weapons retained by civilians.

(2)
    Register all civilians and set up an identity card sys- tem.

(3)
    Established a curfew with due consideration for civilian needs.

(4)
Set up circulation controls.

(5)
Suspend such personal rights     as     may be necessary to allow searches and arrest on suspicion.

(6)
Evacuate designated areas.

(7)
    Provide security for friendly civilians and their families.

(8)
Establish      a      reporting system covering     treatment of wounds and administration of designated medical aid.

(9)
    Furnish relief supplies to resistance force victims and other indigent persons.

(10)
Conduct      educational      forums     to counter resistance propoganda and outline positive programs.

(11)
Secure reports on absentee employees.

(12)
    Maintain     control     and accountability over foodstuffs, medicine, livestock, raw material, or other matter which may be of assistance to guerrillas.

(13)
Establish      price      control     and rationing systems for critical items.

(14)
Confiscate property of adjudged collaborators.

(15)
Censor media of public communication.

(16)
License all forms of transportation.

(17)
Establish an information program with the support of psychological warfare personnel to publicize measures taken, reasons therefore, and punishments for non­compliance.


AGO 6147~
 

(18)
Reward civilians who contribute actively to counter- resistance programs.

(19)
Restore normal community procBsses of public health, safety, education, communications, transportation, waste disposal, water supply, legal processes, and other expres- sions of civil government and administration.

(20)
Introduce necessary governmental and legal reforms.

(21)     
Stimulate      production      of agricultural products and other essential goods.

(22)
Increase development and utilization of local resources.

(23)
Improve community relations activities.

(24)
Encourage civic action programs (see ch. 6).

j.
Counterguerrilla operations present legal and political prob- lems of great complexity and sensitivity. Guerrillas, depending upon their status under international law, may be equated to regular armed units of the enemy or be regarded simply as brigands and bandits. For information concerning legal rules applicable to guerrillas and the use of local inhabitants in counter- guerrilla operations, see FM 27-10.


Section VI. OTHER AGENCY SUPPORT OF CA OPERATIONS

11 1. General
As the situation may require, military services such as preven- tive medicine, signal, psychological warfare, engineer, ordnance, chemical, intelligence, military police, and transportation units, may be assigned or attached to, or directed to support the opera- tions of CA units. Technical and administrative support is pro- vided CA units in the same manner as other military units are supported.

1 12. Engineers
a.
Constructing camps and billets for civilians, particularly refugees and displaced persons.

b.
Making necessary repairs to essential public utilities, such as water reservoirs or filtering plants, essential bridges, dams, locks, and similar structures.

c.
Maintaining essential public transportation facilities such as roads and railways.

d.
Supporting rehabilitation projects as the situation permits and as directed by higher authority.


AGO 6147B
148     
113. Army Medical Service
a.
Supplementing inadequate civilian medical supplies and facilities within the scope of U.S. policy and international law.

b.
Augmenting civilian capability for control of disease.


114. Military Police
a.
Securing and protecting such critical supplies, equipment, and facilities as may be determined by the responsible commander.

b.
Protecting records or archives.

c.
Enforcing circulation restrictions and curfews.

d.
Maintaining order and quelling frays or disturbances.

e.
Controlling traffic.

f.
Controlling movements of displaced persons, evacuees, and refugees.

g.
Investigating serious crimes.


115. Intelligence Corps, ASA, and MPCl Elements
a.
Screening civilian officials.

b.
Locating and apprehending war criminals and enemy mili- tary personnel masquerading as civilians.

c.
Detecting and preventing sabotage.

d.
Detecting and preventing the transmission of information to enemy forces, unfriendly partisans, or guerrillas.


116. Psychological Warfare Units
a.
As an integral part of CA operations, civil information and public education activities are conducted in areas under friendly control to render direct assistance to military operations, gain the support of civilian populations, and facilitate the control and reorganization of occupied and liberated territory. United States policies and objectives are disseminated to the inhabitants through the use of persuasion, education, and orientation. All available media of information are utilized. As areas come under friendly military control, psychological warfare units provide essential support and assistance to CA operations through the conduct of consolidation activities. In these consolidation activities PSYWAR and CA units are mutually supporting, since PSYWAR units will have to draw heavily on the detailed and intimate knowledge of an area and its people possessed by CA personnel, and the com- munication facilities and techniques of PSYWAR will substan- tially aid CA.

b.
Detailed planning by all interested staff officers is essential to avoid confusion and duplication and to insure the effective integra- tion of consolidation psychological warfare activities in the plan- ned CA operation. Coordination with G2's and free exchange of


basic intelligence and close coordination in the determination of essential elements of information (EEI) also must be accomplished between CA and psychological warfare officers.
c.
G5 has general staff responsibility for internal affairs and governmental functions in occupied and liberated areas to include civil information, public education, and consolidation psychologi- cal warfare operations directed toward the civil population therein, G5 coordinates with G3 on the deployment of consolidation psy. chological warfare units and on their attachment to CA units for operational control.

d.
The two principal types of psychological warfare troop units are Psychological Warfare Company (loudspeaker and leaflet) and the Psychological Warfare Battalion (broadcasting and leaflet).


(1)
Psychological Warfare Company (loudspeaker and'leaf- let). The mission of the company is to conduct psycholo- gical warfare operations in support of a field army. One company normally is assigned to each field army and consists of a publications platoon, an operations platoon, and a loudspeaker platoon. A mobile radio detachment may be attached to the company by the psychological war- fare battalion (broadcasting and leaflet) for specific op- erations in which radio is essential.

(2)
    Psychological Warfare Battalion (broadcasting and leaf- let). The mission of the battalion is to conduct psycho- logical warfare operations in a theater of operations. Although one battalion normally is assigned to each thea- ter of operations, additional units may be authorized if required. The battalion normally consists of a headquar- ters and headquarters company, a PSYWAR radio broad- casting company, reproduction detachment, and the required PSYWAR administrative service and operations teams of the PSYWAR consolidation company and platoons.

(3)
    Consolidation Company and Platoons. The mission of the consolidation company, mentioned above, is to conduct consolidation psychological operations in support of CA through the use of still and motion pictures, newspapers, periodicals, loudspeakers, radio, and other appropriate media of communication. The consolidation company is organized on a cellular basis. The capabilities of the com- pany vary with the size and grouping of the teams. It is assigned or attached to a headquarters and headquar- ters company of a psychological warfare battalion


(broadcasting and leaflet). Operational control of opera- tional teams is exercised by civil affairs units.
AGO 6147B
150     
e. The capabilities of consolidation activities for support of CA operations vary primarily according to the number and composi- tion of consolidation companies employed in the area. In general, psychological operational teams, under operational control of CA units can-
(1)
Supervise the reestablishment and operation of news­papers and other publication facilities.

(2)
    Plan and supervise the operation of a fixed radio broad- casting station.

(3)
    Operate mobile sound and film trucks and employ air- borne loudspeakers.

(4)
    Reestablish, operate, and direct the operation of motion picture installations.

(5)
    Supervise the distribution of newspapers, periodicals, and other materials.

(6)
    Prepare and conduct pictorial, photographic, art, poster, and instructional displays, and exhibitions.

(7)
    Utilize civilian panels to gauge the effectiveness of oper- ations.

(8)
    Disseminate information and CA directives and in­structions.


117. Signal Corps
Signal Corps personnel may assist in procurement, construction, installation, or maintenance of civilian communications facilities.
118. Transportation Corps
a.
Transportation Corps personnel may assist in procurement, installation, maintenance, and operation of civilian transportation equipment.

b.
Supplement civilian transportation facilities for movement of civilian supplies, commodities, or personnel, as the military situation permits.


119. U.S., Allied, and International Agencies
The assistance of a number of U.S., allied or international civil- ian governmental and private agencies may be available in the area of operations. Such agencies frequently are staffed with persons of considerable competence and experience, and the organization activities are of direct concern to CA. It is essential that the work of these agencies be coordinated at the highest level and that close liaison be maintained with them on the working level of CA units.
a. U.S. Agencies. Federal departments and agencies may fur- nish technical advice and assistance as requested by appropriate authority.
AGO 6147B      151
b.
Allied and International Agencies. Public and private agencies from allied nations or international organizations may be authorized to work in an area in which CA units have primary responsibility.

c.
Private Agencies. Organizations of a charitable, religious, or fraternal nature may be engaged in emergency relief activities. They may assist the CA organization with trained personnel and supplies. Personnel of these agencies may operate under the direct supervision of CA units to assist such units in the accomplishment of humanitarian objectives.


AGO 614PB
 

CHAPTER 8
CONTROL MEASURES
Section I. CONTROL AND SUPERVISION
120. Degree, Duration, and Level
a.
The degree of control exercised over the inhabitants, govern- ment, and economy of an area in which military operations are conducted depends primarily on the nature of the operation. In addition, the necessary degree of control may be influenced by such factors as the requirements of the military situation; the attitude of the inhabitants toward the military force; govern- mental, economic, and sociological conditions within the area, and the political and other objectives of the United States. As long as military operations continue, the theater commander should be authorized the degree of control over the inhabitants required to insure the security of his forces and his lines of communication, the enforcement of law and the maintenance of order, and the achievement of the objectives of the operations.

b.
The preparation for, and the security of, future operations may necessitate extendec! control over the inhabitants. Addition­ally, in order to insure the attainment of national objectives, and in consonance with international agreements, it may be necessary to continue the exercise of control over certain aspects of internal and external affairs of the territory after release of general legis- lative, judicial, and executive authority to a civilian government or agency. In this situation, control may continue to be exercised for international agreements, foreign trade, reparations, social re- form, displaced persons, and similar matters. When a potential threat to national or international security exists or conditions in an occupied territory are unfavorable or unsettled, the duration of control may extend beyond the period of active military oper- ations until such time as the objectives of the United States are achieved.

c.
Controls are established at those levels of government where the conduct of governmental activities can be directed or super- vised with the greatest efficiency and uniformity consistent with established policies. Certain functional specialties, such as public communications and public finance, normally are most effectively controlled or supervised at a high level of government; other specialties, such as public education and public safety may be best controlled or supervised at a subordinate level of govern-


AGO 6147B 153
ment; and still other functional specialties, such as public health and public welfare, are best controlled or supervised at each level of government. In any case, supervision should parallel the struc- ture of the civilian agency.
121. Techniques of Control
a.
Administrative controls over a population may be coercive in the case of measures which can be enforced or noncoercive with respect to measures which offer incentives. Whenever and wherever possible, noncoercive controls are employed as opposed to coercion. The strongest measure available may be withholding some desired assistance. Measures intended to cause every mem- ber of the population to cooperate should not involve the use of force. The people as individuals must be induced to recognize their interest in the common good. They may be offered an otherwise unobtainable incentive, or it may be made more con- venient for them to cooperate. The best medium for exercise of control over the masses is through public officials and leaders. This lends emphasis to the importance of selecting and supporting civilian administrative machinery whose members not only are capable and cooperative but who possess prestige and popularity with the remainder of the population.

b.
Among noncoercive administrative measures which may be a,dopted to secure good will and acceptance of an announced policy or desired course of action are-


(1)
Declaration of policy. A declaration of policy is an over- all statement of United States objectives, aims, and policies with respect to the area in which operations are conducted. Although a statement of policy is one of the least onerous of noncoercive administrative devices, it may be accompanied by announcement of penalties for the recalcitrant. Proclamations, ordinances, orders, and instructions may be employed to inform the inhabitants of conduct which is expected of them, and any policy followed should be clearly enunciated through official channels and public news media.

(2)
Declaration of legal obligations. A declaration of legal obligations clarifies for the government and inhabitants of the area those relationships with the military force which are prescribed by international law. A declaration of legal obligations may be included in initial or sub­sequent proclamations. Awareness of prescribed obliga- tions and relationships tends to promote integrity of action and increases mutual respect.


154 AGO 6147B
(3)
    Establishment of standards. Standards are guides with- out any binding provisions and may provide an effective means for spot checking and improving local procedures. Standards may be of particular value in the conduct of such functional specialties as public health, public trans- portation, public utilities, and public communications.

(4)
Setting of examples. Both CA units and the civil govern- ment of the area should set examples for the inhabitants. Any action taken by the government in the conduct of its affairs may stimulate voluntary action by individual inhabitants along similar lines. Elements of the United States military force should stress correct conduct of troops in public places and among the local inhabitants. CA personnel should strive to be prompt in making replies to inquiries, punctual in keeping appointments, and accessible to local officials. Epphasis should be given to the promotion of respect for local laws, customs, and traditions.

(5)
Demonstrations. A demonstration is an explanation by example or exhibition of a preferred method or device. The expectation is that the superiority of the demon- strated method or device will encourage voluntary accept- ance. Demonstrations may be particularly suited to such matters as child care and public health and sanitation through the use of mobile clinics, soil testing, deinfesta- tion of grain, care of pouItry, and operations of com­munications equipment. Agencies of civil government are encouraged to make maximum use of improved tech- niques.

(6)
    Educational campaigns. Educational campaigns ape use- ful to familiarize the inhabitants with an idea, action, or policy in order to secure cooperation, increase the scope of local interest, and raise standards. Educational cam- paigns may be prepared by the various CA functional specialists in coordination with the civil information officer to furnish information on such matters as sanita- tion, food and agriculture, and the source and amounts of imported civilian supplies. Within the various func- tional specialties such as public health, public works and utilities, public communications, and public transporta- tion, technical periodicals and other publications may be prepared and furnished to the respective local agencies of government.

(7)
Conferences. Conferences with local officials constitute the most frequently used method of clarifying and inter-


preting laws, policies, or procedures which are of mutual interest. Discussions in conferences not only serve to show an interest on the part of CA personnel in local activities or projects but also provide a most effective method of obtaining the acceptance of advice. When
questions arise on especially complex problems, effective action may be obtained by discussing the subject in gradual stages until a time is reached at which the entire matter can be summarized. It may be desirable to conduct daily informal conferences with the chiefs of the various agencies of government.
(8)     In both
Conciliation, mediation, and arbitration. con­ciliation and mediation, a third'party helps to resolve a dispute between two other parties. In arbitration, an arbitrator is given the power of making a final binding decision. Conciliation and mediation differ from arbitra- tion in that there is no prior agreement to abide by the decision of a third party. Conciliation and mediation may be advantageously employed in lieu of arbitration to reconcile divergent groups of leaders in following a common policy since the voluntary nature of such agree- ment tends to provide more active support of the agreed decision.
(9)     
Purchase of consent. Purchase of consent is the purchase of the capacity to act. It may be exercised by a govern- ment through its power to raise and disburse funds. The payment of a subsidy granting a material or financial reward for following a desired policy or plan is a form of purchase of consent. In addition, payment by the United States for the procurement of local supplies, equipment, and services is also a form of purchase of consent.
(10)
Submission of reports and review of records. The sub- mission of reports and review of records provide a valuable method of obtaining information, controlling operations, observing efficiency, verifying conditions, and checking the accuracy of actions taken. Since this method extends the effectiveness of CA personnel beyond that of most other control processes, it should be used to the maximum practicable extent.

(11)
Compliance through publicity. Compliance through publicity may be used to obtain a desired result through the use of favorable or adverse publicity or comment with respect to a specific activity or selected civilians. There is no resort to legal means of compulsion. Since


156      AGO 6147B
people as a whole usually respond to publicity concern-
ing themselves, publicity may in appropriate circum­
stances be used to influence the entire population.
c. Coercive controls apply restraint in requiring the inhabitants of the area to follow an announced policy. In the case of certain "iolations administrative penalties may be applied, while in others the violator may be referred to appropriate judicial action. Among coercive controls which may be considered are-
(1)
Licensing. A license is a permit or privilege to engage in some activity otherwise prohibited, but the purpose is regulation not prohibition. Licensing must be preceded by a law or directive making it illegal for a person or organization to engage in a specified activity without a license. The advantages of licensing as a control device are the burden of proof placed upon the licensee, the self- discipline generally resulting from the fear of loss of special privilege, and its considerable assistance to law enforcement in difficult technical areas of administra­tion. A large number of people is usually necessary to examine and process licenses, and effectiveness of the system depends upon .the inspections conducted to assure possession of a license and compliance with the conditions of its issuance.

(2)
    Investigation. An investigation is the act of searching for facts and often concerns an alleged error, deficiency, or incident of misconduct. The person or agency being investigated may be required to justify the conditions which have been uncovered or to show cause for the deficiencies observed.

(3)
    Inspection. Inspection may be used for the physical surveillance of the operations of civil government or the performance of activities involved in the production or transporation of products. It may be employed to dis- close instances of active sabotage or to uncover violations of directives. A few competent inspectors may extend their influence over a large part of the population. When an inspector is technically qualified, valuable instruction may be furnished to the persons whose activities are in- spected. If continuous operation is essential, as in the case of such vital activities as the production of food, practice of medicine, operation of water systems, com- munication lines, and transportation systems, inspections provide a particularly valuable method of control. In­spection permits the continued operation of important activities, enables small numbers of competent personnel


AGO 6147B
to be widely effective, promotes constructive policy, pro- vides a strong disciplinary influence, and is particularly suited for use in the conduct of CA operations.
(4)     
Apprehension of viohtors. Apprehension of violators in- cludes actions taken in searching for, finding, and detain- ing persons who violate proclamations, ordinances, orders, and instructions. The successful conduct of CA operations necessitates that violations be detected and violators identified and punished. Since compliance with the intent of directives may be obtained from most local civilians, the latter may develop a vested interest in the enforcement of such directives. As a result, when others violate directives, those who comply often furnish infor- mation on which the apprehension of violators may be based.
(5)     Taxation is the raising of revenues by the
Taxation.
requirement of compulsory payments, other than con­
tributions. Taxation may be used as a charge for a spe­
cific act and, under appropriate conditions, as a means
of control of the local economy. Taxation has the same
weakness as other methods of control: to be effective
each violation must be identified and proved. In addi-
tion, the incentive is to violate rather than comply with
the law.
(6)     Summary action. A summary action is an immediate action taken to correct or improve a specific activity or situation. Summary decision by an investigating officer, inspector, reviewer, or supervisor may be justified when it is essential to prevent further violations or to remove a potentially dangerous person from a position of re­sponsibility. Summary actions may be judicial or ad- ministrative and may include removal from office, denial, suspension, or revocation of license, and denial or with- drawal of benefits.


Section II. CIVIL AFFAIRS TRIBUNALS
122. General
Terms of prior agreements, policy directives of higher head- quarters, or local situations may limit the effectiveness, restrict the jurisdiction, or terminate the operations of civilian courts. Under these circumstances, a military commander having civil affairs authority may establish agencies to adjudicate existing criminal or civil law or statutory enactments based on his occu- pation. Usually reestablishment of civilian courts and restoration
158      AGO 6147B
of full jurisdiction is effected as soon as practicable. The com- position, authority, jurisdiction, and procedures of courts estab- lished under the terms of civil affairs or status-of-forces agree- ments or by executive declarations of martial law are specified by those documents. The remainder of this discussion, therefore, is devoted to courts of the armed forces established in occupied areas, not including courts martial or war crimes courts.
123. Purpose and Authority
Under international law, a military commander may establish civil affairs tribunals in occupied territory for the purpose of providing a forum in which violators of the occupant's procla- mations and ordinances may be promptly tried. Under certain circumstances a military commander has a legal obligation to maintain order that extends to administration of judicial func- tions. (See Article 36, Uniform Code of Military Justice, and FM 27-10.) Usually a theater commander delegates authority to subordinate commanders, who have area responsibility for the conduct of civil affairs, to appoint civil affairs tribunals. For reasons of practicality this authorization normally does not go below the level of division commanders in tactical organizations and comparable logistical units. Authorization extended to civil affairs commands depends not on size or level of the units but on their missions.
124. Types
a.
Criteria as to composition and jurisdictional limitations of civil affairs tribunals are set forth by the theater commander. Usually there are three categories of courts, patterned as to size, qualifications of members, jurisdiction, and limitations on maxi- mum punishments somewhat after courts martial. However, the types may be reduced to two or may be increased to any number required by the situation; in any circumstance, a superior tri- bunal in the system should be designated to conduct legal pro- ceedings involving protected persons, as defined in the Geneva Conventions of 1949, when the death sentence or imprisonment in excess of two years is authorized for the offense charged (see FM 27-10). Tribunals must adhere to every pertinent provision of the Geneva Conventions and should conduct their operations procedurally, insofar as practicable, in a manner which will be understood by local populations.

b.
In addition, commissions may be appointed by an authorized commander to hear special cases not normally within the juris- diction of established civil affairs tribunals. Commissions try cases involving unusual circumstances or exceptional seriousness. Membership, procedures, and jurisdiction are prescribed by the


AGO 6147~ 159
appointing authority. Commissions have been used in CONUS to represent the sovereignties of both the United States and of sep- arate states. Military commissions which constitute judicial bodies should not be confused with commissions created to administer specific projects or other operational programs.
c. Boards are established to process certain quasi-judicial is- sues. Findings of fact and determination of applicability of laws or rules of equity are areas in which boards operate. The appoint- ing authority may specify procedural rules or instruct the board to set its own rules. The appointing authority must define the board's jurisdiction. A board may consist of one officer but often numbers two or three. Boards pass on requisition demands, property control orders, labor issues; valuations of utilities, real property, and services, and like administrative matters.
125. Jurisdiction
a.
As to Territory. Jurisdiction of a civil affairs tribunal ex- tends to the whole of the occupied territory. When only a portion of a political subdivision is occupied, jurisdiction is assumed over each part as occupation becomes an actual or constructive fact. Normally publication of Proclamation No. 1 is the first legal act to establish occupation. For this reason, places, dates, and hours of publication are carefully reported.

b.
As to Persons. Jurisdiction extends to all persons in the occupied territory other than prisoners of war, members of the occupying forces, or members of armed forces of states allied with the occupant. Persons serving with, employed by, or accompany- ing the armed forces are sometimes made subject to the jurisdic- tion of such tribunals. Persons subject to United States military law (see UCMJ, article 2) do not fall under the jurisdiction of local courts of an occupied area unless expressly made subject thereto by a directive of occupation authorities.

c.
As to Ofenses. Jurisdiction extends to violations of a proc- lamation, ordinance, or order issued by occupation authority, vio- lations of the law of war (if other tribunals are not established for the adjudication of such cases), and violations of indigenous criminal or civil laws which continue in force after the area has been occupied.


126. Procedures
Care is taken in preparing the judicial organization, proced- ures, and rules of trial to make sure that every pertinent require- ment of the Geneva Civilian Convention of 1949 has been met. Every essential of justice is safeguarded. The system must have rational simplicity. This sometimes entails radical departures from formal U. S. judicial practices and rules of evidence. So
AGO 6147B
far as practicable, procedures, presumptions, and actions are those with which local people are familiar. An offense against an oc- cupying power usually does not violate citizenship morality. Any sentence, particularly confinement, considers not ody the crime being punished but also the facilities and capabilities of penal or public safety officials necessary to execute its provisions immedi- ately and properly. Under no condition may one assume that American practices are common, or even comprehended, in other lands. Two of many possible examples illustrate this point:
a.
Assumption that an accused is innocent until proved guilty is axiomatic in U. S. jurisprudence, however, the burden of proof of innocence rests with the accused in most of Europe and those portions of Asia and Africa not British nor former British ter- ritory.

b.
The common American practice of suspending execution of part or all of an imposed sentence would be considered in many parts of the world as a reprimand for the police, the prosecutor, or the court of original jurisdiction. In the disrupted circum- stances inherent in military occupation, suspension of a sentence does not possess the probational and rehabilitational character- istics found in a settled society.



Section Ill. PUBLISHED REGULATORY MATTER
127. Definitions
The following terms covering regulatory matter are used:
a.
Proclamation. A document published to the inhabitants of an area which sets forth the basis of authority and scope of ac- tivities of a commander in a given area and which defines the obligations, liabilities, duties, and rights of the population affected.

b.
Ordinance. Rule or regulation enacted by lawmaking power of a community. It is often, but not always, of local application.

c.
Gazette. Officially published compilation of proclamations, ordinances, and other acts having statutory effect.


128. General
a. Applicability to Occupied Territory. Civil affairs operations may be performed in territory of an enemy occupied by a military force. In such a case, governmental powers are normally vested in ?he commander of the occupying force, limited only by the rules of international law. Regulations, promulgated by the com- mander or under his authority, constitute legislation which is bindin.g upon the civil ,officials and inhabitants of the occupied area. The laws of the occupied territory existing at the time of occupation continue in effect except as amended, annulled, sus- pended, or modified by the action of the military occupant or by
AGO 6147B
competent civil authorities in the exercise of powers conferred upon them by the military occupant.
b.
Applicability Where a Civil Afairs Agreement or a Consen- sual Arrangement is in Effect. A treaty, civil affairs agreement, or other type of agreement, expressed or implied, may restrict the use of proclamations, ordinances, orders, and instructions. In such cases, the commander responsible for civil affairs operations will be governed by the terms of the agreement. In most instances the allied government will probably provide that these matters will be handled by it rather than by the military commander. Due to the wide variety in the terms of these agreements and the probable limited application of proclamations, ordinances, orders, and instructions in the conduct of civil affairs operations under such agreements, this section will consider primarily the conduct of civil affairs operations in occupied territory.

c.
Authority of Theater Commander. The theater commander prepares and approves all initial proclamations and ordinances. Subsequent regulations on subjects for which uniformity of treat- ment is desirable throughout the theater are prepared and ap- proved by the theater commander or by subordinate commanders when authorized by the theater commander.

d.
Authority of Subordinate Commanders. Commanders dele- gated authority to conduct civil affairs operations publish neces- sary regulations for their assigned areas in the form of orders, instructions, and directives and may, when the situation requires, authorize their subordinate commanders to publish more detailed regulations. Regulations published by subordinate commanders must conform to the policies of the theater commander. Subordi- nate commanders delegated authority to conduct civil affairs op- erations normally do not issue proclamations or ordinances except when they are directing separate task forces and are specifically granted such authority.

e.
Publication. Article 65 of the Geneva Civilian Convention of 1949 provides-"The penal provisions enacted by the Occupy- ing Power shall not come into force before they have been pub- lished and brought to the knowledge of the inhabitants in their own language. The effect of these penal provisions shall not be retroactive." Accordingly, proclamations, ordinances, orders, and instructions intended to be binding upon the inhabitants will be published in written form, both in English and in the language of the inhabitants. All such regulations addressed to the inhabi- tants are given the widest publicity feasible within their area of application. During the initial conduct of operations and in fluid or moving situations, publication is accomplished by posting printed copies in public places. In static situations and when


162 AGO 6147B
conditions permit, regulations are published in newspapers, of­ficial publications, and gazettes.
f.
Effective Date of Regulations. Unless otherwise stated, civil affairs regulations issued prior to occupation are effective and binding within the occupied territory upon occupation. However, penal provisions of such legislation shall not come into force be- fore they have been published and brought to the knowledge of the inhabitants in their own language, and shall not be retroactive.

g.
Standard Civil Affairs Documents. Provisions concerning proclamations and ordinances have been standardized by agree- ment between the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada under the Standardization Program (SOLOG), and identical pro- visions are included in a Standardization Agreement among NATO Armed Forces (STANAG). For such provisions, see SOLOG Agreement 39 (app. XVI).

h.
Supervision. Subordinate commanders report to the au­thorizing higher commander upon the issuance of any regula- tions within their respective areas of authority to include the date, place of issuance, and area of application. Higher com­manders may require the submission of copies of all regulations published by subordinate commanders.


129. Proclamations
a.
In advance of an actual occupation or liberation, the theater commander prepares documents necessary to conduct civil affairs operations in conformance with the policies of higher authority. In preparing his initial proclamation, he considers such factors as United States national objectives, requirements of international law, and measures required for the security of his forces. In ad- dition, proclamations may be issued by the theater commander a-nd by subordinate commanders, when specifically authorized, to announce matters and acts of special importance.

b.
The theater commander, utilizing brief and simple terms, should issue initial instructions to the population of an occupied territory in the form of a proclamation. The points outlined be- low, which apply primarily to civil affairs administration of occupied territory, are appropriately modified by the terms of a civil affairs or other agreement to show relationships between the military and local civil authorities when civil affairs activities are to be conducted pursuant to such agreement.


(1)     the fact of occupation. The declaration Decla?.ation of
is a formal notice of the fact of occupation. In the dec- laration, the extent of area and the people covered by the occupation are defined.
(2)     
Purpose and policy of the occupation. A general state- ment of the purpose and policy of the occupying force is
AGO 6147B      163
included in the proclamation as designated by higher authority.
(3)
    Supremacy of the military commander of the occupying force. A declaration of the supremacy of the military commander is essential if the fact of military control is to be made known to the inhabitants and compliance with military directives assured. Announcement is made of the commander's authority and of the suspension of local political ties with, and obligations to, the enemy national government. In addition, the inhabitants are informed that they will be required to obey the orders of the military commander and his subordinates and to abstain from all acts or words of hostility or disrespect to the occupying force.

(4)
    Obligations, duties, and rights of the inhabitants. Con­firmation is given that, unless the military authority di- rects otherwise, local laws and customs will continue in force, local officials will continue in office, and officials and employees of all transportation and communications systems and of public utilities and other essential serv- ices will carry on with their regular tasks. Assurance is also given that persons who obey the instructions of the military commander will be protected in their per- sons, property, religion, and domestic rights and will be allowed to carry on their usual occupations.


(5)     Statement of additional p~oclamations and ordinances.
Advance notice is given of subsequent proclamations and accompanying ordinances which will specify in detail what will be required of the inhabitants.
(6)
    Miscellaneous m.atters. The proclamation includes the place and date of signing, the signature and title of the issuing authority, and such other matters as the com- mander considers appropriate.

c.
The tone and character of the proclamation may be affected by the­

(1)
National political objectives of the United States or Al- lied Powers.

(2)
    Military situation.

(3)
    Composition and disposition of the occupying force.

(4)
    Attitude of the inhabitants.

(5)
    History of the territory and the traditional culture and accustomed standard of living of the population.

(6)
    Degree of control required.

d.
Subsequent proclamations, numbered in sequence, and sup- plemented by ordinances, are prepared as necessary to set forth.


AGO 6117B
detailed rules governing the conduct of the population. Where­ever possible, required actions are accomplished through the agen- cies of civil government.
e. A form of initial civil affairs proclamation adaptable for use in liberated territory is shown as appendix X. For a form of initial civil affairs proclamation suitable for use in occupied ter- ritory, see appendix XI.
130. Ordinances
Ordinances are approved laws of general application to the area and to the inhabitants therein; such laws affect the previous gen- eral law of the territory and are subject to the control of the issuing authority. Ordinances should be prepared in advance of operations and issued under the authority of the theater com­mander in order to provide detailed rules of law or procedure on such matters as offenses against the military force and establish- ment and control of courts. The format of ordinances is stand- ardized to the maximum practicable extent, as follows:
a.
They consist of a series of main subdivisions entitled as awticles.

b.
They contain definitions of any terms used therein which are ambiguous or unfamiliar to the persons to whom addressed.

c.
The final article in each ordinance specifies the effective date of the ordinance.

d.
Ordinances are signed by the military commander or an authorized subordinate. (For an example of an ordinance pertaining to the circulation of currency in occupied territory, see app. XII; for an example of an ordinance published in occupied territory specifying penalties for particular crimes and offenses, see app. XIII.)


131. Orders, Instructions, and Directives
a. Orders and instructions differ from proclamations and ordi- nances in that they are local in application and are primarily
.          intended to prevent civilian interference with military operations by providing more detailed instructions on compliance with the provisions of previously published documents of a general nature. Orders and instructions, which are published by subordinate com- manders delegated that authority, may be published in the form of notices to include such matters as the establishment of curfew, restrictions on travel, and limitations on the operations of local agencies of government. For an example of a notice specifying hours of curfew in occupied territory, see appendix XIV.
b. Directives are issued to specified persons such as civil offi- cials and are distinguished from those orders and instructions
AGO 6147B          165
which are published for the information and compliance of the general public.
132. Gazettes
a.
Ordinances and other acts binding upon the inhabitants may be printed from time to time in an official gazette.

b.
Instructions pertaining to the operations or internal admin- istration of civil affairs units are transmitted through command channels and are not published in a gazette.

c.
Regulations published in a gazette are an authoritative state- ment of the law which is set forth therein. Such regulations, how- ever, are subject to any amendment which may be issued after the date of the publication of the gazette.


133. Enforcement
a.
In the initial stages of an occupation the enforcement of proclamations, ordinances, instructions, and orders is accom­plished, under the staff supervision of the responsible command- er's G5 staff sections, by civil affairs units assisted by civilian police. When civil police and other civil agencies lack sufficient enforcement capabilities, military police or other military units may be required, although, if possible, troop enforcement is limited to such matters as emergency measures, crimes against the military, and traffic control.

b.
Violators of regulations are brought for prosecution before civil affairs tribunals or, if authorized by the theater commander, before the civil courts of the occupied territory. Military tri- bunals with jurisdiction over the local population normally are not established in friendly territory except when authorized by the terms of agreements or other consensual arrangement.


AGO 6147B
 

CHAPTER 9
INTELLIGENCE

Section I. CA REQUIREMENT FOR INTELLIGENCE
134. General
a.
Intelligence. CA intelligence activities are concerned with the collection, evaluation, interpretation, and appropriate utiliza- tion or dissemination of information on the people and the area of present or potential operations.

b.
Counterintelligence. Counterintelligence, conversely, is con- cerned with destroying the effectiveness of enemy or potential enemy intelligence activities and protection of information against espionage, personnel against subversion, and installations or ma- terial against sabotage. In CA operations this includes those civil security measures necessary to control the civilian population.

c.
References. The details of intelligence structure, functions, and operations conducted under the general staff supervision of G2 are set forth in FM 100-5, FM 101-5, and FM's of the 30­series. Additional information is contained in the AR's of the 380 series.


135. Purpose
a.
Accurate, complete, and timely CA intelligence enables the commander and his staff to estimate in advance of operations the influence of CA factors on the accomplishment of the mission or on the contemplated course of action of the command, to develop CA annexes to plans, and to determine in accordance with policy guidance those measures which will be necessary to control the local population or to relieve or adjust to reported political, eco- nomic, and sociological conditions in the area of operations.

b.
Intelligence concerning immobilized, isolated, or bypassed enemy forces, hostile underground movements, and the activities of partisans and guerrillas, permits the planning for and employ- ment of such friendly countermeasures as the prevention of infil- tration, use of local civilians to report guerrilla activities, and the separation of guerrillas from civilian support.

c.
On the basis of intelligence, continuous and long range esti- mates are made of the effect which CA operations will have on the inhabitants and the effect which the civilian reaction will have on CA activities.


AGO 614CB 167
136.     CA Intelligence Planning
a. Prior to moving into any area of operations, whether on a friendly agreement basis, as part of a liberating force, or in an occupational role, an intelligence collection plan must be drafted and implemented by CA staff sections and units to develop maxi- mum information on the area and its people and on source mate- rial and agencies essential for the collection of the data. The functional specialties and their areas of emphasis provide broad guidelines as to the general nature of CA intelligence require- ments for planning and operational purposes and will include but not be limited to the following:
(1)
    Topography, hydrography, climate, weather, and terrain including land forms, drainage, vegetation, and soils.

(2)
    Census, location, ethnic composition, and health factors.

(3)
    Attitude of the population including ideological, religi- ous, and cultural aspects.

(4)
    Governmental structure including forms, personalities, laws in being, and political heritage.

(5)
    Educational standards and facilities and important cul- tural activities and repositories.

(6)
    Communication, transportation, utility, power, and natu- ral resources.

(7)
    Labor potential including availability by type and skill, practices, and organizations.

(8)
    Economic development including principal industries, scientific and technical capabilities, commercial proc­esses, banking structure, monetary system, price and commodity controls, extent and nature of agricultural production, and accustomed population dietary habits.

(9)
    Cores of resistance movements.

(10)
    Organization and operation of guerrilla forces in rear areas and the extent and degree of volition involved in local support.

(11)
Hostile activities including espionage, sabotage, and other factors of subversion and disaffection.

b.
Documentary sources of intelligence prior to movement are primarily strategic in nature and represent the positive collection efforts of the Central Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense intelligence agencies, and other governmental agencies such as the State Department and various international mission and assist- ance groups. Among unclassified sources, particularly productive with respect to CA interests are libraries, periodicals, news­papers, departments of leading universities specializing in lan- guage and area fields of interest, travel agencies, and commercial


AGO 6147B
168     
enterprises with holdings or representation in target regions. Various combat intelligence documents prepared by G2 agencies such as estimates, annexes, periodic reports, tactical weather and terrain studies, and other studies and reports contain valuable data on political, economic, and sociological conditions.
c. The G5 collection plan predicated on EEI (essential ele- ments of information) designated by the commander, normally through his G2, provides a systematic analysis of information desired and determines the assignment of collecting agencies to procure the required items of information. In appropriate situa- tions the collection plan may be prepared by the intelligence officer of a CA unit and, when completed, submitted to G2 for integration into the overall plan for the command. For detailed guidance on the preparation of a collection plan see FM 30-5 and appendix IX.
137. Area Studies and Surveys
a.
Area studies covering the gamut of CA intelligence, the scope of which is partially indicated above should be prepared on each country in which operations are possible or are projected. These studies, invaluable for planning and reference, usually are coordinated projects involving particularly the G2 and the G5 with the supplementary assistance of G3, G4, Surgeon, Engineer, Provost Marshal, and other members of the staff. Studies are a continuing requirement for any G5 or CA unit. They should be started in CONUS and be modified and amplified during the course of military movements and operations to provide a capsular and ready source of information upon which to base plans and actions.

b.
Area surveys are conducted on the ground through physical reconnaissance and the exploitation of all available local sources of information. These sources may include records of govern- mental agencies, banks, business firms, public utilities, and medical facilities; publications, libraries and archives; mail, and other communications media. Information may also be obtained by questioning informed persons in direct or related counterpart categories with CA functional specialists. During combat, initial surveys are concentrated on conditions and activities which may have an immediate effect on military operations. More detailed surveys follow and are kept current as a basis for re-evaluation of policies and new planning. Survey items include-


(1)
Numbers and movements of refugees and displaced per- sons.

(2)
Health conditions particularly with respect to contagious diseases.

(3)
Adequacy of essential items of civilian supplies.

(4)
Availability and potential of governmental officials.

(5)
    Possibilities of hostile activities by individuals or groups,

(6)
    General attitude of the civilian population.

c.
Regardless of the type of operation, it can safely by said that information desired ranges throughout every facet of the socio-politico-economic life of the civilian community. Collection efforts should be concentrated on the most significant factors in the interest of practicality and economy of effort. National and theater policies, future plans, and collective experience will pro. vide guidance in the preparation of studies. Obviously pertinent are­

(1)
All the items covered above.

(2)
    Current political developments.

(3)
    Dossiers on important personalities.

(4)
    Availability, location, and cost of essential civilian. supplies.

(5)
    Statistical data on diseases.

(6)
    Up-to-date material on manpower resources, skills, and employment.

(7)
    Progress in rehabilitation and planning for reconstruc- tion of housing, public utilities and services, production and merchandising facilities.

(8)
    Monetary stability.

(9)
    Census type information broken down into workable data groups covering age, sex, employment, location, and support requirements.

(10)
    Any other information within the area of functional specialization validly important to short-range consid-


erations or the realization of longer-range national ob- jectives.
138. Civil Security
a. Under any circumstances of peace or war, in oversea areas or in CONUS, commanders have important security considerations relevant to their relationships with civilians who may be under their respective jurisdictions or who may have no closer identifi- cation with the military command than proximity. Measures which provide for control of the civil population are performed by CA units within their areas of jurisdiction in coordination with military intelligence units. In any situation the security of the mil- itary force takes precedence over the welfare and convenience of the civil population within the bounds of restrictions imposed by international law or the terms of an agreement. In a fluid combat situation, civil security measures are primarily directed toward assisting military operations through effective control of the civil population. In occupied belligerent states restrictions im-
170      AGO 6147B
posed may be all-inclusive; regulations may take the form of proclamations, orders, and instructions. In other oversea areas where civil affairs, status of forces, or similar agreements are in force security measures may be implemented by or coordinated with foreign governmental agencies, and regulations will comply with the terms of the agreement. In the US security activities and policies are delineated in regulations, federal laws, and re- ciprocal agreements with the Department of Justice.
b. Civil security measures may include-
(1)
Systematic registration of civilians.

(2)
    Control of civilian movement and circulation.

(3)
Imposition and enforcement of curfew.

(4)
    Provisions for passes and permits for civilians in accord- ance with theater pass plan.

(5)
    Screening, removal, and appointment of local officials.

(6)
    Security screening of local labor.

(7)
    Barring of civilians from restricted areas.

(8)
    Planning, coordination, and implementation of measures for the control of refugees, evacuees, and displaced per- sons.

(9)
    Measures to protect local facilities and sources of sup- plies.

(10)
Dissemination of      information and counterpropaganda to the civil population.

(11)
    Civil censorship of public media in accordance with policies announced by higher headquarters.

(12)
    Control or supervision of civil communications includ- ing radio transmitting facilities used primarily for the dissemination of information and counterpropaganda to the civil population.

(13)
Control of international     commerce. (For more detailed information on other specialized types of intelligence activities see appropriate FM's of the 30- series.)


139. Civil Censorship
The objectives of civil censorship are to obtain and disseminate information which assists the United States and its allies in the attainment of their objectives and to prevent the passage of in- formation which may assist an enemy or adversely affect any current policy of the United States or any of its allies. G2 exer- cises policy control over all types of civil censorship and both policy and operational control over all types of communications except public information media. Included are civil censorship of the postal services, domestic and international telecommunica-
AGO 6147B      171
tions, and area travelers. G5 in coordination with G2 plans, coordinates, and operates censorship of all public information media over which he has jurisdiction such as radio, television, cinema, stage, and the press including periodicals and books. In a situation where. civil affairs units may operate or control the operation of other communication media, arrangements for cen- sorship procedures will be coordinated with G2.
Section 11. CA SUPPORT IN INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES
140. General
The nature of CA assignments and the necessity for CA per- sonnel to develop and maintain a close relationship with the civilian population and to acquire a depth of information and understanding with respect to the activities of indigenous popu- lations puts CA personnel in a favorable position to collect in- formation of vital importance to other staff sections and agencies and to lend support to the overall intelligence effort. Among supporting activities where CA personnel may make significant contributions are-
a. Collection of-
(1)
Strategic intelligence information.

(2)
Combat intelligence information.

(3)
Technical intelligence information.

b.
Procurement and recruitment.

c.
Counterintelligence.


141. Collection Potential of CA
Civil affairs personnel in their day-by-day operations deal with people, equipment, and documentary matter, all of which are primary sources of raw information of intelligence value. Among these sources are-
a.
Refugees, evacuees, displaced persons who may be interned or otherwise may come under CA control or sponsorship in move- ment control, relief, or other assistance. Normally when persons with information of possible value are discovered they are re- ferred promptly to appropriate intelligence personnel for exploi- tation.

b.
Civilians who were housed with, catered to, or otherwise were associated with enemy personnel.

c.
Political enemies of the hostile regime.

d.
Governmental documents, libraries, or archives.

e.
Files of newspapers or periodicals.

f.
Industrial and commercial records.

g.
Prostitutes or persons employed in recreational areas.


AGO 6147B
 
h.
Political prisoners.

i.
Technical equipment, blueprints, plans, or information of interest to technical intelligence personnel especially in trans- portation, signal, ordnance, engineer, chemical, and medical fields.

j.
Leaders of fraternal, civic, religious, or patriotic organiza- tions.

k.
Personal mail or messages.


142. Custody of Archives
With respect to archives concerned with governmental matters, civil administration, or of cultural significance and possessing intelligence value, command policy will determine whether or not documentary matter will be removed for intelligence process- ing or will remain in designated repositories and be copied for intelligence purposes. In either case it is a CA responsibility to maintain chain of custody documentation.
143. Procurement and Recruitment
Direct support of intelligence collection agencies may be pro- vided by CA units in the procurement of essential facilities and equipment and the recruitment of personnel.
a. Procurement. Aside from such normal procurement as civilian real property CA personnel may procure-
(1)
    Civilian clothing and items of normal personal posses- sion.

(2)
    Maps.

(3)
    Biographical data or other information essential to clandestine operations.

(4)
    Civilian equipment such as binoculars, cameras, record- ing devices, radios, or weapons.

(5)
    Documentary matter including passports, visas, vehicle operator licenses, birth or marriage records, or other similar documentation.

(6)
    Indigenous funds.

(7)
    Foodstuffs, tobacco products, or alcoholic beverages peculiar to the area.

(8)
    Barter items.

(9)
    Civilian motor vehicles, bicycles, or domestic animals.

b.
Recruitment. Through contacts with civilian organizations, leaders, and political enemies of hostile governments CA personnel may assist in the development of rosters of personnel for screen- ing by intelligence, special forces, or psychological warfare per- sonnel as-

(1)
    Recruits for clandestine operations.

(2)
    Interpreters.

(3)
    Other specialized craftsmen, technicians, or laborers.


144. Counterintelligence
a. Maximum support is provided counterintelligence personnel in the detection and prevention of espionage, sabotage, subversion, aid to hostile guerrillas, or other disaffected activities. Examples of areas in which CA units may provide assistance are-
(1)
Identification of known or suspected agents, collabora- tors, or sympathizers.

(2)
    Search of public buildings for documents of intelligence value.

(3)
    Discovery and confiscation of hidden weapons, ammuni- tion, and equipment.

(4)
    House-to-house searches for contraband.

(5)
    Obtaining information from reliable local officials.

(6)
'Seizing and impounding mail pending instructions for screening and disposition.

(7)
    Measures to prevent local publication of information which is inimical to the military force and not in sym- pathy with CA policies and objectives.

(8)
    Control of foodstuffs, clothing, medical supplies, and related items which may be used to support guerrilla activities.

(9)
    Restrictions on movements of personnel suspected of collaborating with guerrilla forces.

(10)
    Destruction, surveillance, or control of potential hiding places or shelter spots of dissidents such as abandoned mines, caves, isolated rural buildings, haystacks, or sim- ilar crop collections.

b.
The close contacts and working relationships between per- sonnel from CA units and the civilian population which provide valuable intelligence sources and material has a two-way potential capable of exploitation by unfriendly persons and groups. CA personnel must be particularly discreet in their dealings with the civilian population. Information provided civilians should be carefully screened, and indigenous persons and agencies should be kept under continuing surveillance for indications of disaffection.


Section Ill. OPERATIONS OF THE INTELLIGENCE SECTION
145. General Functions
The G2 of TACAC or the Intelligence Officer of a lower CA unit provides for the collection, processing (recording, evaluation, and interpretation), and dissemination of information about enemy directed or supported activity within the assigned area of his
AGO 6147B

174     
own CA unit. Intelligence, thus produced, keeps his unit com­mander informed of possible enemy courses of action and their pobable adoption in the light of the mission of his own CA unit. Other functions include all those related and quasi-related security activities in which the intelligence officer finds himself involved. He is the security officer for the headquarters, the map officer, and sometimes the VIP clearance officer. He also provides assist- ance in such fields as civil censorship, economic and political activi- ties, and screening processes.
146. The Collection Plan
a. Oriented on the commander's mission and assisted by all divisions, branches and specialist teams, the activities of the in- telligence section follow a four-step cycle:
(1)
Planning the collection effort and orders: (By G2 and CO), to include intelligence annex to operation orders and other directives.

(2)
Collection of Information: By all personnel directed by the Collection Plan.

(3)
    Processing: By all divisions of the headquarters and centered around the G2 situation map, journals, files and other resources of the G2 section.

(4)
    Use and dissemination of the resulting intelligence (in conjunction with G2 reports) particularly that of pub- lishing the Estimate of the Enemy Situation oriented on the 'commander's mission. Each civil affairs com­mander can make an essential contribution to civil affairs aspects of combat intelligence in support of the civil affairs mission by furnishing information according to the local units' CA Collection Plan directed to designated agencies.

b.
The CA intelligence officer directs and supervises the col- lection effort. He prepares collection plan(s), one of which is usually devised in conjunction with the intelligence officer (S2 or G2) of the tactical command or higher headquarters. In addi- tion, he prepares an intelligence collection plan for his own head- quarters.

c.
The extent to which the intelligence officer of a CA head- Quarters processes intelligence from information he obtains is dependent upon the size of his staff, his other duties, proximity and availability of other intelligence processing agencies, and the desires of his commander. He maintains files, a journal, work- sheets, and a situation map with date-time pins, which for stand- ardization may be in the following colors:

(1)
Red-Enemy guerrilla activity.


AGO 6147B      175
(2)
Yellow-Sabotage.

(3)
    Pink-Subversive activities (propaganda efforts by civil groups to disrupt).

(4)
    Blue--Political activities (organized efforts by civil groups to disrupt).

(5)
    Black-Suspected espionage agencies.


147. Dissemination and Use of lntelligence
a. A twenty-four hour period Intelligence Summary (ISUM), ending at midnight usually is prepared by the intelligence section for the purpose of compiling into one brief report the results of the intelligence collection cycle. As a matter of conformity among all CA headquarters the following paragraphing is followed:
(1)
Issuing unit.

(2)
Time and date of issue.

(3)
    Most important enemy action during period.

(4)
    Guerrilla activities.

(5)
    Sabotage.

(6)
    Subversive activities.

(7)
    Political activities.

(8)
    Espionage.

(9)
    Weather.

(10)
    Terrain (trafficability changes pertinent to most recent period).

(11)
    Miscellaneous (to include nuclear blast, CBR warfare, etc).

(12)
Discussion and summary.

b.
Periodic Reports (PERINTREPS) , Special Reports, and In- telligence Estimates will be prepared as called for by the CA commander.


148. CA lntelligence Estimate
a.
Care should be taken not to prepare too broad an intelligence estimate for the CA commander. The CA headquarters intelli- gence section estimate pertains strictly to the CA mission of the particular unit and includes only those enemy courses of action and capabilities that could affect the CA commander's mission. For example, enemy troops in other sectors are only of general interest to a CA commander unless the enemy has the capability of exploiting a breakthrough by ground or airdrop.

b.
Any prescribed Army combat intelligence estimate outline may be used, but in writing the CA intelligence estimate, the enemy situation paragraph includes enemy action in rear areas. This covers guerrilla operations, sabotage, subversive and political


176      AGO 61478
activities, and espionage. Weather and terrain should be included only as they directly affect the local CA unit's mission. In his analysis and discussion of each enemy capability, or appropriate combination of enemy capabilities, the intelligence officer judges from the enemy point of view the advantages or disadvantages of adopting the capability(ies). Careful consideration is given to conclusions which will embody probable courses of enemy action. In his conclusions the intelligence officer provides the commander with his best judgment of the enemy so that the commander, in turn, can make decisions affecting his mission.
CHAPTER 10
LOGISTICS


Section I. GENERAL
149. Civilian Supply
a.
Logistical procedures with respect to operations of CA units are similar in nature to any comparable military unit except where peculiarities of requirements and resources make departures from routine supply procedures mandatory (DA Pam 27-153). Civilian supply is a two-directional operation involving the mobilization and use of resources of the civilian economy, within the bounds of national policy, international agreements, and international law, in support of U.S. military forces, and conversely, the satis- faction of essential civilian needs through military supply sources.

b.
In procuring local items, consideration is given to the effects of such procurement on the local population and economy of the area and will be avoided when subsequent importation of similar items for civilian consumption will be necessary. CA units assist and advise purchasing and contracting, real estate, and personnel officers in determining availability of sources, making arrange- ments for procurement, and weighing immediate needs against longer-range requirements. Since procurement of local resources and personnel frequently leads to friction, ill will, or misunder- standing, CA units will make arrangements for such procurement through local governmental authorities wherever possible.

c.
While a separate CA functional section may be given primary responsibility for planning and implementing civilian supply pro- cedures, civilian supply cuts across functional lines and will actively involve other specialist teams in such matters as inven- tory, control, safeguarding, and distribution. For instance-


(1)
Property control provides machinery for locating, safe- guarding, and maintaining official records on designated categories of property, and maintaining official registers of transfers of non-consumable property between civilian population and military forces.

(2)
    Price control and rationing provides administrative con- trols over prices and allocations of consumable property and industrial raw materials. This function does not include determination of prices or of allocations.

(3)
    Commerce and industry provides machinery for dis­tribution of manufactured products.


178      AGO 6147B
(4)     
Food and agriculture provides machinery for distribu- tion of agricultural, marine, and forest products.

d.
Civilian supply operations will vary with the location, com- mand mission, and political and economic climate of the area but normally will involve the following considerations:

(1)
Consolidation of requirements.

(2)
    Procurement.

(3)
    Storage.

(4)
    Distribution.

(5)
    Transportation.


150. Basic Policies
a.
Basic policies and procedures for civilian supply operations are established in theater plans prior to active commitments of military forces to a theater. These plans will include initial re- quirements and availability of resources based on current intelli- gence of the area of operations. After commitment it is the responsibility of commanders delegated CA authority to provide information and recommendations upon which the Theater Army command can determine changes in requirements for support of the civilian population and an assessment of sources of civilian supplies which may be utilized in support of military operations.

b.
There are no pat criteria for use by the officer charged with advance planning for civilian supply requirements. U.S. forces are subject to commitment on a global basis, and needs are as variable as the areas concerned. For example, troops may be committed to action in food surplus areas, in areas where chronic shortages exist, or in areas with a food situation somewhere be- tween the extremes. Even in food surplus areas, however, the destruction incidental to warfare and the dislocations of trans­portation and other distributive factors may create temporary shortages. Considerations of foreign policy, over-all use of US resources, and effects on military operations determine the alloca- tion of supplies, facilities, and services to support civilians in a country in which U.S. forces are stationed or are in combat. The civilian supply program for any military operation should, there- fore, be based on planning guidance developed through inter-departmental coordination by the United States Government (par. 40708, JCS Pub 2). Generally, in preparing a plan of support for a civilian population, the planner will take into consideration some or all of the following factors:


(1)     Whether or not the Department of State or other gov- ernmental or international body has the responsibility for assuming civilian supply operations at some future date. If so, the length of time required for the assump-
tion of responsibility and capabilities of the agency with respect to supply resources, transportation, and the ma- chinery for distribution must be accorded recognition.
(2)
    Latest area intelligence.

(3)
    Rural populations will require little or no emergency food allocations.

(4)
With no better yardstick available, it can be estimated that ten percent of the population in cities in excess of 100,000 population will require indefinite subsistence in food and medical supplies. This figure can be scaled downward in smaller municipalities and may need to be increased in larger cities.

(5)
Caloric basis of the plan may be reduced to lowest sub-

sistence levels and be as low as 1500 calories daily per person.

(6)
    Requirement for medical supplies should be based on civilian combat casualties, epidemic disease potential, and major endemic diseases.

(7)
    Availability of shipping space.

(8)
    Palatability factors in foodstuff consumption rates.

(9)
    Off shore procurement resources.

(10)
Determination      of      policy     on rehabilitative measures which will be taken with respect to the local economy.

(11)
    Extent of destruction of housing and means     of produc­tion and distribution.

(12)
    Capabilities of allied nations with forces committed to the area to assist in support operations.

(18)
    Numbers and breakdown by age and     sex     of civilians who become refugees, displaced persons; or are evacu- ated. In the case of evacuees the measure or responsi- bility is greater.

(14)
Mission     of      forces.     Emphasis on requirements for ci- vilian supplies will be influenced by political variables. In the case of an invitational assignment on disaster re- lief or to support a government endangered by internal divisions or external threat, civilian supply support would have greater essentiality than in an occupied hos- tile area.

(15)
Capabilities of combat forces to provide civilian relief supplies from available unit stockage in areas of active combat.

c.
Programmed issue of supplies for civilian use is accomplished by requisitions submitted by CA units and processed in accord- ance with theater logistical plans and procedures. For emergency issues the burden of decision as to quantities and kinds of supplies


AGO 6117B
180     
which car; be spared from unit stocks rests with commanders con- cerned. Wherever practicable and shipping facilities permit, ma- jor combat organization should carry a predetermined unit load of supplies earmarked for civilian consumption. In either case total quantities by item should not be issued in excess of alloca- tions established by theater headquarters except in extreme emer- gencies.
d.
Distribution of civilian supplies to locations specified by TACAC is the responsibility of TALOG. Normally, further stor- age, transportation, and distribution is then a responsibility of CA units assigned to areas requiring the supplies either through direct control activities or through supervision over designated civilian agencies. Accountability is maintained until supplies are issued to appropriate civil agencies after which further account- ablity, storage, processing, and final distribution to end users is normally the responsibility of civil agencies operating under the supervision of CA personnel.

e.
The TACAC commander is responsible for a continuing esti- mate of civilian supply requirements, allocations, and priorities within his area of responsibility ; development of plans and pro- grams for distribution and control of supplies and coordination of requisitions from subordinate units; distribution within the TACAC area, and maintenance of necessary records and accounts to reflect the current status of civilian supply operations. Similar surveys, estimates, and records are maintained by CA units at all levels in the interest of local planning and operations as well as to provide feeder data for central consolidation of information at the TACAC level.


151. The Civilian Supply Officer
a.
Within any CA unit the civilian supply officer is assigned this functional responsibility and is the focal point within the unit to whom military commands or other agencies submit requests for local supplies, property, and facilities for the area assigned to the CA unit. After determining from those CA personnel in the unit, whose functional areas encompass such supplies, property, and facilities, that they can be made available, the civilian supply officer arranges for delivery to the appropriate military control agency. All transactions in property other than consumable items are processed through the property control section. Through the same civilian supply officer channel, return of local property and facilities to civilian control may be arranged.

b.
In the matter of civilian supply operations the closest co- ordination between TACAC and TALOG and their respective sub- ordinate echelons is required at all levels and in all aspects of such matters as planning, programming, procurement and distri-


AGO 6147~ 181
bution, and the exchange of current information on the status of civilian supply operations (fig. 9).
152. Policy on Civilian Supplies
The extent and manner of furnishing civilian relief and eco- nomic aid from United States resources and the permissible de- gree of utilization of local resources in support of military oper. ations should be developed in prior planning at all levels based on capabilities, requirements, national policy, aild international law. Recommendations on program changes should be made as they appear warranted on the basis of continuing studies. Maxi. mum permissible utilization is made of the material resources, facilities, and services of the area concerned for the purpose of supporting the conduct of military operations. Such resources, facilities, and service include, but are not limited to the following:
a.
Material resources including natural resources, raw materi- als, agricultural products, and manufactured commodities.

b.
Port, transportation, and communication facilities; public utilities; and industrial plants, machinery, and equipment.

c.
Real estate including troop areas, housing, warehousing, open storage, and hardstand space.

d.
Local civilian labor.

e.
Contractual services.


153. Support by Technical and Administrative Services
The implementation of approved plans and the actual conduct of CA logistical operations is not confined to CA units. It is es- sential that the various technical and administrative services of the Army in the field render appropriate support in the form of supplies, services, and technical assistance, as follows:
a.
Receipt, storage, and transportation of supplies for civilian relief and economic aid.

b.
Provision of assistance or technical advice to the maximum extent consistent with requirements for the support of military operations in such activities as-


(1)
Removal or neutralization of mines, booby traps, and demolitions.

(2)
    Rehabilitation of water supply facilities and public util- ities for military or essential civilian use when such re- habilitation is beyond the capabilities of local agencies of government.

(3)
    Rehabilitation of port, transportation, and communica- -tion facilities, as may be directed.

(4)
    Clearance of debris or damaged structures.

(5)
    Emergency care of civilian casualties.

(6)
    Emergency graves registration service.


AGO 0147B
182     
(7)     Care and control of refugees and displaced persons be. yond the capabilities of local authorities and the CA organization.
Section II. REQUIREMENTS
154. General
Requirements for civilian supplies must be specific as to quan- tities, time, or needs for a specific project. Civil affairs units at all levels must conduct continuing surveys and make reports and recommendations concerning civilian supply requirements within their respective areas of employment. The CA staff sections of the commands concerned are responsible for estimating both in- itial and future supply requirements. In any situation, consoli- dated requirements for civilian supplies are submitted to the logistical staff section for review and necessary supply action in accordance with normal procedures for military requirements.
155. Civilian Supply Planning
Civilian supply planning must be carefully integrated with military logistical planning so that required shipping space with- in desired delivery times may be assured. Applicable policies are determined for each country or area in which operations are to be conducted and are furnished to the theater commander for guidance in planning. In general, such policies may cover the extent to which civilian supplies are to be furnished from United States resources for the relief of civilian distress and the caloric value of rations for civilian consumption. In addition, guidance is furnished on the general scope of military assistance with re- spect to any rehabilitation or restoration of the economy, stabili- zation procedures, the desired standard of living in the country of concern, and extent of utilization of local resources for military support purposes.
156. Estimates of Civilian Supply Requirements
a. Comprehensive estimates of minimum requirements for civilian supplies, such as food, clothing, fuel, shelter, and medical supplies to include types, quantities, and scheduled delivery dates should be made prior to the initiation of operations. Such esti- mates of requirements are preferably made to include operations during the first six months of combat. The determination of civil- ian supply requirements prior to operations serves as the basis for initial automatic supply. Subsequent estimates of supply re- quirements made after operations have been initiated are based on prescribed requisitioning periods. In addition, review and ad-
184      AGO 0147B
justment of previously determined requirements are made on the basis of actual experience.
b. Spot requirements such as immediate need for large quan- tities of a particular medicine or vaccine must be anticipated. These requirements must be handled on an emergency basis. Mili- tary operations may be initiated by an enemy so unexpectedly as to preclude a detailed estimate of requirements and their review, approval, and programming through normal channels within prac- tical time limitations. The theater commander must be prepared to cope with minimum initial civilian relief requirements through the diversion of food, clothing, and medical supplies from military stocks, supplemented by authorized offshore procurement from allied nations in the vicinity of the area of need.
157. Basis for Estimates
a. The development of civilian supply requirements may be more complex than the calculation of purely military requirements because of unknown factors which may be involved. For ex­ample­
(1)
There are no convenient tables of organization and equipment for ready reference.

(2)
    Civilian supply requirements may be extremely diverse including many types of items required to meet the basic needs of a civilian population during or subsequent to military operations when the normal sources of produc- tion and means of distribution have been eliminated, curtailed, or disrupted.

(3)
    Established experience factors will be lacking.

b.
In the development of estimates of requirements, considera- tion, as appropriate, is given to such factors as-

(1)
    Previous and existing standards of living of the civilian population including health and dietary factors.

(2)
    Climate, customs, and general way of life of the in- habitants.

(3)
    Agricultural and industrial pattern of the nation in- cluding the status of local production, times of harvest, percentage of population living in cities, effectiveness of rationing and distribution systems, and need for imports. Additional allowances may be required due to breakdown in transportation facilities between production areas and cities and disruption of the rationing and food distribu- tion systems.

(4)
    Availability of essential supplies within the theater such as excess food and fuel and means of transportation to deficit areas.

(5)
    Present extent of damage and disruption to the local


AGO      185
614iB
 
economy including the means of production, processing, and distribution of supplies and probable effects thereon of future military action including foraging by the en- emy.
158. Types, Quantities, and Priorities of Civilian Supplies
a.
Urban areas are largely dependent on outside food sources; rural areas are normally self-sustaining. An examination of the records of wholesalers, containing information on previous im- ports, may provide basic data of assistance in determining types and quantities of supplies to be imported into a specific area.

b.
Civilian supplies intended for initial distribution in an area of active military operations, such as canned goods, ready-made garments, or tents for shelter, should be susceptible to rapid distribution and immediate consumption or use. They should not require major preparation, processing, or detailed handling. As the military situation becomes relatively stabilized, bulk type supplies such as unprocessed foodstuffs, cloth to be made into clothing, or lumber for the construction of shelter may be more suitable. The provision of supplies in the form of raw materials conserves vitally needed shipping space, reduces purchasing costs, and when local processing is employed, may assist in industrial rehabilitation and economic recovery.

c.
Establishment of priorities and phasing of deliveries is nec- essary to assure delivery of supplies when needed and to provide conformance with the timing of supplies required for the support of tactical military operations.

d.
Consistent with the dietary habits of the local population and the traditional mode of food preparation, fuels for cooking are assigned priorities in consonance with those accorded to food supplies.

e.
The supplementing of local resources with such items as fer- tilizers, seeds, tools, or spare parts, may serve to accelerate local production of large amounts of needed supplies at low cost and free valuable shipping space for other uses.


159. Review of Civilian Supply Requirements
Within the theater of operations the aggregate of civilian sup- ply requirements is reviewed to determine those supplies, facil- ities, and services which should be obtained through local pro- curement. This review is accomplished by TACAC on the basis of regular feeder reports furnished by subordinate CA units. Where requirements exceed the aggregate of resources, a recom- mendation will be made to Theater Army on steps to be taken in- cluding the essential redistribution of local surpluses. If supplies in some categories are surplus to civilian requirements and are adaptable to utilization by the military forces, inventories will be
AGO 6147B
provided Headquarters Theater Army. The theater commander will forward his estimate of requirements to the Department of Defense for action at the national level, and his estimate or that portion of his estimate approved will be incorporated in national programs for civilian supplies.
160. Reconstruction and Rehabilitation for Military Use
a.
In the logistical planning prior to a large scale military op- eration, consideration is given to projects involving the recon- struction and rehabilitation for military use of local facilities in the objective area. These facilities, which are returned to civilian use as soon as there is no further need for them, may include ports, railroads, highways, hospitals (under special circumstances, see FM 27-10), accommodations for personnel, depots, shops, plants, factories, and communications facilities.

b.
In planning for the reconstruction, rehabilitation, and use of local facilities both military and civilian requirements are con- sidered to insure that assigned priorities and allocations reflect the politico-economic as well as the military mission of the com- mander.

c.
In the selection and recommendation of vital installations for pre-operational attack military planners should avoid indiscrimi- nate destruction. Indiscriminate destruction destroys the bases on which a peace can be built when the conflict is over and may impose an additional drain on the resources of the United States.




Section Ill. PROCUREMENT
161. Civilian Supply in General
a.
Civilian supplies consist principally of commodities such as food, coal, petroleum products, medical supplies, clothing, and any raw materials which can be utilized in local production. Sup- plies and services necessary to establish or restore information services in the area are provided (newsprint, printing facilities, radio broadcast and reception, motion pictures, etc.).

b.
Although civilian supply operations must be flexible, every effort should be made to promote stabilitv and prevent the per- formance of supply functions on a crisis basis. Basic minimum stocks or reasonable reserves of supplies are maintained in order to assure stability of operations.

c.
Supplies for civilian relief or economic aid may be procured, as appropriate, from military stocks, domestic purchase within the united States, offshore procurement, procurement from local resources, captured enemy stocks, and the contributions of volun- tary agencies such as the American Red Cross.


AGO 6147R
162. Automatic Supply for Civilian Requirements
a. Upon the initiation of military operations in a new theater, supply action is normally conducted on an automatic basis from the zone of interior. In accordance with requirements established prior to operations, civilian supplies are shipped automatically
(without requisition) in accordance with prearranged schedules. Corrections in amounts of supplies furnished on an automatic basis are made when amounts exceed desired stock levels. Pro­visions are made to call forward additional supplies on an emer- gency basis.
b. As military operations proceed, G5 staff officers at all com- mand levels estimate continuing civilian supply requirements for their areas, using reports, requisitions, and other data submitted by subordinate CA units and the appropriate technical services. Requirements for civilian supply operations must conform with other logistical support operations and must be closely coordi- nated by G5 with G4 at all command levels.
163. Regulated Items of Civilian Supply
Regulated items are those articles which are scarce, costly, of a highly technical or hazardous nature, or which, for some other reason, must be controlled closely during and after distribution. Appropriate commanders establish controls and publish lists of critical items which are handled in the same manner as regulated items. Supplies intended for civilian use normally are not included in regulated item lists, but they may be strictly controlled and may appear on a theater-controlled supply list to prevent waste or unauthorized diversion. Military supplies to be diverted to civilian use may be included in regulated item lists.
164. Requisitions for Civilian Supply
Requisitions for needed civilian supplies are prepared by those CA units in whose areas ultimate distribution to civilian agencies will be made. The form of the requisition or request may be a complete, written, formal requisition on a specified form, a call against a credit, an informal request in the form of a message, or an oral request from the CA unit.
a. Each formal requisition includes a statement that the re­quested items are necessary for civilian use in a specified area. This statement is necessary to enable the technical services to account for quantities and costs of items issued for civilian sup-
ply.
b. Procedures to be followed in the preparation and submis- sion of requisitions will be published by the headquarters of the field army or communications zone and will be supplemented by instructions issued by subordinate commands. When a CA unit
188 AGO 6147B
requisitions civilian supplies for which a specific credit or allo- cation has been established by the headquarters of a major com- mand, a requisition citing the authorization may be submitted directly to the specified depot or supply point. When a credit or allocation has not been established for needed civilian supplies, requisitions will normally be forwarded through command chan- nels to the headquarters of the operating CA command for ap- proval and consolidation.
c. Requisitions for regulated items will be forwarded through command channels for approval with information to supply agencies concerned prior to being sent to the depot or supply point for issue.
165. Objectives of Local Procurement
Local procurement is utilized as an alternate supply source to fill known military requirements and to augment other supply sources on an "as required" basis to insure the adequacy of logisti- cal support for tactical operations. Local procurement may-
a.
Decrease the industrial burden on the United States.

b.
Conserve critical domestic materials of the United States.

c.
Reduce procurement lead time.

d.
Reduce supply distribution time.

e.
Conserve shipping space.

f.
Promote economic and industrial self-sufficiency for the country furnishing local resources.


166. Basic Considerations Affecting Local Procurement
a.
In the support of military operations the CA organization mobilizes all available local resources to achieve military objec- tives. It is essential that elements of the military force avoid wanton destruction of property and exploitation of the inhabitants in order to comply with legal requirements, forestall civilian hos- tility, and permit the effective civilian and military utilization of local resources.

b.
Consideration is given to agreements concluded with allied governments and the effects of such procurement on the local population and economy of the area.

c.
Utilization of existing local facilities serves to reduce the need for military construction and requirements for engineer units and Class IV supplies. It also augments, for example, the potential of the quartermaster service with existing refrigeration, bath, laundry, baking, shoe, clothing, and repair facilities; of the transportation service with existing rail systems, waterways, road nets, and installations; and of the signal service with existing communication facilities.

d.
Careful consideration must be given to the urgency of the needs of the local economy and the requirements of the military


force. Local procurement will be avoided when it results in the subsequent importation of similar items for the civilian population. When the minimum needs of the local population are involved, local procurement of items such as food, livestock, fodder, medical supplies, insecticides, soaps, and fuel will be avoided.
e.
Real estate and local facilities, which are utilized after prior acquisition through prescribed procurement procedures, may in- clude land, buildings, rights of way, piers, docks, bridges, rail- ways, utility and communications systems, together with those fixtures and appurtenances required for their operation, such as machinery, equipment, and tools.

f.
Limitations on prices, wages, rentals, or fees for materiel, labor, facilities, and services will be established by theater policy and may be adjusted periodically on the basis of surveys and recommendations made by CA units. Price discipline must be observed and competition between using military agencies avoided.


167. Local Procurement Procedure
Although the functions of local procurement are conducted under the general staff supervision of G1 or G4 or comparable directorate staff officer in COMMZ of the headquarters concerned, G5 (director civil affairs) has general staff responsibility for pro- viding liaison with civil agencies; locating local supplies, equip- ment, and labor required for military use; determining the effect of their military utilization on the local economy, and reporting their availability based on a determination of civilian needs. Prior staff planning and detailed staff coordination are required to in- sure the maximum effective utilization of local resources. Chiefs of technical services, in coordination with CA units, explore the possibilities of and initiate action for the local procurement of supplies, facilities, real estate, services, and civilian labor.
a.
Procurement of supplies and equipment is effected by pur- chasing and contracting officers duly appointed in accordance with policies and procedures established by the Department of the Army. Purchasing and contracting officers may also be designated agent finance officers for the purpose of making cash purchases. When the procurement of local resources may provide a source of friction and misunderstanding with local civilians, P&C officers should avoid direct dealings with property owners and performers of services and whenever possible, arrange for the utilization of properties and services through local agencies.

b.
CA units assist and advise P&C officers in making arrange- ments for local procurement and facilitate compliance with the regulations and procedures prescribed by higher headquarters.

c.
Procedures for local procurement by CA units conform to those prescribed for all military units operating in the area.


190 AGO 6147B
168. Methods of Local Procurement
Procurement is accomplished by purchase, requisition, contri- bution, or confiscation. Directives of the theater commander, based on applicable legal limitations, furnish guidance to subordi- nate commanders on available methods of procurement.
a.
Purchase, which is a transaction whereby the ownership of. supplies is transferred and services are performed for an agreed cash payment or obligation, may be used to obtain supplies and services of a non-recurrent nature or where procurement by requisition is either unauthorized or undesirable.

b.
Requisition, which. is a demand made on the inhabitants, differs from purchase in that the price is fixed, usually by the buyer, and the owner has no option in the transaction. Requisi­tion may be of the direct or indirect type. Direct requisition is the process whereby supplies and services are demanded from the vendor or performer of services in exchange for a receipt to be utilized as a basis for future compensation. Indirect requisition is similar to direct requisition with the exception that the trans- action is accomplished through local authorities who should make immediate payment to the vendor or performer. The United States may assume an obligation to repay the local government. Indirect requisition is normally preferable to direct requisition.

c.
Contributions result from demands, levies, or taxes on the civilian population for the conduct of the essential services of the local government.

d.
Lawful confiscation is that seizure of the property of an enemy government for public use authorized by the law of land warfare (FM 27-10).


169. Procurement of Real Estate
The acquisition and disposition of real estate are functions of the engineer service. These functions are performed in accord- ance with the terms of agreements, the law of land warfare, and applicable theater policies.
a.
Adequate prior planning is essential to the effective deter- mination of requirements and allocations of areas and facilities.

b.
Although control over all activities concerned with real es- tate is centralized in the engineer service, the acquisition of real estate has a strong and direct impact on the economy of the area of operations. G5 (director civil affairs) accordingly determines the availability of real estate for military use, any limitations that should be imposed on such use, and the effect of such utiliza- tion on the local economy. G4 (director of services) develops policies on the requisitioning and administration of real estate


AGO 6147B 191
and makes allocations of areas, billets, and facilities to users. G1 (director of personnel) sub-allocates shelter and quarters for the use of staff sections and personnel within the headquarters
c.
CA units assist engineer real estate officers in locating de- sired properties and facilities. To assure close coordination it is desirable that engineer real estate offices be established in the vicinity of the headquarters of those CA units allocated area juris- diction for major political subdivisions. Engineer real estate officers insure that requests for utilization of real estate are within the allocations made by G4 and maintain, in coordination with CA units, inventories of available real estate.

d.
Effective coordination of real estate requisitions may neces- sitate the establishment of area real estate allocation boards in- cluding CA and other representation from the various commands concerned.


170. Procurement of Labor
a.
Maximum permissible use is made of local sources of labor in support of military operations. Theater policies, based on legal or treaty requirements and United States policies with respect to local economic considerations, are promulgated on such matters as the procurement and distribution of labor, uniform wage scales, and conditions of employment. When the availability of local labor has been determined by G5 (director civil affairs) in accord- ance with theater policies, the report of such availability is fur- nished to G1 (director of personnel), the allocating staff agency.

b.
Civilian labor procurement and adinistration is performed by unit labor officers, civilian personnel officers or area labor officers in coordination with appropriate CA units. CA units lo- cate local labor for using agencies and establish and maintain such minimum records as are necessary to insure adherence to prescribed policies and directives. CA units are not responsible for such matters of administration as hiring, payment for serv- ices, and maintenance of employment records.

c.
Refugees are utilized to the maximum practicable extent as a source of local civilian labor.


171. Acquisition and Utilization of Captured Enemy Supplies
Captured enemy military supplies or movable public property become the property of the United States immediately upon cap- ture and must be handled in the same manner as all other gov- ernment property (FM 27-10). Private property must be held pending return to or compensation of its owner. Usable captured materiel is distributed through normal supply channels or is moved to the rear, as in the case of salvage. Care is taken to safeguard and evacuate captured material of new design to the appropriate technical intelligence team or to the appropriate special staff officer of the responsible supply branch.
a.
Maximum efforts are made to exploit those captured enemy supplies which are suitable for civilian use. The military use of captured enemy supplies may be unsatisfactory due to their dis- similar quality, packaging, marking, and the difficulty which may be encountered in repair and maintenance. The allocation of cap- tured supplies to civilian use in the area of their location reduces requirements for civilian supplies and the transportation neces- sary to move such supplies from rear areas.

b.
Prior planning includes consideration for the disposition of captured enemy supplies which are adaptable for civilian use. In rapidly moving situations the enemy may be unable to remove or destroy supplies contained in various supply points and depots prior to the seizure of such installations by friendly military units.

c.
Captured enemy supplies released and issued for civilian use are accounted for in the same manner as imported supplies. Cap- tured enemy military supplies and public property may be sold to local authorities only when such sale is specifically authorized.


172. Storage of Civilian Supplies
Storage includes the operations of receiving, storing or ware- housing, and shipping civilian supplies in accordance with the overall distribution plan. Depots perform four supply functions- control, storage, procurement, and distribution. The extent to which a depot exercises each of these functions depends on its location, mission, type, and service. Civilian supplies are stored in and distributed from military depots and supply points as appropriate by class of supply and responsible technical service. Each technical service is charged with maintaining stocks at the prescribed level and furnishing the necessary operating person- nel. Records indicating type, location, and status of supplies are maintained by each depot. Reports on these records serve as a basis for operation of the stock control system.
Section IV. DISTRIBUTION
173. Supply Channels
a.
Military supply channels are used in the distribution of civilian supplies in a theater of operations. Adherence to normal supply channels not only obtains the most efficient use of per- sonnel, transportation, communications, and storage space but also assures that such supplies reach their proper destination and serve their intended purposes.

b.
Supply officers of the administrative and tactical commands


AGO 6147B
concerned insure the timely movement of civilian supplies from the ports through military supply channels. The chief of each technical service processes and handles such supplies in the same manner as those of a purely military nature. Uniform procedures for the issuance of such supplies are determined by the chiefs of technical services in coordination with G4 and G5 of field army headquarters or appropriate TALOG directors.
c.
If the harvests or the stocks of local supplies are adequate to meet civilian supply needs as each military objective is reached, the clogging of military channels may be avoided by holding back imports in storage areas and by utilizing local resources to the maximum. Allocated supplies are called forward as needed; pri- orities are adjusted to conform to actual on-the-ground needs.

d.
Operational considerations and the requirements of the local situation may require deviations from the normal supply distribu- tion system. When adequate transportation is available to CA units, such units should draw directly from army or communica- tions zone supply points or depots thus relieving the technical services from the responsibility of drawing such supplies. When the transportation available to CA units is limited in relation to the bulk or quantities of supplies to be drawn, supplies may be delivered to points designated by CA units. Civilian supplies may be issued directly to local governmental agencies by depots in the communications zone or field army service area. In any instance, maximum utilization is made of local civilian labor, transporta- tion, and distribution agencies.

e.
Since the main objective of supply distribution is to get the supplies to the ultimate consumer where and when needed, civilian supplies will normally be issued by the depot in closest proximity to the CA unit responsible for ultimate distribution to the agen- cies of local government.

f.
Civilian supplies may carry special markings to distinguish them from items normally issued to troops and to facilitate ready identification. In order to obtain the good will of the inhabitants, the contribution of civilian supplies is fully publicized.

g.
The distribution of civilian supplies through sale rather than gratuitous issue is instituted under appropriate conditions. Due consideration is given to the avoidance of inflation and black market activities.

h.
The proper distribution of civilian supplies to consumers is a responsibility of CA units in their respective areas of jurisdic- tion. Best results are obtained when the existing civilian distribu- tion system is used.

i.
Civilian supplies are drawn from those supply points or local


AGO 6147B
issue sections of branch and general depots designated in appli- cable administrative orders.
174.     Issue of Civilian Supplies by Corps and Divisions During Combat
a.
Commanders of corps and divisions may be authorized to issue military rations as relief supplies when local supplies or special military rations for civilian relief are not available. As enemy food supplies are uncovered, adequate security measures are taken to protect them from destruction or looting, either by troops or by the inhabitants. These supplies may be released for distribution through CA distribution channels for the feeding of refugees, displaced persons, and local inhabitants.

b.
Commanders of corps and divisions may be authorized to requisition necessary salvage clothing. Prior to issuance all identifying insignia should be removed, and further alterations to include dyeing may be undertaken to differentiate the items from material in the hands of troops. These alterations, however, are not a safeguard against pilfered Army stocks being treated in a similar manner and placed on civilian markets. As a safeguard against pilferage and to assist in possible recovery of stolen goods, adequate bookkeeping and receipting procedures should be set up to establish legitimacy of possession of salvage goods. Issues of tentage for emergency shelter and wire for inclosures may be authorized when local supplies have been exhausted. If neces­sary, commanders within their capabilities, assist in provision of potable water and medical supplies for civilian use.

c.
Gasoline from military supplies or captured enemy stocks may be issued for the movement of food from rural to urban areas and for other essential use. Whenever possible, gasoline is given a distinctive color to prevent misuse. Captured enemy vehicles may be used for the movement and distribution of civilian sup- plies.

d.
Since military supplies for industrial needs usually are not available during combat operations, enemy construction supplies, machine tools, and equipment are protected from destruction and looting in order to permit their later use in the civilian economy.

e.
Engineer equipment to restore the operation of such essen- tial utilities as the water system, sewage disposal, and electric power facilities is requested through engineer supply channels when the operation of such facilities is necessary to prevent dis- ease or unrest or to contribute to the military effort.


175.     Civilian Supply Accounting
a. The CA organization should require civilian agencies re­ceiving civilian supplies to maintain records in such detail as is
AGO 6147B     
necessary for a full and proper accounting of supplies provided from military sources and of contributions made by allied govern- ments and nonmilitary agencies.
b.
When supplies are transferred to the local government or civilian agencies for' distribution or for reallocation, authorized signatures must be obtained on receipts.

c.
Central accounting controls over the receipt and issue of civilian supplies are maintained to provide information in the course of operations on which to base continuing requisitions for civilian supplies and insure that supplies are not issued in excess of essential minimums or of amounts which have been determined by proper authority. Statistical evaluations at local, regional, and national levels assist in determining the effectiveness with which civilian supply operations are being accomplished.


Section V. HOSPITALIZATION AND TRANSPORTATION
176. Civilian Casualties
It may be necessary for military aid stations to administer emergency type treatment to civilians during active military op- erations and, when feasible, to evacuate seriously wounded or critically injured civilians. The extent of military treatment and evacuation of civilian casualties depend upon the requirements of the military situation, the availability of military medical facili- ties, and the lack of civilian medical personnel and facilities. Whenever possible, civilian casualties are evacuated to the nearest civilian medical installation. If civilian medical facilities are not available, the administrative order of the command concerned should outline evacuation procedures.
a.
When civilian casualties are to be evacuated to military medical installations, such evacuation is accomplished through the military evacuation system on a priority basis second to military casualties.

b.
If civilian ambulances are not available for the transport of civilian casualties, trucks, private cars, or animal-drawn carts are utilized. When military transportation must be provided, avail- able air, rail, or motor transportation, including empty vehicles moving to the rear, are employed. Provisions are made, where appropriate, for the transportation of civilian casualties by litter or improvised means.

c.
When sick and wounded civilians have been evacuated to military medical facilities, they are segregated from military personnel and transferred to civilian facilities as soon as their physical condition permits. Accordingly, measures are taken, whenever practicable, to rehabilitate civilian hospitals on a first priority basis.


196 AGO 6147B
177. Movement of Civilian Supplies
As described herein, transportation includes the utilization of civilian and military transportation for the movement of civilian supplies. Utilization for military purposes of public transporta- tion facilities not operated by the Transportation Corps is co- ordinated through G5 or director of civil affairs of the command charged with the control or supervision of such facilities.
a.
When authorized by competent authority, civilian transpor- tation may be requisitioned for military use. In the allocation of civilian transport between military and civilian use, careful consideration must be given to the terms of the civil affairs agree- ment or rules of international law, as applicable, and to local re- quirements for the movement of food, clothing, medical, and other supplies. Civilian vehicles should not be utilized for mili- tary purposes when additional requirements for military trans- portation of civilian supplies can be anticipated. Civilian vehicles are returned to their proper owners as soon as effective control over their use can be exercised by civilian authorities.

b.
Upon entry into an area previously under enemy control, all civilian vehicles, trucks, and animal-drawn carts required for the transportation of civilian supplies are organized into trans- portation pools for operation under the supervision of CA units in the area. The organization of vehicles into pools provides the most effective means for the movement of civilians and trans- portation of essential civilian supplies. To the maximum prac- ticable extent, such vehicles are operated by their respective owners.

c.
When local or captured enemy supplies and facilities are not available, minimum amounts of fuel, lubricants, tires, and spare parts from military stocks and essential military maintenance facilities are made available by the responsible military com­mander for issue to an utilization by civilian pools under the supervision of CA units. Issues of supplies are made against ap- proved trip tickets and are restricted to the controlled employment of the vehicles in meeting the approved transportation needs of the community involved. Commanders of CA units estimate fu- ture requirements from military stocks for fuels and lubricants in advance and submit the necessary requisitions through appro- priate command channels.


AGO 6147B



APPENDIX I
 
REFERENCES
 

AR 611-203 AR 616-170 AR 725 Series
Inspector General Activities and Procedures
Message Preparation
Field Water Supply
Civil Affairs Branch
Military Intelligence and Army Security Branches Active Duty for Training of Individual Members Military Police Criminal Investigation Activities Battalions, Battle Groups, Squadrons, Gen- eral Provisions
Companies ;General Provisions
Preparation and Processing
Organization and Equipment Authorization Tables Orders, Bulletins, Circulars, and Memoran- dums Issued From Headquarters of Field Commands
Dictionary of United States Army Terms
Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes
Reports Control System
Correspondence
Civil Affairs Training
Public Information, Community Relations
Public Information, Establishment and Con- duct of Field Press Censorship in Combat Areas
Safeguarding Defense Information
Civil Censorship
Command Report
Officer Qualification and Classification
Personnel Selection and Classification Manual of Warrant Officer Military Occupational Specialties
Manual of Enlisted Military Occupational Specialties
Enlisted Classification
Civil Affairs Specialization
Issue of Supplies and Equipment
AGO 6147B
AR 740 Series Storage and Shipment of Supplies and
AR 746-80 AR 750 Series FM 1-5 Equipment
Marking of Supplies for Shipment
Maintenance of Supplies and Equipment
Army Aviation; Organizations and Employment
Tactics and Techniques of Chemical, Biologi- cal, and Radiological (CBR) Warfare Operations of Engineer Troop Units Camouflage, Basic Principles and Field Camouflage
Engineer Intelligence
Engineers Reference and Logistical Data
Infantry and Airborne Division Battle Groups Infantry Division Medical Service Units, Theater of Operations Medical Service, Theater of Operations Transportation of Sick and Wounded Bandaging and Splinting Ordnance Service in the Field Quartermaster Service in Theater of Operations
Quartermaster Reference Data
Signal Operations in the Corps and Army
Signal Corps Technical Intelligence
The Chaplain
The Armored Division and Combat Command Military Police Operations Civil Disturbances and Disasters Criminal Investigation Military Police Traffic Control Physical Security Handling Prisoners of War The Provost Marshal Civil Defense Military Training Techniques of Military Instruction Military Sanitation Map Reading Military Symbols Small Unit Procedure in Nuclear, Biological
and Chemical Warfare
AGO 6147B
 

FM 101-10 Part I1
Soldier's Handbook for Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare Combat Training of the Individual Soldier and Patrolling
Military Leadership
Field Radio Techniques
Field-Wire and Field Cable Techniques
Motor Transportation, Operations
Interior Guard Duty
The Law of Land Warfare
Combat Intelligence
Technical Intelligence
Handbook on Aggressor Military Forces
Aggressor Order of Battle
Operations Against Airborne Attack, Guer- rilla Action, and Infiltration Guerrilla Warfare and Special Forces Operations
Desert Operations
Combat in Fortified Areas and Towns
Northern Operations
Psychological Warfare Operations
Joint Manual of Civil Affairs
Field Press Censorship
The Logistical Command
Transportation Services in Theaters of Operation Airborne Operations The Airborne Division Amphibious Operations; Embarkation and Ship Loading
Jungle Operations
Field Service Regulations; Operations Field Service Regulations, Administration Signal Communications Doctrine
Larger Units
The GI Manual
Staff Officer's Field Manual, Staff Organiza- tion and Procedure Staff Officer's Field Manual: Organization, Technical, and Logistical Data Department of the Army Planning and Pro- gramming Manual Joint Logistics Policy and Guidance Manual
AGO 6147B
JCS Pub 1
JCS Pub 2 JANAP and ACP
121-series JANAP 169 TM 5-687
DA Pam 20-21 DA Pam 27-1 DA Pam 108-1
DA Pam 310-1 DA Pam 310-2 DA Pam 310-3 DA Pam 310-4
DA Pam 310-5 DA Pam 310-7
DA Pam 350-60 DA Pam 600-3 TOE 7-1 TOE 17-1 TOE 29-500 TOE 33-56
Dictionary of United States Military Terms for Joint Usage
Unified Action Armed Forces (UNAAF)
Joint Communications Instructions
Standard Abbreviations
Fire Protection Equipment and Appliances; Inspections, Operations, and Preventive Maintenance
Military Water Supply
Tactical Motor Vehicles, Preventive Main­tenance, Supply, Inspection, and Training Procedures
Army Mess Operations
Cases on Military Government
Preservation, Packaging, and Packing of Military Supplies and Equipment
Preservation, Packaging, and Packing of Materials, Supplies and Equipment Used by the Army
The Army School Catalog
Treaties Governing Land Warfare
Index of Army Motion Pictures, Filmstrips, Slides, and Phonograph Recordings Index of Administrative Publications Index of Blank Forms Index of Training Publications Index of Technical Manuals, Technical Regu-
lations, Technical Bulletins, Supply Bul­letins, Lubrication Orders, and Modification work Orders
Index of Graphic Training Aids and Devices
Index of Tables of Organization and Equip- ment, Tables of Organization, Type Tables of Distribution, and Tables of Allowances
Announcement of Army Extension Courses
Career Planning for Army Officers
Headquarters, Infantry Division
Headquarters, Armored Division
Composite Service Organization
Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Psychological Warfare Broadcasting and Leaflet Battalion
AGO 6147B
 

TOE 33-57
TOE 33-77
TOE 33-500
TOE 33-600
TOE 41-500 TOE 51-1 TOE 52-1 TOE 54-1 TOE 54-101 TOE 54-201 TOE 57-1 ATP 21-114

ATP 41-200 ATT 41-1
Psychological Warfare Reproduction Detachment Psychological Warfare Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company Psychological Warfare Radio Broadcasting Organization Psychological Warfare Consolidation
Organization Civil Affairs Organization Headquarters, Army Headquarters Corps or Airborne Corps Headquarters, Logistical Command A Headquarters, Logistical Command B Headquarters, Logistical Command C Headquarters, Airborne Division Basic Combat Training Program for Male
Military Personnel Without Prior Service Civil Affairs Groups and Companies Army Training Test for Civil Affairs Service
Organization
AGO G147B
APPENDIX II
 
---.-----------------------­
(CLASSIFICATION)
Form for CA Unit Commander's Estimate of the Situation
Unit or Area Place Date and Time
COMMANDER'S ESTIMATE OF THE SITUATION Map or chart references: (As necessary for understanding of the estimate).
1. Mission
A concise statement of the task and its purpose. The overall politico-military mission is the controlling factor of the estimate. If the CA mission is multiple, determine priorities. If there are immediate tasks, prescribed or deduced, necessary to the accom- plishment of the mission, such tasks should be listed in this paragraph.
2. The Situation and Considerations
a. Considerations AfSecting the Possible Courses of Action. Determine and analyze those factors which will influence your choice of a course of action as well as those which affect the capabilities of the enemy to act adversely. Consider such of the following and other factors as are involved:
(1)
Characteristics of the area of operations including its physical features--climate, and basic political, economic, and psychological factors. Consider also the following specific points :

(a)
Attitudes of the population-whether          cooperative or noncooperative.

(b)
    Availability of local material and personnel to support CA operations.

(c)
    Estimated number of refugees, evacuees, and displaced persons in the area.

(d)
Amount     and type     of      war damage suffered by the economy, particularly in public utility and communica- tion fields.

(e)
Status and character of civil government.


-..--.-.-.-.-...-.----.----­
(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
(f)    
     State of health of the civilian populace.

(2)
    Enemy strength and disposition. Note all enemy capa- bilities which could possibly affect the accomplishment of your mission and estimate the relative probability of their adoption. These capabilities may include the fol- lowing :

(a)
Relative enemy strengths and combat capabilities, to include special attention to unconventional weapons and the possibility of their employment.

(b)
Sabotage-include all capabilities for military, politi- cal, and economic sabotage possible of execution by agents, guerrillas, and partisans.

(c)
Espionage-include all methods for which the enemy is known or estimated to be capable, together with the extent of such activity.

(d)
    Subversion-include all types of propaganda, treason, disaffe tion, sedition, and similar acts affecting friend- ly troo, s and local civilians.


!l
 

(e)         
Movement by the enemy of refugees, evacuees, and displaced persons into the area.
(f)    
     Passive resistance, such as refusal to serve in re­quired capacities.

(3)
    CA situation and nature of operations to be supported. Review general policy guidance from higher headquar- ters and consider pertinent terms of relevant civil affairs agreements or rules and conventions of international law. Other factors to be considered include-

(a)
Review of current problems faced by the supported operation pertinent to your mission.

(b)
Estimate the impact of future plans of the supported force on your operations.

(c)
Note the size and composition of the CA unit and the availability of military or civilian relief supplies for diversion to the civilian population.

b.
Assumptions. Matters which are assumed, but not known, to be valid for the purpose of the estimate.

c.
Special Factors. Items not covered by any of the above categories which require special recognition and treatment in your estimate, such as the possible employment of mass destruc- tion weapons by the enemy and the effect of such employment on your mission.


204          AGO 0147B
-------------*-------------­
(CLASSIFICATION)
 

d. Own Courses of Action. Note all practicable courses of action open to you which, if successful, will accomplish your mission. The following checklist will serve as a reminder of the various activities for which you may be responsible and over which you may be required to exercise control or supervision:
(1)
Arts, monuments, and archives.

(2)
Civil government.

(3)
Civil information.

(4)
Civilian supply.

(5)
Commerce and Industry.

(6)
Displaced persons and refugees.

(7)
Economics.

(8)
Food and agriculture.

(9)
Labor.

(10)
Legal.

(11)
Price control and rationing.

(12)
Property control.

(13)
Public communication.

(14)
Public education.

(15)
Public finance.

(16)
Public health.

(17)
Public safety.

(18)
Public transportation.

(19)
Public welfare.

(20)
Public works and utilities.

(21)
Religious affairs.


3. Analysis of Opposing Courses of Action
Determine the probable effect of each enemy capability on the success of each of your own courses of action. At this stage of estimate, eliminate those capabilities which have little or no effect on your selection of a course of action. An enemy capability will not influence your choice of a course of action if it affects all alternatives equally.
4. Comparison of Own Courses of Action
Weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each of your own courses of action (in the light of the governing factors of the situation) and decide which course of action promises to be the most successful in accomplishing your mission. In arriving at a decision, the commander may assign particular weight to one or
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
 AGO 6147B 205
-..--.-..---.------.-------­
(CLASSIFICATION)
more of the factors listed in paragraph 2 and may consider addi- tional factors such as those policy decisions affecting the conduct of CA under special political situations.
5. Decision, Conclusions, or Recommendations
Translate the course of action selected into a concise statement of what the unit as a whole is to do, and so much of the elements of who, when, where, how, and why, as may be appropriate.
/sJ ...-.-..-.---..-...-----------.-----.----.......-----.--------------------.---


Commander
Notes
1.
The estimate may be a thorough, complete, written docun~ent or it may be a brief mental evaluation. In preparing his esti~nate the CA unit co1111nander will nornlally rely on his staff for evaluation and recommendations pertaining to their principal fields of interest. (See FJI 101-5.)

2.
The comnlander's decision is not confined to the statement of decision made in paragraph 5 of the estimate but may inclncle additional irnl~lementing instructions, suppleinentary decisions, admonitions, or warnings to clarify his intent or furnish guidance to his staff or subordinate commanders.


(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6ldIB
APPENDIX Ill
(CLASSIFICATION)
Form for CA Annex to Operation or Administrative Plan or Order
Copy No ...-.---.-. Headquarters Place Date and Time
Annex------..._..-.--------------------­
(CA) to OPORD .....-..-..-..-----------------------­
References. (Maps, charts, and relevant documents.)
 
Time zone. (Used throughout the order; if unnecessary, omit.)
 
Troop list. List here, when appropriate, the CA units which will
 
comprise the command, together with names and ranks of com-
manders.
 

1. Situation
Such information of the general overall situation as may be essential to an understanding of the CA annex.
a.
Enemy Forces. Pertinent information regarding composi- tion, disposition, location, movements, estimated strengths, identi- fications, and capabilities.

b.
Friendly Forces. Pertinent information on the organization, locations, strengths, and plans of our forces, other than those listed above under organization, which may have a bearing on the decision of a subordinate.

c.
Attachments and Detachments. When not shown under task organization, list here units attached to or detached from the issuing unit together with the times they are effective. When shown under task organization, list here an appropriate reference.

d.
Area Intelligence. Pertinent information relating to the politics, economy, 2nd sociology of a specific area of operations and furnishing guidance as to the sources of such information.

e.
Assumptions. Assumptions used as a basis for this plan. Normally applicable only to higher planning echelons.


2. Mission
A clear, concise statement of the CA task and its purpose. This statement is not confined to broad generalities but also relates to the specific nature of the particular operation.
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B 207
-------------------.-------­
(CLASSIFICATION)
3. Execution
Contains the concept of operation and assigns definite tasks or
missions to each element of the command. A separate lettered subparagraph beginning with "0" assigns specific tasks to each element of the command.
a. Concept of the Operation. Include the commander's general plan for the development and phasing of the operation.
b.
Major Subordinate Elements and their Specific Tasks. (Sep­arate subparagraphs for each unit.)

c.
The Delegation of Authorization for Specific CA Tasks to Specific Commands.


d. Coordinating Instructions. The final subparagraph contains the details of coordination and control measures applicable for two or more elements of the command, the repetition of which would be cumbersome in the other subparagraphs of paragraph 3.
4. Administration and Logistics
Contains a statement of administrative matters including logis- tical arrangements for the conduct of operations. When an ad- ministrative order is in effect, this paragraph in a CA annex to an OPORD may consist of only a reference to the ADMIN 0.
Instructions to subordinate commands for the administrative and logistical support of CA operations.
a. Governmental Functions.
(1)
Civil government. Supervision, coordination, or control of governmental functions, modification or replacement of governmental structure.

(2)
Legal. Organization and supervision of courts; suspen- sion or promulgation of laws.

(3)
    Public safety. Restoration of public order and safety and direction of measures for civilian defense.

(4)
    Public health. Preservation or improvement of public health.

(5)
    Public welfare. Supervision over public welfare ac­tivities.

(6)
Public edzication. Supervision of educational institutions.

(7)
    Public finance. Supervision or control of budget, taxa- tion, public funds, currency issue, and banking structure.

(8)
    Labor. Determination of availability of labor for mili- tary purposes, priority of utilization of labor in rehabili- tation of the economy.


AGO 6147B
(CLASSIFICATION)
b. Economic Functions
(1)
Economics. Maintenance, preservation, rehabilitation, or restoration of local economy, determination of avail­ability of local resources for military use.

(2)
    Commerce and industry. Development of local commerce and industry, coordination of productive capacity, and determination of requirements for military assistance.

(3)
    Food and agriculture. Stimulation of food production, processing, and effective marketing.

(4)
    Price control and rationing. Measures to insure equi- table and effective distribution of essential supplies; supervision or control of prices, rationing, and other restrictive measures.

(5)
Property control. Custody, protection, and control of public and private property.

(6)
     Provision for and distribution of food


Civilian supply.
and supplies for disaster relief and the prevention of disease and unrest.
c. Public Facilities
(1)
    Public works and utilities. Supervision and operation, where required, of such facilities as water, gas, and electrical systems.

(2)
    Public communications. Supervision or control of postal services and those civil communication facilities not under direct military control of the signal officer.

(3)
    Public transportation. Supervision of transportation facilities which remain under or are transferred to civil government or private operation.


d. Special Functions
(1)
    Displaced persons. Control, care, repatriation, resettle- ment, or other disposition of displaced persons, refugees, and evacuees.

(2)
    Civil information. Censorship; dissemination of infor- mation to the inhabitants, using all media of informa- tion available.

(3)
    Arts, monuments, and archives. Care and protection of fine arts, monuments, and archives.

(4)
    Religious affairs. Liaison with and support for religious activities and facilities.


AGO 6147B
(CLASSIFICATION)
 

5. Command and Signal
Contains instructions relative to command and the operation of signal communication, including a statement of the command relationship for CA, location of commanders and command posts, and the CA plan of communications (may refer to a standard plan, separate annex, or appendix).
Acknowledgement instructions.
-------------------------------------.-----------------------------------------­
Commander
 

Annexes Distribution Authentication
Notes.
1.
Subparagraphs not required should be omitted.

2.
The CA order may be published as an annes to the operation or admin­istrative order or as a separate docmnent. It results from preceding estimates, plans and studies, and enables subordinate co~nmanders to prepare their plans or orders. (See FM 101-5.)

3.
Specific information and instructions too detailed for inclusion in the CA annex may be transmitted in appropriately nntiibered al~pendises thereto.

4.
The commanders of CA area support llnits will normally include CA instruc­tions in their operation plans and orders rather than in anneses thereto.

5.
In continuing situations, CA orders nornially will be issued in fragmentary form as changes occur in the CA situation. A complete order should be issued when changes to the current order are so numerous as to make the order ineffective.

6.
The commander may prescribe the paragraphic format of CA annexes. The form provided above is for illustrative purposes only.


(CLASSIFICATION)
 

AGO 6147B
 

APPENDIX IV
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
Example of CA Annex to Operation Order-Army
Copy No. 5 1st Army CASABLANCA (Coordinates), MOROCCO 140800 Apr 19 .-.-...­KR 75
Annex I (Civil Affairs) to OPORD 1. Maps : SOUTHERN FRANCE, 1:200,000 MARSEILLES, ANTIBES, AVIGNON, LEPUY, GAP, and LARCHE sheets. Troop List: Appendix 1, Task Organization.  MONTPE DIGNE,  LLIER, NICE,  
1. Situation  

a.
Enemy Forces. Annex B (Intelligence) to OPORD 1.

b.
Friendly Forces. OPORD 1and Annex C, Opn Overlay.


c.
Attachments and Detachments. None.

d.
Area Intelligence.


(1)
Theater Intelligence Estimate and Surveys.

(2)
    Other intelligence studies and area. surveys.


e. Assumptions.
(1)
Assumptions included in OPORD 1.

(2)
    Aggressor has not eliminated all organizations and lead- ers capable of offering a threat to his forces.

(3)
    Aggressor sponsored government is capable of going underground in event of liberation of the area and of opposing subsequent operations by guerrilla and sub- versive activities.

(4)
Any objective area will be extensively devastated prior to liberation.

(5)
    French authorities will be capable, with minimum as­sistance, of establishing friendly, local, and other governmental echelons as areas are liberated by U.S. forces.


.2.     Mission
1st Army civil affairs organization supports attack, assists in maintaining law and order, supports friendly, local, and other
-------------.-------------­
(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO G147B     
(CLASSIFICATION)
governmental echelons in accordance with Civil Affairs Agree- ment. It also provides for rehabilitation of local p~pulation, government, and economy, as permitted by local resources and available U.S. military supplies, in order to achieve the overall politico-military mission. Appendix 2, Civil Affairs Agreement.
3. Execution
a. Concept of Operation.
(1)
No military government as such will be established in France.

(2)
    Under appropriate staff supervision and pursuant to stated objectives, civil affairs units will conduct liaison with governmental echelons, control refugees in combat area assisted by local police, and will report availability of local resources.

(3)
    During combat phase standard of living for civilians will not be established in excess of essential minimum when contributions therefor must come from U.S. resources.

(4)
    Civil affairs organization provides such assistance to or influence on local and other governmental echelons as may be required to establish or maintain law, order, and government.

(5)
In course of this operation, primary concern of G5 staff sections and civil affairs organization will be directed toward sociological aspects of the activity with secondary and tertiary concern given to problems of local gov- ernment and economy in that order.

(6)
    In absence of specific policy direction for conduct of certain civil affairs activities, principles and precepts set forth in FM 101-5 may be employed initially to plan for and conduct civil affairs activities.

(7)
    Area support companies as follows: one per 10 million population in allied areas.


b. 1st Corps.
(1)
Establish civil affairs in ST. RAPHAEL (Coordinates).

(2)
Be prepared     to establish civil affairs in DIGNE     (Co­ordinates).


c. 2d Corps.
(1) Establish civil affairs in TOULON (Coordinates).
(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
(2) Be     prepared     to     establish civil affairs in AVIGNON (Coordinates).
e. Delegation of Authorization.
(1)
    Area authority for conduct of civil affairs delegated to corps and front line division commanders in respective areas.

(2)
Divisions in corps and army reserve     may be required to assist and supervise civil affairs units, but specific area authority is not delegated when divisions are so employed.

(3)
Commanders exercising authority for civil affairs estab- lish and maintain checklists dealing with policy matters to insure timely requests for decisions.


f. Coordinating Instructions.
(1)
Normal command channels on all CA matters which affect policy, tactical operations, or security of troops.

(2)
Report     locations     of     primary points of contact with civil authorities.

(3)
    To maximum extent practicable, establish tactical and administrative boundaries in conformity with local politi- cal subdivisions. Appendix 3, Political Subdivisions.


4. Administration and Logistics
Logistical support of civil affairs activities is a military respon- sibility with priority second only to combat operations.
a.
1st Army ADMIN 0 1.

b.
Governmental Functions.


(1)         Commanders will accept and utilize
Civil government.
local government existing at time of entrance into an area pending modification and replacement of that gov- ernmental structure in accordance with Civil Affairs Agreement and U.S.-French war objectives.
(2)
    Legal. Commanders will assist French authorities in the control and supervision of local civil and criminal courts. CA courts will be established as authorized by proper authority.

(3)
    Public safety. Commanders will utilize, within security limits, existing public safety organization in coordina- tion with French authorities and will coordinate local civilian defense plans with military rear area defense and damage control plans.


(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B     
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
(4)
Public health. Commanders will initially take steps necessary to protect health of military force, prevent undue suffering and distress, and will assist French in public health matters.

(5)
    Public welfare. Delegate control and supervision of local welfare agencies to French authorities, and co­ordinate and direct foreign military agencies.

(6)
     Delegate control and supervision of


Public education.
public education to French authorities.
(7)
    Public finance. Commanders will assist French author- ities in establishing safeguards, will prevent acquisition of public funds by unfriendly forces, and will protect value of currency by preventing unauthorized practices.

(8)
     Commanders will accord maximum respect for


Labor.
local  laws  and  practices  consistent  with  military  
situation.  
c. Economic Functions.  'P  

(1)
    Economics. Commanders will limit military assistance in combat operations to preservation of law and order measures and to that rehabilitation which will assist military operations. In post-combat phase military effort may be directed toward restoration. Detailed supervision to be delegated to French authorities.

(2)
    Commerce and industry. Encourage local production of items essential to prevent disease and unrest and such other production dictated by availability of raw ma­terials and labor.

(3)
    Food and agriculture. Maximum practicable military assistance to agricultural production; control or super- vision by French authorities; no military use of food production and processing plants, and no local procure- ment of food supplies by military agencies.

(4)
    Price control and rationing. Delegation of responsibility for price control and rationing to French officials.


(5)     
Property control.
(a)
Identification of ownership of French private property in accordance with Civil Affairs Agreement.

(b)
Military use of French p&vate property in accord with Civil Affairs Agreement.

(c)
Property belonging to other than French owners under control of civil affairs organization.


(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147E
(CLASSIFICATION)
(d)     
Institute measures to prohibit removal of controlled property from area.
(6)     
Civilian supply.
(a)
     a mobile situation, military supply of items for

In civilian use to be limited to prevention of disease and unrest.

(b)
Assist French authorities in establishing and control- ling local organizations for admini~tration and distri- bution of civilian relief supplies.

(c)
Relief contributions and personnel from other than French services directed by theater commander.


d. Public Facilities.
(1)
Public wol;ks and utilities.

(a)
     


Military concern limited to minimum authorized use.
(b)     re­
Construction or repairs limited to local material
sources unless required for military operations.
(c)
Rehabilitation, other than that necessary for military operations limited to post-combat phase.

(2)
Public communications. Commanders will give priority for military purposes and establish essential controls to insure security and safety of military operations.


(3)
    Public transportation.

(a)
     


Maximum military assistance in rehabilitation of pub- lic transportation facilities essential for military purposes.
(b)     
Military utilization established by Civil Affairs Agree- ment.
(c)     
Surrender of authorized military use as military situa- tion permits.
e. Special Functions.
(1)
Displaced persons.

(a)
     dis­


commanders direct handling and evacuation of placed persons.
(b)     
Standard of care will be that required to prevent dis- ease and unrest to prejudice of military mission.
(c)
French authorities and economy will not be burdened with care of non-French displaced persons.

(2)
    Civil information. Civil affairs organization coordinates psychological warfare and public information activities with respect to local population.


AGO 6147B
(3)
    Arts, monuments, and archives.

(a)
Maximum protection to arts, monuments, and archives consistent with military mission.

(b)
Care     and     preservation     a function of French au­thorities.

(c)
Commanders will enforce measures safeguarding cen- ters holding cultural property.

(4)
    Religious affairs.

(a)
Within requirements of military situation, maximum respect for customs, traditions, and desires of civilian population.

(b)
    Use of churches and religious institutions for military purposes is prohibited.

f.
Miscellaneous.

(1)
Civil AfSairs Handbook for France.

(2)
SOP, Civil Affairs. 1st Army.


5. Command and Signal
a.
Annex N, Signal.

b.
Command.


(1)
Civil affairs staff sections of subordinate commands located with their respective commands.

(2)
Civil affairs units located insofar as practicable in capital cities of political subdivisions.


Acknowledge.
Appendixes:      1-Task Organization (omitted) 2-Civil Affairs Agreement (omitted) 3-Political Subdivisions (omitted)
Distribution:      A.
OFFICIAL:
/s/      Jones JONES G5
AGO 6147B
APPENDIX V
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
Form for CA Policy Checklist
Nature of  
policyreceived or to  Date  Date received and  
Functional specialty  be requested  requexted  Ale no.  
I  
1.Arts, monuments, and archives.  
a. Extent of supervision over identifica-  
tion and safeguardiug of arts, moauments,  
and archives.  
b. Recognitiou of art objects and de­
termination of ownership.  
c. Utilization of buildings or locations  
of a cultural value for 1)uryoses other  
than originally intended.  
d. Establishment of delnilitarized areas  
for preservation of arts, nlonuments, and  
archives.  
e. Extent of use of local custodial per-  
sonnel.  
2. Civil gocernment.  
a. Degree of control or supervision over  
civil administration.  
b. Retention, modification, or replace­
ment of existing governmental structure.  
c. Retention or removal of governmental  
officials.  
d. Criteria for appointment of govern­
mental officials.  
e. Issuance of proclamations, ordi­
nances, orders, instructions, and restric­
tions pertaining thereto.  
3. Civil information.  
a. Objective of civil information pro­
grams.  
b. Contributions to "Troop Information"  
and "Educational Development of Mili­
tary Personnel" programs (to acquaint  
military personnel with CA and role of  
military in such operations).  
c. Employment of consolidation psy­
chological warfare units and teams.  
d. Coordination of consolidation psy­
chological warfare and PI0 activities  
with respect to local population.  

(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B
(CLASSIFICATION)
Nature of policy Date
received or to Date received and Functional. specialty be requested requested file no.
e. Supervision and control of public information media including retention or removal of policy making and operating personnel.
6. Civilian supply.
a.
Extent of diversion of food and other supplies from military stocks for disaster relief and prevention of disease and un­rest.

b.
Acceptance and disposition of dona­tions made by civil and relief agencies.

c.
Establishment of local organizatiol~ for administration and distribution of civilian relief supplies.

d.
Command authority over voluntary agencies and their contributions.

e.
Utilization of military transportation facilities for transportation of civilian supplies.

f.
Accounting for supplies furnished and services rendered for civilian relief.


5. Commerce and industry.
a.
~egreeof control or supervision over physical output of commodities.

b.
Reestablishment of commercial re­lationships.

c.
Rehabilitation or reconstruction of production facilities.

d.
Military assistance in rehabilitation or reconstruction of production facilities (machinery, technical skills, etc.)

e.
Coal, oil, or fuel for industry.

f.
Allocation of production facilities between consumers and capital goods and direction of production.

g.
Development of production for ex­port.

h.
Relocation of production facilities.

i.
Degree of regulation or supervision over exports and imports.


I
6. Displaced persons. I
a. Authorized extent of migration or evacuation.
I
b. Location and establishment of camps for refugees and displaced persons.
----------.------.-.----..-­
(CLASSIFICATION)
Functional specialty
c.
Sources of materials and personnel to construct camps.

d.
Status and ultimate disposition of refugees and displaced persons from al- lied, neutral, or enemy countries.

e.
Extent of local governmental au­thority over non-national civilians.


7. Economics.
a.
Preservation.

b.
Relief (applies to capital goods, raw materials, fertilizer, etc., and excludes civil relief).

c.
Rehabilitation.

d.
Restoration.

e.
Stabilization procedures.

f.
Degree of control or supervision over economic life.

g.
Centralization of controls.

h.
Modification of economic structure.

i.
Desired standard of living.

j.
General scope of military assistance in rehabilitation of economy.

k.
Allocation of natural resources be­tween military requirements and civilian needs.

I.
Allocation of natural resources be­tween areas, industries, and plants.


m.Extent of exploitation of natural resources for military support purposes. reparations, etc.
8. Food and agriculture.
a.
Degree of control or supervision over agricultural output.

b.
Improvement of agricultural means of production through reclanlatioil or im- proved methods.

c.
Military assistance to agricultural production (fertilizers, farm machinery, etc.) .

d.
Direction of agricultural production.

e.
Degree of control or supervision over means of distribution.

f.
Diversion of perishable goods to mil- itary forces.


Nature of  
~OHCY  Date  
received or to  Date  received and  
be requested  requested  file no.  

............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B
(CLASSIFICATION)
 

Notiire of
1
policy Dale
received or to Dil te received and Functional specialty be requested requested file no.
g.
Extent of land reforms.

h.
Subsidies to producers.


9. Labor.
a.
Degree of control or supervision orer
 
labor market.
 


b.
Degree of superrisioll over labor
 
organizations.
 


c.
Priority of utilization of labor in
 
rehabilitation of the economy.
 


d.
Availability of civilian labor for mil- itary purposes.

e.
Wage controls including \\-age scale and schedule of hours of work.

f.
Labor relations including medical care and compensation.

g.
Specific guidance respecting economic and political aspects of labor.


10. Legal.
a.
Supervision, control, or closing of criminal and civil courts.

b.
Matters relating to the modification, suspension, or repeal of local civil and criminal laws.

c.
Establishment of CA Courts. ­

d.
Organization, jurisdiction, and pro­cedure of local and CA courts.


1
11. Price control and rationing. I 1
a.
Establishment or continuance price control and rationing.

b.
Supply and control of civilian price control and rationing agencies.


I
c. Control or assistance measures to insure equity of distribution and counter- inflationary measures.
12. Property control.
a.
Degree of supervisory authority orer property.

b.
Specific directions with respect to


I
property of foreign governments or citi­zens.
I
c. Preservation of property assets which are subject to treaty settlement (patent rights, cartel ownership, properties sus­ceptible of confiscation or requiring pro- tection).
-------------------.-------­
(CLASSIFICATION)
 

AGO 6147B
 

............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
Functional specialty
d.
Evidence of ownership and rights of equity claimants.

e.
Utilization of private property for military purposes.

f.
Property restitution measures.


IS. Public communications.
a.
Degree of supervision over public communications and officials thereof.

b.
Rehabilitation or reconstruction of public communications facilities.

c.
Military assistance in reconstruction or rehabilitation of public communications.

d.
Utilization of public communications for military purposes.

e.
Restrictions on and censorship of public communications.


14. Public Education.
a.
Degree of supervision over educa­tional system including public and private schools.

b.
Retention or removal of public edu- cation oficials and teachers.

c.
Objectives of public education system and priorities as to level and type of in- struction.

d.
Retention or alteration of teaching doctrine and principles.

e.
Rehabilitation or reconstruction of public and private schools.

f.
Military assistance in rehabilitation or reconstruction of public and private schools.


15. Public flnance.
a.
Degree of control or supervision over currency.

b.
Designation of type of circulating local currency.

c.
Provisions for a circulating military curnency.

d.
Establishment of currency exchange rates.

e.
Restrictions on exportation of cnr­rencies.

f.
Control of foreign exchange.


Nature of
policy Date
received or to Date received and
be requested requested Ale no.
(CLASSIFICATION)
AQO 6147B
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
1 Nature of I
I
l~olicy Date
received or to Date received and Functional. specialty be requested requested file no.
g. Control or supervision over budget,
 taxation, expenditures, and handling of
 
I
public funds.
h.
Reestablishment or revision of tas-
ation system.
 


i.
Utilization of national taxes for op-
 
eration of local governments.
 


j.
Extent of control or supervision over
 
banking system.
 


k.
Liquidation, reorganization, opening, or closing of banks and financial institu- tions.

I.
Supervision over credit and provi­sions for credit needs.

m.
Extent of regulation or supervision of credit cooperatives and other financial agencies.

n.
Declaration of debt moratoria.

o.
Funding and refunding directives.


I
I
16. Public health. I I
a.
Degree of supervision over public health officials and public health activ­ities.

b.
Retention or removal of public health officials.

c.
Extent of military assistance in con­trol of disease and care of civilian populace.

d.
Rehabilitation or reconstruction of civilian medical facilities.

e.
Nutritional standards.


17. Public safety.
a.
Degree of supervision over civil law enforcement officials.

b.
Retention or removal of law enforce- ment officials.


I
o. Degree of restraint over civil popu- lace.
I
d.
Establishment and degree of jurisdic- tion over local organizations for civilian protection.

e.
Coordination of civilian defense measures and integration with military defense and damage control plans.


I I
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
Nature of
policy Date
received or to received and
Functional specialty be requested file no.
f.
Provision of equipment and arms for
 police and fire protection.
 

g.
Internment policies.


I
18. Public transportation.
a.
Degree of supervision over public
 
transportation facilities and officials
 
thereof.
 


b.
Rehabilitation or reconstruction of
 
public transportation facilities.
 


c.
Military assistance in reconstruction
 
or rehabilitation of public transportation.
 


d.
Utilization of public transportation
 
for military purposes. *
 


e.
Restrictions on appropriation and
 
utilization of private transportation.
 



19. Public welfare.
a.
Degree of consideration for welfare of population.

b.
Military assistance to public and private welfare organizations.

c.
Coordination of public welfare ac­tivities and agencies by the military.

d.
Extent of supervision and control of public welfare agencies and organiza- tions.


20. Public works and utilities.
a.
Degree o'f supervision over public works and utilities and offlcials thereof.

b.
Rehabilitation or reconstruction of public works and utilities.

c.
Military assistance in reconstruction or rehabilitation of public works and utilities.

d.
Utilization of public owned works and utilities for military purposes.

e.
Coal, oil, or fuel for public works hnd utilities.

f.
Appropriation or utilization of pri­vate utility interests.


21. Religious affairs.
a.
Determination of religious doctrines and individual philosophies not inimical to military objectives.

b.
Restrictions on utilization of facil­ities of religious institutions.


(CLASSIFICATION)
(CLASSIFICATION)
Nature of  
policyreceived or to  Date  Date received and  
Functional -specialty  be requested  requested  file no.  
c.  Screening of religious leaders.  
d. Measures to protect individual right  
to freedom of worship and to respect re-  
ligious conviction~ and practices.  
e. Provisions for religious guidance and  
instructions  in  consonance  with  tradi­
tional  culture.  
f. Supervision  and  coordination  of  
missionary activities.  
g. Supplies and materials for religious  
use.  

A70tea
1.
The foregoing form is a type of policy checklist that may be utilized by commanders, G5's and CA units in the theater of operations on determining matters on which policy guidance should be received or requested from higher headquarters,

2.
In analyzing policy which has been received or in determining matters on which policy guidance is to be requested, consideration must be given to the objectives of each of the various operational phases and the functional activities pertinent thereto.

3.
The general or specific nature of the policy required will largely depend on the operating level of the particular command. The type of function or activity on which policy guidance will be required will vary with the particular situation, will depend on condition under which operations are being conducted, and will be governed by the control exercised by the military commander, or the agreement defining and delimiting his authority.

4.
With respect to many of the above functions the extent of the guidance received and 'directions transmitted will necessarily require subdivision and the insertion of supplementary information requiring space in addition to that which appears on this form.

5.
For staff relationships in selected areas see figures 16 through 27, FM 101-5.


............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B
APPENDIX VI
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
Form for CA Annex to Standing Operating Procedure
1. Application
a. Purpose.
(1)
A statement of the purpose, scope, and application.

(2)
A     standing operating procedure     standardizes normal procedures; it applies unless otherwise prescribed.

b.
Unit Procedure. Instructions concerning the issuance of standing operating procedures by subordinate units.


2. Organization
a. General.
(1)
Information of a general nature pertaining to the desig- nation of CA units to provide command or area support.

(2)
    Statement as to the delegation to subordinate comrnand- ers of the authority for the conduct of CA activity.

(3)
    Organization of staff sections and subordinate CA units.

b.
Special. Statement on the assignment or attachment of CA units to subordinate commands.


3. Intelligence
Concise instructions relating to each of the following when not otherwise covered in SOP.
a. Area Intelligence.
(1)
Sources of      information     and procedures     for obtaining area intelligence.

(2)
Continuing surveys and search for information to verify and supplement area intelligence previously received.


b. Measures for Handling Personnel, Documents, and Materiel.
(1)
Special instructions pertaining to suspect civilians.

(2)
    Procedure for determination of those personnel entitled to treatment in a prisoner of war status.

c.
Maps and Air Photos. Special instructions and reference to SOP.


d. Counterintelligence.
(1)
Special instructions pertaining to sabotage, espionage, and subversion.

(2)
Reference to SOP.


............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B
(3)     Policy on screening and clearance of indigenous person- nel considered as possible choices for public office or positions where they could favorably influence U.S.or allied military objectives.
4. Operations
Concise instructions relating to each of the following when applicable:
a. Deployment and Training of CA Units.
(1)     
Procedure for calling forward CA units by commanders having area authority.
(2)     Provisions for indoctrination and training of newly ar- rived units and personnel.
b. Functional Specialties.
(1)     
Governmental Functions
(a) Civil government.
1.
Procedures for conduct of governmental functions as determined by civil affairs agreement or rules of in- ternational law, as applicable.

2.
    Survey and analysis of governmental agencies to de- termine their capability, reliability, and essential control or assistance measures.

3.
Authorization for removal of goveirnmental officials.

4.
    Authorization for issuance of proclamations, orai­nances, orders, and instructions, as appropriate.


(b)     
Legal.
1.
Procedure for determination of legality of question- able CA activities.

2.
    Authorization for closing local, criminal, and civil courts.

3.
Authorization and procedure for establishment of CA


-
courts when appropriate.
(c) Public safety.
1.
Measures for control of or assistance to local govern- ment in restoration of public order and safety.

2.
Directions as to measures for civilian defense.

3.
    Authorization for removal of local law enforcement officials.


(d) Public health.     Measures for control of or assistance to local government in-
1. Control, prevention, and treatment of disease.
(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B
 

............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
2.
Rehabilitation and supervision of hospitals.

3.
Furnishing medical supplies.

4.
Disposal of sewage and waste.

5.
Treatment and evacuation of civilian casualties.


(e) Public welfare.
1.
Measures for control of or assistance to local govern- ment in the supervision of public and private wel- fare institutions and the reestablishment of local charitable and relief organizations.

2.
    Coordinating activities essential to the public welfare objectives.


(f)     Public education. Procedures under established poli- cies for the rehabilitation and opening of schools, con- duct of the educational system, revision of textbooks, and the detection of subversive or harmful instruction.
1. Methods of furnishing assistance to the local govern- ment in the reestablishment of educational activities.
2.    Procedure for obtaining military supplies and ma­terials for school use.
(g)         
Public finance.
1.    
     Means for supervising civil financial operations and reestablishment thereof.

2.
Measures for securing banks and fund depositories.

3.
Currency restrictive measures.


(h) Labor.
1.    
     Procedures for determination of availability of labor by type and skill and estimates of impact on essen- tial civil activities resulting from military use of labor.

2.
    Measures available under established policies for con- trol or supervision over civilian labor market.

3.
    Procedure for labor relationship activities including recognition of union organizations and the applica- tion of labor laws.


(2)     Economic Functions
(a) Economics.
1.
Procedures for control or supervision of economic structure of assigned area.

2.
    Survey and analysis of economy of area to determine support and assistance essential to accomplish objec- tives.


AGO 6147B          227
(CLASSIFICATION)
3.
    Measures available under established policies for the rehabilitation of the local economy.

4.
Procedures for economic stablization.

5.
Procedures for determination of availability of and requirements for natural resources.


(b)     Commerce and industry.
1.
    Measures for stimulation of and assistance to domestic trade to insure equitable distribution of essential civilian goods.

2.
Measures for regulation of exports and imports.


(c)     Food and agriculture.
1.
    Measures available under established policies for fur- thering maximum agricultural production through establishment of food production programs, recla- mation, conservation of lands, and improvement of agricultural methods.

2.
    Procedures for supervision, processing, and storage of food and agricultural products.


(d) Price control and rationing.     Measures for establish- ment of price control, rationing, and other measures to reduce inflation, hoarding and black market activities.
(e)     Property control.
1.
    Procedure for assuming custody and conducting ad- ministration of property and enterprises owned wholly or in part by an enemy government, or by enemy nationals of countries other than that of the country in which operations are being conducted.

2.
    Procedures for obtaining utilization of property for military purposes in accordance with existing poli- cies and rules of international law or terms of agree- ment, as applicable.


(f) Civilian supply.
1.
Procedure for obtaining supplies such as food, cloth- ing, shelter, and medical aid for disaster relief and prevention of disease and unrest.

2.
    Procedure for providing other essential goods which may be necessary for the reestablishment of public order and safety.

3.
Measures for distribution of military supplies for civilian use in emergency situations.


(3)     Public Facilities.
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
(CLASSIFICATION)
(a) Public works and utilities.      Measures available under established policies for reestablishment and super­vision of public works and utilities.
(b) Public communications.
1.
    Measures available under established policies for re- establishment and supervision of public communica- tions facilities.

2.
    Restrictions on and censorship of public communica- tions.

3.
Authorization for utilization of civilian communica- tions for military use.


(c) Public transportation.
1.
    Measures available under established policies for re- establishment and supervision of public transporta- tion facilities.

2.
Authorization for utilization of civilian transportation to meet military requirements.


(4)     Special Functions.
(a) Displaced persons.
1.
Measures for the control, care, and disposition of dis- placed persons and refugees.

2.
    Instructions under established policies for evacuation of civilian communities and procedure for submit- ting requests for evacuation to higher headquarters for approval.


(b) Civil information.
1.
Procedures for utilization of the press, radio, and motion pictures in the dissemination of information.

2.
    Procedure for obtaining utilization of psychological warfare and other supporting agencies.


(c) Arts, monuments, and archives.      Measures for assist- ing the local government in the recovery, rehabilita- tion, and preservation of historical monuments, works of art, and archives.
(d)     
Religious affairs. Method of furnishing assistance in the reestablishment and support of religious functions and facilities.
5. Logistics
Concise instructions relating to each of the following when not otherwise covered in SOP:
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B      229
(CLASSIFICATION!
a.
Civilian Supply. Instructions not included in paragraph 4, above, under functional activities of Civilian supply.

b.
Evacuation and Hospitalization. Instructions not included in paragraph 4, above, under functional activities of Public hedth and Displaced persons.

c.
Transportation. Procedure under established policies for ob- taining utilization of military %ransportation to supplement civilian facilities. Instructions not included in paragraph 4, above,


under functional activities of Public transportation.
d.
Service. Availability of and procedure for obtaining utiliza- tion of military technical service facilities in CA operations.

e.
Miscellaneous. Information as to any special instructions or procedures not covered above.


6. Personnel
Concise instructions relating to each of the following when not otherwise covered in SOP:
a.
Discipline, Law and Order. Authority and jurisdiction for the enforcement of laws, and regulations, and making arrests in assigned areas.

b.
Burials and Graves Registration. Instructions pertaining to the interment of civilian dead by local citizens and reference to SOP.

c.
Interior Management. Special instructions pertaining to the movement of CA units, additional requirements for quarters and messing facilities, and utilization of public and private buildings for military purposes.

d.
Miscellaneous. Information as to any special instructions or procedures not covered above.


7. Command and Signal
Concise instructions relating to each of the following, when not otherwise covered in SOP:
a.
Command Posts. Location of command posts.

b.
Liaison. Requirements for establishing liaison and furnish- ing liaison officers.


c. Signal Communication.
(1) General.
(a)
Responsibility for establishing signal circuits.

(b)
Authorization for direct communication.


(CLASSIFICATION)
AQO 6147B
(CLASSIFICATION)
(2) Radio.
(a)
Radio nets.

(b)
Limitations on radio communication.


d.
Reports. Instructions for submission of periodic CA reports and summaries.

e.
Orders and Distribution. Distribution of CA operation orders or annexes thereto and reference to SOP.


Commander
Appendixes Distribution Authentication
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)

AGO C147B
 

APPENDIX VII
Form for COMBAT CHECKLIST
 
CA Operations Upon Initial Entry
 

This checklist is adaptable for use by troop commanders or combat CA personnel who are inaugurating CA control over com- munities uncovered in their advance. In order to be readily acces- sible, this checklist is indexed by CA functions. Action recom­mended herein consists of the principal emergency measures recommended as most highly desirable for accomplishment by CA units.
This checklist is primarily intended for use in an occupation of enemy territory but may be adapted for use in the liberation of friendly territory.
It should be understood that accomplishment of any or all of the subsequent actions will be conditioned by the requirements of the military situation.
1. Arts, Monuments and Archives
a.
Secure and protect fine arts and monuments, and archives by the use of guards and "Off Limits" signs.

b.
Caution troops to refrain from desecration of objects of art and local fetishes and symbols unless directed to be destroyed by competent authority.


2. Civil Government
a.
Retain acceptable administration officials on a "stand-by" basis until Intelligence Corps personnel can adequately screen key officials.

b.
Where officials in key positions are not available or utilizable due to public censure or strong political implications inimical to allied policies, temporarily appoint key officials after careful consultation and deliberation with any or all of the following personalities or agencies: reputable clergymen, allied nations in the area or prominent local citizenry considered in sympathy with allied policies. Intelligence Corps screening should be utilized.

c.
All identity documents, curfew exemptions, travel excep­tions, and similar privilege documents should be issued on a temporary basis until conditions become stabilized.

d.
Issue such proclamations, laws, ordinances, and notices as are authorized by higher headquarters upon initial entry into the area. See that a record of postings is kept and reported in periodic reports. See that all such publications receive widest possible publicity.

e.
Display appropriate United States or allied flags in public center when possible and practicable.


3. Civil Information
a.
Safeguard, and close if deemed necessary, all public and private information media until competent allied CA or PSYWAR personnel can assume charge of these installations.

b.
Have all operating personnel of newspapers, journals, and
 radio/TV installations stand by until needed or directives autho-
 rize their resumption of activities under competent supervision.
 Printing presses should be utilized to duplicate such forms and
 proclamations, laws, and other civil affairs publications which are
 immediately needed.
 


4. Civilian Supply
a.
Safeguard essential supplies.

b.
Make requisitions through normal supply channels for emer-
 gency civilian supplies of clothing, food, or medical items when
 the situation demands and local stocks are unavailable.
 

c.
Report to higher headquarters any excess stocks in the area
 which can be used for civilian supply purposes.
 


5. Commerce and Industry
a. Place "Off Limits" signs or guards on vital industries to pro-
tect all equipment and records and to conserve all items in short supply.
b.
Local authorities will be held strictly responsible for the preservation of all funds, property, equipment, records, stocks of material on hand, and patents of all plants and mines.

c.
All principal trade and industry officials not actively engaged in productian for allied purposes should be ordered to survey stocks and produce a complete stock inventory as soon as practi- cable for subsequent report to higher headquarters.


6. Displaced Persons
a.
Set up displaced person and refugee assembly center; and appoint or delegate chief officials of ethnological groups.

b.
Arrange for issuance of rations from local stocks in same ratio as civilian populace ration scale.

c.
Arrange for medical supplies, clothing, and such other civilian supplies as are immediately needed from local stocks.

d.
In the absence of local supplies to cope with requirements, requisition civilian supplies through prescribed supply channels.

e.
Report numbers and identifications of displaced persons and/or refugees to their respective allied officers.


7. Economics ,
a. Survey economic structure of the area with view toward assisting any subsequent economic rehabilitation.
AGO 6147B 233
 

b. Insure that natural resources are not exploited for military support purposes unless absolutely essential to military operations,
8. Food and Agriculture
a.
Safeguard agricultural stocks and food supplies by guards and/or "Off Limits" signs.

b.
Survey food stocks and requisition civilian supplies to sup- plement these when an emergency situation demands.

c.
Continue farm and crop activity whenever this will not interfere with military operations.


9. Labor
a.
Conduct survey to ascertain amount and type of available labor in the area.

b.
Recruit civilian labor for military support purposes which are not contrary to the law of land warfare.

c.
Order key officials to clean up debris, bury dead, and repair utilities as the situation and priorities require.


10. Legal
a.
Examine and suspend, if deemed necessary, activities of all courts in the area.

b.
Safeguard all legal records and court archives.

c.
Where situation permits, set up and exercise summary court jurisdiction if competent personnel are available to conduct the court.


11. Price Control and Rationing
a.
Continue or reestablish ration office and maintain existing rationing, price control, and local measures in full force and effect except in instances where food stocks preclude maintenance of former ration scale in full effect. Any diminution or increase in existing ration scales will be authorized only after concurrence by CA authorities.

b.
Take every measure possible to prevent hoarding and black marketing.

c.
Control requisitions and purchases by the military which injure the local economy.


12. Property Control
So far as the situation will permit, see that properties in the following categories are safeguarded and, if appropriate, placed "Off Limits."
a.
Property of enemy nations capable of direct military usage.

b.
Property of allied nationals.

c.
Property and enterprises owned wholly or in part by an enemy government or by enemy nationals of countries other than the one occupied.

d.
Property which has a vital usage for maintenance of the civilian economy where owner or management is unknown or absent.


13. Public Education
a.
Maintain and preserve educational facilities as permitted by the requirements of the military situation.

b.
Utilize school personnel, when politically acceptable, as fillers. for administration as replacements are needed. If politically ac- ceptable educational personnel are located, they may be advan- tageously utilized as advisors in the assumption of CA controls.


14. Public Finance
a.
Secure and safeguard banks and principal financial institu- tions.

b.
If deemed necessary, close financial institutions until direc- tives and military situation permit normal resumption of their activities.

c.
Safeguard all financial records from spoilation, looting, dam- age, or destruction.


15. Public Health
a.
Bury the dead, remove debris, and rehabilitate the sanitation system through the recruitment of local labor.

b.
Assist civil administration in maintenance of sanitariums, orphanages, homes for indigent and maimed, and hospitals and institutions for the infirm and insane by obtaining required sup- plies from local supply stocks.


16. Public Safety
a.
Enforce proclamations, laws, ordinances, notices, and direc- tives after populace has been duly informed by posting and publi- cation.

b.
Collect and take into custody all arms, ammunition, explo- sives, and other implements of war. Radio receiving sets will not be disturbed.

c.
Reestablish local police chief and such police force as is necessary to cope with local situation.

d.
Check jails and prisons to insure that proper guards are utilized at these institutions. Only prisoners to be released are those affirmatively identified as allied POWs, political prisoners, and displaced .persons not charged with criminal actions. Intel­ligence Corps personnel should assist in screening before any releases are effected.

e.
Keep military routes clear of civilian traffic by posting signs, establishing static and mobile checkpoints, issuing directives,


and enforcing such measures through the civil police force. When feasible, civil police forces may be augmented to accomplish adequate control.
f.
Reestablish the fire department and also charge it with responsibility for air raid warning and air raid shelters.

g.
Establish guards over civilian food warehouses, public fa- cilities, industrial, scientific, and cultural installations, using local police wherever possible.

h.
Control the sale of liquor and narcotics.


17.     Public Welfare b
a.
Survey needs of populace concerning emergency food, shelter, and clothing requirements.

b.
Assist local welfare officials in providing above requirements to needy civilians.


18. Public Works and Utilities, Public Communications, and Transportation
a.
Survey above facilities to determine requirements for opera- tion of essential services.

b.
Insure that civilian administration exercises initial priority in rehabilitation of public works, utilities, communications, and transportation, which provide our troops with facilities.

c.
Requisition or cannibalize parts to mobilize transportation, communications, and utilities to an operational stage, utilize En- gineer and Signal units where necessary.

d.
Safeguard transportation, communications, and oil storage installations in order to keep highest possible operation of normal functions.

e.
Control communications facilities and restrict to Army and essential civilian usage.


19.     Religious Affairs Insure troops do not desecrate religious facilities and that no
use is made of religious buildings except for emergency medical care.
20.     Miscellaneous
a.
Constantly see that troops are reindoctrinated as to their rights, obligations, and responsibilities in the occupied country.

b.
Stress to troop commanders and their personnel that the laws of land warfare must be rigidly enforced.


(1)Emphasize that the policy of courtesy should be pre- eminent in their relationships with civilians.
(2)     Emphasize that billeting, contacts with civilian admin- istration, and requisitions from local resources should
be cleared and coordinated through CA agencies or duly appointed representatives.
(3)
    Emphasize that troops should keep out of local and central government offices, banks, courts, post offices, factories, food warehouses, and similar institutions un- less absolutely necessary.

(4)
    Emphasize that troops should not buy rationed food and should respect local fixed prices.

(5)
    Emphasize that troops will respect CA regulations and "Off Limits" signs.

(6)
    Emphasize that troops will be denied access to monu- ments, museums, and other buildings and sites indicated in the official lists of protected monuments; warehouses and enemy dumps containing food and other valuable supplies; and churches and other religious premises except for the purpose of attending regular church services.

(7)
    Emphasize that troops will not use for military purposes the monuments and other buildings and sites included in the official list of protected monuments.

(8)
    Emphasize to all personnel that they-

(a)
Individually, are personal representatives and symbols of the military, economic, and moral power of the United States or its allies.

(b)
Must maintain an attitude which will be at all times fair, impartial, dignified, and a credit to the United States.

c.
Any derelictions of the (a)and (b)above are a transgression of discipline and good conduct and should be dealt with accord- ingly.


(CLASSIFICATION)
Example of a Checklist for CA Inspection
SUBJECT:     Periodic Inspection Checklist for CA Units in Country X.
TO:          Corps and Division Commanders; CA Unit Com­manders.
1.
Attached hereto is a Periodic Inspection Checklist for CA units operating in Country X. The checklist is divided into sec- tions A, B, C and D. Section A includes points on the general housekeeping of the unit, which are observed by the inspecting officer during the period of his visit. CA unit personnel will not be interrogated on any of these points. Section B includes points of a progress nature; i.e., items which must be accomplished by the unit. The investigator may discuss these points with per- sonnel of CA Groups and Companies and make such explanatory notes as are necessary. Section C contains other operational fac- tors, and section D is reserved for comments on unit requirements.

2.
Do not be critical of all apparent minor deficiencies, since the action taken may have been performed in the most expedi- tious manner. The best constructive results are obtained if the information sought is developed during conversation with the members of CA Groups and Companies and by observation of their activities. It is by this method that efficient phases of the unit's operations are brought to light and deficiencies exposed. Groups and Companies have much to contribute to CA operations, and the inspector should encourage constructive suggestions. Notes should be made of any existing problems which are brought to light, and of items that merit criticism or commendation.

3.
This checklist may be used by Corps and Division inspecting officers in making periodic inspections of CA units. It will also serve to give units a general outline of the various aspects of the CA activity which will be investigated.

4.
The following procedure is suggested to all inspecting officers:


a. Inform yourself before making the visit by-
(1) Reading the unit's latest reports and surveys.
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B
---------------.-----------­
(CLASSIFICATION)
(2)
    Becoming familiar with the unit's problems as stated in its reports.

(3)
    Becoming familiar with the unit's jurisdictional boun- daries.

(4)
    Checking with appropriate CA subsections for action taken or to be taken, on requests made by the unit.

(5)
    Keeping a file of the latest directives and letters of in- struction on hand and being sufficiently familiar with all their provisions to be able to discuss them intelligently.

(6)
Reading the unit journal before initiating the discussion.

b.
Upon arrival at the unit, stab

(1)
Purpose of your visit to the unit CO.

(2)
    That the inspection will be conducted by discussions and observations made of his unit and a check of his juris- dictional area.

(3)
    That observations and suggestions concerning the im- provement of efficiency of the unit and the extent of ad- herence to CA policies will be made upon completion of the inspection.


(CLASSIFICATION)
AQO 6147B
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
PERIODIC INSPECTION CHECKLIST FOR CA UNITS
UNIT..-...-..-----.-----------------------...-----------------­
JURISDICTION--.---------.
DATE VISITED-------..--.---------­
DATE OPERATIONS
BEGAN IN PRESENT
JURISDICTION ----.--.-.---...-----------­
RATING OF UNIT (BASIS OF 100)---...-.---..--.----------.--------------------­
INSPECTING OFFICER..-...---------------------------------------------------------------­(Name and Rank-Unit)
LOCATION
a.
Town ................................................................................................
 

b.
Office..--...-.-...------------.-------------.­


Phone---.--.-.---..---------------------------­
c. Billets ---.-.-.....-.-..-----..---.---------.-------------------------------------------------------­
SECTION A-OBSERVATION
See
Yes No None Note
1. GENERAL
a.
CA signs conspicuously spotted at town entrances.

b.
Civilians show signs of returning to normal life.

c.
Security precautions for CA office adequate.,

d.
Retail establishments operating.


2. CA PERSONNEL
a.
Personnel busily engaged in essential duties.

b.
Unit personnel are observed to have­


(1)
Neat appearance.

(2)
Good military posture.

(3)
Good military discipline.

c.
Personnel adequate to accomplish mis­sion.


-.-.-----------------------­
(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B
 
(CLASSIFICATION)
See
Yes      -No None Note
-
3. CA OFFICE
a. Exterior:
(1)
     Centrally located.

(2)
     Large enough for unit offices.

(3)
Building has dignified appearance.

(4)
     Flags are displayed.

(5)
     Garage space or parking lot near.

(6)     
Building occupied solely by CA personnel.

(7)     
Building within walking distance of chief civil official.

(8)
     Civilian police posted at entrance.

(9)
     Civilian police show military cour­tesy as U.S, and Allied personnel approach.


b. Reception Room:
(1)
Comfortable.

(2)
     Sufficient seating space.

(3)
     Businesslike atmosphere prevails.

(4)     
Separate seating space for civilian and military.

(5)
Receptionist (soldier) present.

(6)
Interpreter present.

(7)
Visitor's requests handled indi­vidually.

(8)
     Receptionist and interpreter neat, efficient, courteous.

(9)
     Proper priority of visitors is ob­served.

(10)
Information available at reception­ist desk:

(a)
Road map.

(b)
     Town plan.

(c)
Directory of civil officials.

(d)
     Directory of important civilian establishments.

(11)
No classified document used in re­ception room.


AGO 6147B
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
See
Yes No None Note
c. Ofice Space:
(1)
Office furniture is practical.

(2)
Inter-office     communication operat-
 
ing (if essential).
 


(3)
Each EM has space allocation for
 
his work.
 


(4)
War trophies, and the like, are not
 
displayed.
 



d. CO's Ofice:
(1)
Private office.

(2)
    Office well enough away to avoid
 
distraction.
 


(3)
Map present defining unit jurisdic-
 
tional boundaries.
 


(4)
Area      map      present     showing im-
portant industrial, utility, com-
munication, etc., installations.
 


(5)
Latest     summaries of      unit     opera-
tions, charted/edited.
 



e. Specialists' Ofices. Each specialist has-
(1)
    A private office or desk space.

(2)
    A map showing his installations
 
well defined.
 


(3)
    Readily available his latest survey.

(4)
Readily     available governing     texts
 
and directives.
 



f. Operational/Administration:
(1)
Log (incoming-outgoing mail).

(2)
Civilian and military visitors diary. .

(3)
Message blanks.

(4)
    Journal (current events).

(5)
Diary.

(6)
    Work Progress Record.

(7)
    Files, system utilized.


4. CA BILLETS
a.
Convenient to offices.

b.
Safeguarded.

c.
Physical arrangement:


(1) CO, separate room.
(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B
(CLASSIFICATION)
See
Yes No None Note
(2)
     Officers and EM in separate places.

(3)
     Recreation rooms.


d. Messes:
(1)
     Officers, EM, and civilians sepa­
rated.
 

(2)
     Cooks.

(3)
     Civilian service.

(4)
     Supplies received satisfactorily.


SECTION %OBSERVATION AND INTERROGATION
1. ARTS, MONUMENTS, AND ARCHIVES
a.
Libraries, monuments, art, surveyed, reported.

b.
Safeguarded where necessary, includ­ing steps to prevent wanton damage by troops.


2. CIVIL GOVERNMENT
a.
All civil officials contacted, screened by Intelligence Corps personnel.

b.
Unsatisfactory officials dismissed and vacated posts filled.

c.
Civilian officials instructed as to duties and conduct.

d.
Records surveyed for possible use.

e.
Governmental setup adequate for next 30 days.


3. CIVIL INFORMATION
a.
Supervision and control of public in- formation media.

b.
Coordination with psychological war­fare units.

c.
Newsprint stocks impounded where necessary, and reported.

d.
Printing and publishing facilities sur- veyed, reported.


-----.---------------------­
(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B
(CLASSIFICATION)
See
Yes No None Note
4. CIVILIAN SUPPLY
a.
Essential civilian supplies safeguarded.

b.
Needed supplies received.

c.
Adequate arrangement for storage and issue of civilian supplies.

d.
Proper accounting system for receipt and issue.


5. COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY
a.
Industries survey, reported.

b.
Essential industries operating.

c.
Rehabilitation of production facilities.

d.
Adequate coal, oil, other fuel for in- dustry.

e.
Military assistance in rehabilitation of production facilities.


6. DISPLACED PERSONS
a. DPs, refugees, billeted, registered, re­ported.
(1)
Billets fulfill sanitary requirements.

(2)
Food and water requirements met.

b.
DP camp sites surveyed, reported.

c.
Imported food furnished only under established policy.


7. ECONOMICS
a.
Plan developed for maintenance, preser- vation, and rehabilitation of the local economy.

b.
Local resources surveyed and reported.


8. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
a.
Food surpluses, deficiencies, reported, investigated.

b.
Farms, fisheries, forestries, food proc- essing, and storage plants operating.

c.
People moved from urban to rural areas to alleviate suffering as required.


............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
----------------------.-----

(CLASSIFICATION)  
-Yes  No  w  e  SeeNote  
d. Agricultural organizations and bureaus,  
reconstituted, operating.  
9. LABOR  
a. Available 1abor.registered and reported.  
b. Labor office set up.  
c. Labor needs of military being met. (If  
not, explain under notes.)  
10. LEGAL  
a. Local courts surveyed and closed, if  
necessary.  
b. Initiation of action to reopen courts if  
closed.  
c. Civil affairs courts functioning.  
d. Prescribed oaths of office taken by  
judges, notaries, prosecutors, lawyers.  
e. All civilian claims against U.S. trans­
mitted to proper agency.  
11. PRICE CONTROL AND RATIONING  
a. Price control and rationing set up,  
operating.  
b. Appropriate counterinflationary meas­
ures taken.  
12. PROPERTY CONTROL  
a. Adequate control and administration of  
property designated for control.  
b. Supervision over requisition of private  
property for military use.  
c. Adequate protection of records of title,  
transfers, other property transactions.  
d. Property custodians appointed where  
required.  
13. PUBLIC COMMUNICATIONS  
a, Supervision over public comrnunica­
tions.  
b. Safeguard of public communications.  
............................
 
(CLASSIFICATIOEF)  
AGO 6147B  

(CLASSIFICATION)
See
Yes 3 None Note
-
c.
Military assistance in rehabilitating public communications.

d.
Essential facilities operating :


(1)
Telephone.

(2)
Telegraph.

(3)
Postal system.

(4)
Radio.

(5)
Television.

e.
Adequate restrictions and censorship of public communications.


14. PUBLIC EDUCATION
a.
Adequate supervision over education system including public and private schools.

b.
Military assistance for rehabilitation or construction of schools.

c.
Schools operating.


15. PUBLIC FINANCE
a.
Banking institutions safeguarded.

b.
Instructions given to banking institu- tions.

c.
Instructions to finance officials deliv- ered.

d.
Access to safe deposits controlled.

e.
Accounts blocked by banking institu­tions.

f.
Balance sheet, accounts list, sent to central bank or ready for delivery.

g.
Foreign exchange assets, sent to central bank or ready for delivery.

h.
Banking institutions reopened. (Give number under note.)

i.
Notice of custody posted when required.

j.
Postal financial services started.


16. PUBLIC HEALTH
a.
Dead persons and animals, buried.

b.
civilian hospitals checked and operat-


ing.  
c.  Number  of  vacant  hospital  beds  
reported.  
............................  
(CLASSIFICATION)  

............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
See
---No None
Yes      Note
d. Doctors, nurses, midwives surveyed,
organized. e, Health Department officer functioning.
f.
Water checked for contamination.

g.
Sewage system operating.


17. PUBLIC SAFETY
a.
Proclamations, notices, etc., posted, dated.

b.
Police organized, operating.

c.
Mines, hazardous buildings cleared, marked.

d.
Fire department organized, operating.

e.
Liaison with Intelligence, PM, tactical units established.

f.
Arms, radio transmitters, collected.

g.
Cameras, field glasses, radio receivers, collected or impounded, if required.

h.
Pass system organized:


(1)
Pass system operating efficiently.

(2)
    Civilian check points, static and nob bile, established.

i.
Curfew regulations being enforced.

j.
Prescribed registration completed.

k.
All persons on "black list" arrested.

I.
All arrests recorded and reported through channels.

m.
Political activity investigated.

n.
Essential utilities, public works, indus- tries, banks securely guarded.

o.
Police and civil administrative records, archives, and works of art seized and guarded.

p.
Civilian officials and appointees screened with Intelligence Corps assistance.

q.
Prison facilities, personnel checked. Minimum sanitation requirements met.


18. PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
a. Supervision over public transportation.
(CLASSIFICATION)
---------------------*-----­
(CLASSIFICATION)
See
Yes Lo None Note
b.
Safeguard of public transportation
 
where necessary.
 


c.
Military assistance in rehabilitating
 
public transportation.
 


d.
Essential facilities operating:


(1)
Rail.

(2)
Road.

(3)
Water.

(4)
Air.


19. PUBLIC WELFARE
a.
Supervision of public welfare agencies
 
and organizations.
 


b.
Military assistance to public and private
 
welfare agencies where necessary.
 


c.
Public welfare agencies functioning.


20. PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES
a.
Supervision over public works and
 
utilities.
 


b.
Steps taken to guard essential installa-
 
tions of this nature.
 


c.
Military assistance in rehabilitating public works and utilities.

d.
Essential facilities operating:


(1)
Gas.

(2)
Electric.

(3)
Water.

(4)
Sewage.


21. RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS
a.
Churches rehabilitated.

b.
Churches operating.

c.
Protection of freedom of worship.


SECTION C-OPERATIONS, TRAINING AND
INTELLIGENCE
1. DEPLOYMENT
Extent of area preparation of unit prior to deployment.
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
(CLASSIFICATION)
See
-Yes Lo None Note
2.      OPERATION REPORTS AND
 
HISTORY
 

a.
    All operation reports submitted.

b.
     All functional reports submitted.


c.     All historical information furnished.
3.    TRAINING
AND INSPECTIONS

a.
Unit/individual training prior to pres-
 ent assignment.
 

b.
Previous periodic inspections-how
 
many.
 



4.      INTERNAL SECURITY AND
 
INFORMATION
 

a.
Civilian attitude surveyed/reported. Civilian attitude toward CA checked.

b.
Combat information (enemy records, documents, maps, etc.) being reported.

c.
Intelligence. of special interest to CA collected, evaluated, and reported.


5.    MISCELLANEOUS

a.
Unit's outstanding accomplishments
 (list under notes).
 

b.
Unit's new methods or forms used (at- tach samples or explain).


c.     Disposition of personnel and special
means     of      CA control of     outlying districts. (List under notes.)
SECTION D-UNIT NEEDS
 
NOTES
 
(use additional sheets If necessary)
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
APPENDIX IX
(CLASSIFICATION)
Form for CA Intelligence Collection Plan
Essentinl elements Analysis of essenial elements Collecting agency Specific request or When tlnd how of information (EEI) of information (indications) or source orders to agency to report
I          I
1. What is the attitude la. Behavior or conduct indicat. All Branches la. Include a short summary of any la. Include in of the populace toward ing-change in attitude noted during the periodic report. CA? period giving details of specific ac-
(1) Confidence and trust      tions, which indicate any of the through conlpliance with      following : laws, etr., acceptance oi      (1) Confidence and cooperation.
change, approval of civil.
(2) Doubt and suspicion.
ians selected for 1,ositione     
of authority; lack of sup          (3) Apathy and indifference.
port of resistance move.
ments.
Civil Informa-b. In addition to the above, in-     lb. Same as la.
(2)
     Cooperation as show11 by tion clude questions in public opinion. reporting violators of CA questionnaire that indicate which laws ; making constructive of the three attitudes listed under sugg6stions. la above is prevalent.

(3)
Doubt and suspicion as manifest by ill-tempered ( c. Analyze all press releases not I c. Same as compliance, reluctance to censored prior to publication, and . la. Include accept employment with statements of radio commentators specific details. CA ; drawing unfavorable I to detect criticism of CA operations


I
comparison with situation or circulation of rumors and propa- in other zones. ganda. Cover. theatrical perform­ances, musical recitals and films for
1 (4) Apathy and indifference.
I     
the same purpose.
b. Expressions in public opinion Ipolls.
I
I
c. Fraternization and other friend- Detachment d. Make continuous study and d. same a8 ly gestures toward the occupying offices analysis of fraternization in area,
forces personnel.     noting trends, impressions and con- clusions as to trends.
d. Articles in the press, radio,
 
handbills, rumors, films, etc.
 

I e. Clandestine or open meetings 1     e. Keep bulletin boards, trees, e. Report im-
demanding changes.     building walls, etc. under periodic mediately to surveillance for posters and un-designated authorized handbills and notices. headqu a r ­
ters by fastest
means avail­
able; send two
copies of trans-
lated material
to designated
headquarters.
I
f. Investigate thoroughly all re-f. Report cir- quests for permission to hold meet- cumstances of ings ; ascertain ostensible purpose unusual inci­and follow through to determine dents, unau­
(CLASSIFICATION)
--.-.--------------.------

(CLASSIFICATION)
Essential elements Analysls of essenlal elements Colleetlng agency of Information (EEI) of lnformatlon (indleations) or source
Military Intel­ligence Units
b 2. Do migrating popula- 1      2a. Tabulated record showing num- Displaced Per­g tions constitute a prob­ber and nationality of people mov-sons
 e lem? ing into and out of the area.
P
2     What are the social and b. Indications of cause to in­political effects of such clude
 movement? (1) Labor shortages.
(2)
Loss of need for workers
 or specialists in industry
 or agriculture.
 

(3)
Insufficient food, housing.
 clothing, or fuel.
 

(4)     
Epidemic diseases.

c.
Economic and political impli-
 cations of failure of emigrants to
 adapt themselves to community life
 or to be accepted by the community.
 


(1. Possible presence and effects
 of large numbers of dangerous
 fanatics among groups.
 
Detachment Ofllces
Speelfle request or orders to agency
real purpose. If real purpose is 0th- er than that given at time of re­quest, report complete details in-eluding names, number attending, time and place of meeting, and what transpired, with conclusions as to real ~~urpose.
g. Monitor all forms of commun­ications originating with citimns for statements of interest to CA.
2a (1) Maintain tabulated record of number and nationality of people moving into and out of the area.
(2) Maintain record of persons in camps ; number received each week; number dis­charged each week. De­termine destination of dis­chargees and purpose of going there; origin of per- sons received and reasons for leaving former place of residence ; occupation of wage earners.
b. Determine reasons for large groups of people moving irto or out of the area. Also determine num­ber of political fanatics t:>ming into the area.
When and how to report
thorized meet­ings or misrep- resentation of pu rpoJe of meetings im- media telg to designated headquar­ters by fastest available means.
8. Same as la. In c 1 u d e specific details. Send two cop­ies of the trans- lation of such matter direct to designated headquarters.
2a. Same as In..
b. Same as
la.
(CLASSIFICATION)
3. What is the influence of political parties upon the populace of the area? How is it exer­cised? Relative strength and potency of vari­ous parties? What is the platform? Who are the leaders? What so­cial and economic group supports each party? Do large groups or organi­zations contribute to the support of certain par- ties? What parties are gaining in public sup­port? Which are losing?
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
Collecting agency or source
Labor
Economic
Public Health
Civil Informa­tion
3a. Registration of political party. Civil Informa­tion and Pub-
b. Political meetings and rallies.
lic     Safety
1 c. Membership drives and cam­paigns or other tactics used to stim- ulate party members hi^).
d.
Party funds.

e.
Party publicity.

f.
Public reception and interest
 in party platform and activity.
 

g.
Evidence of influence from out-
 side the area.
 

h.
Allegiance of any local group
 or element to a central party or
 organization.
 

i.
Failure of membership to show
 allegiance to own party in local
 election.
 


Specific request or orders to ugencs
c.
Maintain record of labor re­quirements ;shortages aud overages in the area by requireme~its such as industry and agriculture: by 1oc.a­tions ;tabulation of the nnen?l~loyt?d by profession, skill, or occnl,stion. Number of prescribed arty meln-. bers in each group.

d.
Maintain record of status of housing, food, fuel, and clothing in the area to show requirements, shortages, and overages.

e.
Maintain record of status of health in the area to show number sick in hospitals, in homes, type of illness, probable cause, whether or not contagious.

f.
Determine political significance of migrating populations and degree to which they adapt themselves to community life and/or are accepted by the community.


I
3a. Study press releases and opin- ions expressed in public opinion polls ; listen in on radio broadcasts ; have representatives attend political rallies or meetings having political significance. Analyze data from all available sources to determii~e
(1)
Relative strength and pop. ularity of various parties with reasons for popularity.

(2)
     Changes in regular policies and procedures or non­conformity with established procedures.

(3)
     Social and economics sta­tus of party membership;


i.e. urban, rural, literate and illiterate, etc.
When and how to report
c. Same as
la.
d. Same as
la.
e. Same as
la.
f. Same as
la.
3a. Same as la.
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
Essential elements of information (EEI)
4. What economic prob- lems are serious in the area? What are their causes? What will be the estimated duration?
Analysis of essenial elements of information (indicutions)
j. Political attitudes, allegiances, interest and activities of returning or repatriated individuals to the area.
Ic. Power struggles within the elite group of party organs and underlying reasons.
I. Deviations from policy or
propaganda line by key party mem- bers.
m. Defections of key members or groups from party and reasons for these defections.
4a. Economic disruption as evi­denced by-
(1) Food shortages.
(2)Fuel shortages.
(3)
Lack of adequate housing.

(4)
Transportation shortage.

(5)
Excessive unemployment.

(6)
Serious floods or drought.

(7)
     Disorganization of normal trade and production sys­tems.


............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION) Collecting agency or source
Public Finance
Detachment Offlces
Military Intel­ligence Units
Economic and R e 1 a t e d Functional' Specialties.
Speeiflc request or When and how orders to agency to report
(4)
Methods used to gain new
 
members.
 


(5)
Amount and source of in-
come.
 


(6)
Expenditures.

(7)
     Party afeliations with oth-
 
er parties, groups; etc. In-
vestigate scope of party
 
program and evidencu! of
 
influence from outside the
 
area.
 



b.
Examine records of political b. Same as parties to determine to what extent la. support is being given to groups and organizations by Contrib~tion~ of services, money, or supplies.

c.
      (1) Same as le and If. c. (1) Same as le


(2)     Observe political attitudes, and If.
allegiances, interests and
activities of returning or (2) Same
repatriated natives.      as la.
d. Peruse mail of recently re-d. Same as turned or repatriated natives to de la. termine political attitudes, alle­giances, interests, and activities.
4a. Maintain continuing study of 4a. same as 14.
economic situation as it might dis- rupt standards of living in the area. Analyze results of food and fuel shortages, lack of adequate housing ; lack of transportation to move com- modities within area ;effect of shut- down of essential or vital indus­tries ; probable results of unemploy- ment caused by layoff of workmen; effect of serious floods or droughts on agriculture and industry; ex­istence of undistributable surpluses ;
Essentinl elements of information (EEI) Analysis of essenial elements Collecting agency of information (indications) or source
b.
Existence of undistributable surpluses.

c.
Bank failure or runs on finan- cial institutions.

d.
Hoarding of currencies, com­modity barter and blaclr market activities.

e.
Widespread complaint on eco­nomic difficulties.

f.
Lack of confidence in the cur­rency.


Public Finance
.-..-..............-..-.-...--....
 
(CLASSIFICATION)
I      1
Labor Public Safety
Detachment Offices
Military Intel­ligence
Specific request or orders to agency
I     
hoarding of commodities ;cause and duration of black market as it pertains to items necessary for health, comfort, or well-being of populace.
I
b. Make a continuous study to determine those conditions which might lead to bank failures or runs on financial institutions ;amount of currency being hoarded ;relation of value of currency in circulation to the value of commodities available for purchase; lack of confidence in the currency and/or banking in­stitutions in the area as evidenced
by a cheapening of the purchasing power of the monetary unit by the transfer of currency from the area to other areas; effect of black mar- ket activities on stability of the currency.
c. same as 2c.     
1
d.
Maintain a tabular record of I number of arrests for black market activities.

e.
(1) Follow up al: complaints I on economic difficulties ; determine cause of complaillts and whether or not justified.

(2)     Use all available means to detect black market actir- ities within the area.

f.
Recapitulate various types of complaints pertaining to economic difficulties as found in letters writ- ten by natives or overheard in tele. phone conversations between na­tives.


I When and how to report
b. Same as
la.
 

c.
Same as 2c.

d.
Same as

e.
Same as


la.
 

f. Same as
la.
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION-)
Ea~ential elements
 of Informatton (EEI)
  I       Analysis of essenial elements of iniormutlon (indlcut~ons)  Collecting ngency or uource I       I  SpeciEc request or order8 to agency  I  When and how to report  
5. What  is the  extent  1      5. Number of arrests for commission  Public  Safety  5a. Be alert to detect technical com-  5. Same as la.  
of  crime  and  misde­ of  law  violations  over  and  nbt.re  pliance with rules, regulations, laws,  Render inform-  
meanors  in  the  area?  what is normal.  Type of violatiot~.  proclamations,  and  instructions  al  report  by  
frequency, against whom committed,  while  attempting  to  thwart  the  telephone  or  
and whether increasing  or  decreae­ purpose of the law by evading its  memoran­
ing.  scope or retarding its implementa-  dum  to  desig­
tion.  nated  head­
quarters  when  
first  detected  
or suspected.  
6. What  are  the  atti­ 6a.Degree  of  success  or  failure  Public  Educa­ 6a. Maintain  a  constant  study  of  6. Same as la.  
tudes  of  educators  or  of  reorientation  programs  toward  tion and Pub-  attitude of  teachers and educators  
leaders  of  schools and  US policy.  lic Safety  to determine: what they are teach-  
g 0  universities? What are they teaching? What are their qualifi­cations, backgrounds, beliefs, ideas advocated, and the strength of their following?  b. Organization of secret societies      in colleges and schools.      c. Presentation of lectures and theories directed against US ob­jectives and policies, methods used, and results obtained.      d. Regimentation of local youth in schools and colleges.  ing, strength of their following, methods used to eliminate or per- petuate ideologies inimical to US policy. Determine degree of success or failure of reorientation programs toward US policy. Detect organiza- tion of secret societies in colleges or schools. Examine critically lectures and theories directed  
e.      Student demonstrations.       against US policies.  Analyze  reac­
f. Influence exerted by political      parties or other outside groups; efforts to set up junior organizations      to develop student following.       tions of students to such lectures and theories. Determine to what extent native youth is regimented in I schools and colleges. Report all student demonstrations, determine  
g. Efforts  toward  restricting  at- causes.  Ascertain influences exerted  
tendance to politically approved or satisfactory individuals.  upon students by political parties or other outside groups; what junior  
organizations  are  being developed  
among the student body.  Detect ef-  
forts being used, if any, to restrict  
school attendance to those students  
approved or satisfactory to certain  
groups or organizations.  

-----------..-.-.------­
(CLASSIFICATION)
............................
 
 
(CLASSIFICATION)
 
 
Notes
1. The intelligence worksheet is most conveniently prepared in columnar form. The advantage is in the concise presentation of each EEI, together with the analysis of the element into indicators, the probable sources of information about the various indications, the specific mission, and the reporting procedures to be applied to each.
2. Form. a. Column one lists the EEI generally in order of importance. EEI's may include some or all of the foregoing as well as others, depending on the situation.
b. In column two there is the result of a mental analysis of each EEI listing indications or points of evidence that shed light on the questions implicit in the EEI.
c. Column three indicates the probable best collecting agency or best source of the needed items of information.
d. Column four delineates specific instructions for gathering information, as well as instructions relative to assembling, evaluating, and reporting.
e. Column five prescribes when and where, and how to report.
-------.--------------------

(CLASSIFICATION)
 
 
APPENDIX X
Form of Initial Civil Affairs Proclamation
 
for Use in Liberated Territory
 

PROCLAMATION TO THE PEOPLE OF
As Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force I salute the -...-.-.-----------------------------------------------------.-­
People. It is an honor to participate in the restoration of the freedom and inde- pendence for which you have been fighting during all these years, regardless of privation, suffering and sacrifice. Your efforts have not only served the cause of ---...--....---.-.----------,
but have been of signal importance as a shining example in our joint struggle against oppression and violence.
The presence in ----.-----..-.-----------------­
of the Allied Forces under my command has been effected in full unity and agreement with the -..-.---.-------.-.---------------------------------.-.
My forces include -...-----.---.--.­.--.----.---_..-----------.------­
military, naval, and air force units. Together with the men of the .-.-.....---.--.---------------------­
merchant marine they have been fighting at our side and their efforts have contributed conspicuously to our common cause.
My Forces have come to complete the liberation of your country and to secure filial victory over the enemy. As soon as this task has been discharged those Forces which are not -----------.--.--------------­will be withdrawn.
But there is still much that remains to be done. Therefore, until further notice, in areas affected by military operations my authority may be supreme to the full extent necessitated by the military situation, and you will obey all orders which military considerations may require. However, I have anticipated that the decrees and regulations demanded by the situation will be issued by the .-----.--_-----_------------------------------.------­
Government or its representatives, and it will thus not be necessary for me to exer- cise control over your public and private actions.
The Allies salute you !
Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force
Date----------Place......................
 

AGO 6147B
Form of Initial Proclamation
 for Use in Occupied Territory
 
TO THE PEOPLE OF ----..-..-.....-.--------------------­
:
WHEREAS in prosecuting their war against -----....-...---..------------,

it
 has become necessary for the armed forces of --.----.--..-.-.------------

and
---.-.-....---.---.--------------------­
under my command to occupy ---..---.------....­and WHEREAS it is the policy of the Allied Forces not to make war upon the civilian inhabitants of the occupied territory but to protect them in the peaceful exercise of their legitimate pur- suits in so far as the exigencies of war and their own behavior will permit, and
WHEREAS, in order to preserve law and order and provide
for the safety and welfare both of my troops and of yourselves,
it is necessary to establish control in the occupied territory.
Now, therefore, I, ---.--....--..-------------------------------------------------------------------­
General, General Officer Commanding the Allied Forces in the
territory occupied, by virtue of the authority vested in me by

......--.-----.-------------------------------.,
Commander in Chief of the Allied
 Forces in -..------.---...-..-----------------------,

do hereby proclaim as follows :
I All powers of government and jurisdiction in the occupied ter- ritory and over its inhabitants, and final administrative responsi- bility are vested in me as General Officer Commanding, and the Allied Civil Affairs Administration of Occupied Territory is established to exercise these powers under my direction.
I1
'All persons in the occupied territory will obey promptly all orders given by me or under my authority and must refrain from all acts hostile to the troops under my command or helpful to our enemies, from all acts of violence, and from any act calculated to disturb public order in any way.
I11 Your existing personal and property rights will be fully respected and your existing laws will remain in force and effect except in so far as it may be necessary for me, in the discharge of my duties as General Officer Commanding the Allied Forces and as Civil Affairs Administrator, to change or supersede them by proclamation or order issued by me or under my direction.
All .--...-..-.......-------------------------------------

civil and criminal courts and all universities, schools and educational establishments will be closed until further order of the Allied Civil Affairs Adminis- tration.
v
All officials of the provinces and communes and all other govern- ment and municipal functionaries and employees, and all officers and employees of state, municipal or other public services, except such officials and political leaders as are removed by me, are required to continue in the porformance of their duties, subject to my direction or the direction of such of my officers of the Allied Forces as may be deputed for that purpose. Further proclama- tions, orders and regulations issued by me or under my authority from time to time, will specify what is further required of you, and what you are forbidden to do, and these will be displayed in courthouses, police stations, post offices, or prominent public places.
VI Further proclamations orders and regulations issued by me or under my authority from time to time, will specify what is further required of you, and what you are forbidden to do, and these will be displayed in courthouses, police stations, post offices, or prominent public places.
VII So long as you remain peaceable and comply with my orders, you will be subjected to no greater interference than may be inevitable in view of military exigencies.
General Officer Commanding
The Allied Forces and Civil Affairs
Administrator
Date-.-.--..-.-...---------­
Place....-.--.-....---­
APPENDIX XI1
 

Example of an Ordinance Pertaining to the Circulation
of Currency in Occupied Territory
ORDINANCE NO. 51
CURRENCY
ARTICLE I
Allied Military Currency
1.
Allied Military Currency Notes bearing local denominations and in readily distinguishable form shall be legal tender in the occupied territory for the payment of any debt expressed in the terms of the local currency.

2.
Allied Military Currency Notes will in all respects be equivalent to any other local currency which is legal tender and of equal value.

3.
No person shall discriminate between Allied Military Cur- rency Notes and any other local currency which is legal tender and of equal value.


ARTICLE I1
 
Prohibited Transactions
 

4.
Except as authorized by the Civil Affairs Administrator, no person shall make or enter, or offer to enter, into any arrange- ment or transaction providing for: payment in or delivery of a currency other than Allied Military Currency or Notes or local currency which is legal tender and of equal value.

ARTICLE I11
 
Penalties
 


5.
Any person violating any provision of this Ordinance shall, upon conviction by a Civil Affairs Court, be liable to any lawful punishment, other than death, as the Court may determine.


ARTICLE IV
Effective Date
6. This Ordinance shall become effective upon the date of its first promulgation.
General, United States Army Civil Affairs Administrator
APPENDIX Xlll
 
Example of an Ordinance Published in Occupied
 
Territory Specifying Penalties for Crimes
 
and Offenses
 

ORDINANCE NO. 4
PROHIBITION OF WEARING OF --.-.---.--......--­
MILITARY UNIFORMS
ARTImCLE I
1. No former member of the .--..-----.-.-..---------------­
armed forces and no other civilian shall at any time wear or display on his person or clothing any military decorations, medals, insignia, or badges of rank or any miniatures thereof.
ARTICLE I1
2. From the effective date of this article, no former member of the..-----..-.-..-.-----------­
armed forces and no other civilian shall at any time wear a ..---.-....---.----------------­
military uniform, or any part there- of, in its regulation color and pattern.
3. The wearing of garments which have been produced by dye- ing a uniform a color other than (indicate denied colors) or by remodeling it into a civilian pattern will be permitted, provided such dyed or remodeled garment may not be readily identified as a uniform. This provision does not apply to headgear of any .----.-.-.-..-_--.--------------military will in event be
uniform, which no worn. ARTICLE I11
4. The term ''-------------..-.---------------military shall mean
uniform" any uniform of-
(a) Any branch of the --.--..-...-.-.------.-­
armed forces, includ- ing any --..---...-.--.----­
armed forces prior to .-..--..-....--..------­
(b)
The-.-.-----.---.-.-------------------­

(c)
Any-.-----.-..-...----------..----.


Party, its formations or affii- ated or supervised organizations, and
para-military organization, and and police uniforms similar thereto, and shall include all outer garments including shirts and headgear but not including boots, shoes, or socks.
ARTICLE IV
5. The term "insignia" shall include but shall not be limited to collar, sleeve or shoulder ornaments or devices, distinctive braid,
AGO 6147B 267
and distinctive buttons of any of the organizations listed in article
111.
6.
The term "military decorations and medals" shall include but not be limited to decorations and medals awarded to military personnel or to civilians for services related to the organizations listed in article 111, or for any other services related to military operations, but will not include decorations or medals granted or authorized by the government of any of the United Nations.

7.
The term "military insignia and badges of rank" means in- signia and badges of rank of any of the organizations listed in article 111.


ARTICLE V
8. The senior --.--........-------------------

official at each level of Govern- ment will initiate and carry out a program for the remodeling and dyeing of uniforms and for the collection and distribution of clothing to those without adequate clothing. He is responsible for the distribution of clothing between communities within the areas under his jurisdiction. For these purposes, mayors and county councillors shall have power to requisition surplus clothing. With- out limiting individual responsibility hereunder, mayors and county councill~rs shall be responsible for insuring compliance within their areas of the terms of articles I, 11, and I11 hereto.
ARTICLE VI
9.
Any person violating any of the provisions of this Ordinance shall upon conviction by a Civil Affairs Court be liable to any law- ful punishment, other than death as the Court may determine.

ARTICLE VII

10.
Articles I1 and I11 of this Ordinance shall become effective on..--......--.-...------------------------.


Articles I, IV, V, and VI shall become effective on --.-..-.-.---.--.-------------------.
General, United States Army Civil Affairs Administrator
APPENDIX XIV
Example of a Notice Specifying Hours of
 
Curfew in Occupied Territory
 

NOTICE
CURFEW
Until further notice no person within ..-.---..---.------------------­
will be permitted to circulate on the streets or outside his own house with- out a permit of Civil Affairs authorities between the hours of
-----.-..--..--...-------------­
and--------------------------------. Any persons found in the streets without such permit between those hours will be severly punished. All persons are further warned that military guards are in- structed to shoot any person seen outside his house after hours attempting to hide or escape.
..............................................................................
 

Major General, United States Army Commanding General,
AGO 6147B
APPENDIX XV
 
SOLOG AGREEMENT 29
DETAILS OF AGREEMENT
CIVIL AFFAIRS/MILITARY GOVERNMENT
 
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION-

(Study A 11)
 
General Remarks
 
No standard terminology is essential to this study.
 

SOLOG Agreement
1. The following general principles apply to all Civil Affairs and Military Government Operations ;they are the basis for initial planning purposes in the absence of specific guidance:
a.
Humanity. The principle of humanity prohibits the use of any degree of violence not actually necessary for the purpose of the war. War is not an excuse for ignoring established humani- tarian principles. To a large extent these principles have been given concrete form in the law of war; but because all of these principles have not become legal rules; a military commander should consider whether a proposed course of action would be humane even though not prohibited by international law.

b.
Benefit of the Gove~ned. Subject to the requirements of the military situation, the principle of governing for the benefit of the governed should be observed.

c.
Reciprocal Responsibilities. The commander of an occupying force has the right, within the limits set by international law, to demand and enforce such obedience from the inhabitants of an occupied area as may be necessary for the accomplishment of his mission and the proper administration of the area. In return for such obedience, the inhabitants have a right to freedom from un- necessary interference with their individual liberty and property rights.

d.
Command Responsibility. Responsibility and authority for the conduct of Civil Affairs/Military Government operations are vested in the senior military commander, who is guided by direc- tives from higher authority, national policies, applicable agree- ments and international law.

e.
Continuity of Policy. Continuity and consistency in policy are essential to the success of Civil Affairs/Military Government op- erations. Therefore, it is fundamental that over-all policy be de-


veloped at governmental or top command levels and transmitted through normal command channels.
f.
Inclusion of Civil Aff airs/Military Government Aspects in Plans and Orders. It is essential that military directives, plans and orders contain guidance to insure the accomplishment of the Civil Affairs/Military Government mission.

g.
Economy of Personnel. The duties of Civil Affairs/Military Government personnel should be confined where possible to super- vision over existing or re-established civilian authorities.

h.
Integration in Combined Operations. In combined operations integration is desirable. This is achieved by exercising Civil Af- fairs/Military Government control through a combined command as opposed to establishing separate areas of national responsibil- ity. Such integration should be included at appropriate command levels but should not extend to the command of Civil Affairs/Mili- tary Government units of one nation by officers of another.


AGO 6147B
APPENDIX XVI
 
SOLOG AGREEMENT 39 (STANAG 20561
DETAILS OF AGREEMENT
STANDARD CIVIL AFFAIRS/MILITARY GOVERNMENT
 DOCUMENTS
 
(PROCLAMATIONS AND ORDINANCES)
 
(Study A 12) General Remarks No standardized terminology is essential to this study. SOLOG Agreement
1.
All initial proclamations and appropriate ordinances should receive the approval of the governments concerned prior to pro- mulgation.

2.
Initial proclamations should contain, where appropriate, the following:


a.
Declaration of the occupation. This is formal notice of the fact of occupation and of the extent of the area over which the Armed Forces assume jurisdiction.

b.
A statement as to the purpose and policy of the occupation.

c.
A declaration of the supremacy of the theater commander. This is an essential prerequisite to the administration of any Mili- tary Government. It should announce that a Military Governor has been appointed and that political ties with, and obligations to, the enemy government, if any, are suspended. It should announce that inhabitants will be required to obey orders of the theater commander and his subordinates and to abstain from all acts or words of hostility or disrespect to the occupying forces.

d.
Confirmation that, unless the military authority directs other- wise, local laws and customs will continue in force, local officials will continue in office, and officials and employees of all transpor- tation and communications systems and of public utilities and other essential services will carry on with their regular tasks.

e.
Assurance that persons who obey the instructions of the mili- tary authority will be protected in their persons, property, religion and domestic rights and will be allowed to carry on their usual occupations.

f.
A statement that further proclamations or ordinances will accompany or follow the initial proclamation, specifying in detail what is required of the inhabitants.

g.
Place and date document is signed, signature and military title of the issuing authority.

h.
In the event the situation above is a Civil Affairs Adminis- tration of a liberated territory, rather than an occupation, a to f above should be appropriately modified.


3.
Subsequent proclamations, numbered in sequence, contain de- tailed rules governing the conduct of the population. These rules of conduct may also be set forth in ordinances.

4.
The format of Ordinances should be standardized to the fol- lowing extent :


a.
Ordinances should be numbered in sequence.

b.
They should consist of a series of main subdivisions called Articles.

c.
They should contain definitions of any terms used in them which are ambiguous or unfamiliar to the persons to whom they are addressed.

d.
The final Article in each ordinance should specify the effec- tive date of the ordinance.

e.
Ordinances should be signed by the Military Governor or by some authorized subordinate.


AGO 6147B
APPENDIX XVll
SOLOG AGREEMENT 40 (STANAG 20571
 
DETAILS OF AGREEMENT
CIVIL AFFAIRS/MILITARY GOVERNMENT SUBJECTS
 FOR INSTRUCTION
 
(Study A 13) General Remarks No standardized terminology is essential to this study.
SOLOG Agreement
1.
The introduction of Civil Affairs and Military Government sub- jects for instruction, the method of providing the information and the amount of time to be devoted to each subject of instruc- tion will be decided by the Army concerned.

2.
Training will be conducted to familiarize all military person- nel with Civil Affairs and Military Government operations. The following subjects will be included:


a.
The purpose and necessity of Civil Affairs and Military Gov- ernment in military operations.

b.
Rules and conventions governing war, with emphasis on the enforcement of law, preservation of order, and the prevention of wanton destruction of civilian property, communications, records, etc.

c.
Organization and functions of Civil Affairs and Military Gov- ernment staffs and units.

d.
The individual soldier's relation to Civil Affairs and Military Government operations.


3. Training in Civil Affairs and Military Government conducted in courses of Army command and staff schools or colleges will be preceded by training outlined in paragraph 2 above and will in- clude the following subjects:
a.
Comparison of systems of government.

b.
Training and employment of Civil Affairs and Military Gov- ernment units and personnel.

c.
Civil Affairs and Military Government planning.

d.
The combined or inter-allied aspects of Civil Affairs and Military Government operations.

e.
The methods of including Civil Affairs and Military Govern- ment problems in instructional and training exercises.


274 AGO 6147B
4. Courses for Civil Affairs and Military Government personnel will include the following subjects:
a.
History of Civil Affairs and Military Government.

b.
Comparative government, national, state or provincial, and lower levels.

c.
Organization of the Army.

d.
National policy concerning Civil Affairs/Military Govern­ment operations.

e.
Staff functions and procedures.

f.
Rules of land warfare and appropriate maritime law.

g.
Civil Affairs/Military Government organization.

h.
Civil Affairs/Military Government functions including courts, public safety, public health, and others.

i.
Local procurement in support of military operations.

j.
Logistical organization and procedures of the Armed Forces.

k.
The nature of inter-allied Civil Affairs/Military Government operations.


1. On mobilization, regional and language training.
m. Creation and issuance of occupation money. Consequential effects on the ecomony. (See amendment 3, STANAG 2057, 2 Feb 60.)
5. Courses conducted at combined training centers will be similar to the courses for Civil Affairs/Military Government personnel with additional emphasis on inter-allied operations.
APPENDIX XVlll
SOLOG AGREEMENT 41 (STANAG 2058)
 
DETAILS OF AGREEMENT
CIVIL AFFAIRS/MILITARY GOVERNMENT PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION
(Study D 2) General Remarks No standardized terminology is essential to this study.
SOLOG Agreement
1.
Civil AffairsJMilitary Government is a command responsibility.

2.
The function of Civil Affairs/Military Government is super- vised and directed by the commander, assisted by an appropriate staff.

3.
Civil Affairs/Military Government operations are performed executively by Civil Affairs/Military Government units or detach- ments so far as practicable.

4.
The organization for Civil AffairsJMilitary Government is flexible in order to function effectively under varying situations and contingencies.

5.
Integration of Civil Affairs/Military Government personnel is essential to combined operations. It should not normally be extended to the command of Civil Affairs/Military Government units or detachments of one nation by officers of another.

6.
British and Canadian Division Headquarters will include a Civil Affairs/Military Government officer and staff section when the division operates under the command of a United States Corps to conform with United States organizations. (This will not apply when assignment is of a temporary nature only.)

7.
The armies of the three countries will accept responsibility for appropriate administration and support required by attached Civil Affairs/Military Government personnel or units of any of the other armies.


AGO 6147B
APPENDIX XIX
 
SOLOG AGREEMENT 42
DETAILS OF AGREEMENT
 

CIVIL AFFAIRS/MILITARY GOVERNMENT TRAINING
 
PRINCIPLES
 

(Study D 3)
 
General Remarks
 
No standardized terminology is essential to this study.
 

SOLOG Agreement c~he Government train-
introduction of Civil Affairs/Military
ing, the method of providing the instruction and the amount
of time devoted to training will be decided by the army concerned.
2.
Basic orientation in Civil Affairs/Military Government will be provided for all Army personnel on active duty prior to or during movement overseas.

3.
Additional general instruction will be given to all army officers on active duty to impart a knowledge, at least equivalent to that required in regard to organization and operation of administrative and technical services.

4.
Advanced instruction will be given at high level military schools at which officers are trained for command and staff assignments.

5.
Maneuvers and other training exercises will include problems requiring the participation of Civil Affairs/Military Government units and personnel.

6.
Civil Affairs/Military Government personnel will receive mili- tary training.

7.
The functional training provided for specialists will be designed to adapt their civilian specialties to military operations.

8.
Civil Affairs/Military Government personnel will receive appropriate regional training in accordance with their planned assignment.

9.
Civil Affairs/Military Government personnel assigned to a theater or area having an inter-allied command should normally receive additional training at a combined training center.


APPENDIX XX
 
STANAG NO. 2065
DETAILS OF AGREEMENT
 
CIVIL AFFAIRS/MILITARY GOVERNMENT
 TRAINING PRINCIPLES FOR NATO ARMED FORCES
 
GENERAL
1. It is agreed that the NATO Armed Forces accept the following principles for training in Civil AffairsJMilitary Government.
SCOPE
2.     Introduction of Training. The introduction of Civil Affairs/Military Government training,
the method of providing the instruction and the amount of time devoted to training will be decided by the Service concerned.
3.     Basic Training
Basic orientation in Civil Affairsmilitary Government will be provided for all Service personnel on active duty.
4.     Further Training
a.
Additional general instruction should be given to all officers on active duty to impart a knowledge at least equivalent to that required in regard to organization and operation of administra­tive and technical services.

b.
Advanced instruction will be given at high level military schools at which officers are trained for command and staff assignments.


5.    Maneuvers and Exercises Maneuvers and other training exercises will when practicable
include problems requiring the participation of Civil Affairs/ Military Government units and personnel.
6.     Training of Civil /Military Government Personnel
a.
Civil AffairsJMilitary Government personnel will receive military training.

b.
The functional training provided for specialist personnel will be designed to adapt their civilian specialties to military operations.

c.
Civil Affairs/Military Government personnel will receive appropriate regional training in accordance with their planned assignment.


278      AGO 6147B
d. Civil Affairs/Military Government personnel assigned to a theater or area having an inter-allied command should normally receive additional training at a combined training center and/or school.
AGO 6147B
 

PERIODIC CA REPORT
(CLASSIFICATION)
(Omit subparagraphs not applicable. This report may include important items of information relative to anticipated activities in addition to those concerning the period covered.)
Issuing Headquarters
Place of Issue
(may be in code)
DateJTime group
(to include month and year)
Periodic Civil Affairs Report No.
 
Period Covered: (Date and time to date and time)
 
Reference: Maps (country, scale, and sheet numbers of maps)
 
or charts
 
Disposal instructions : (If any-e.g., DESTROY WITHIN 48
 
HOURS OF RECEIPT)
 

1.
CIVIL AFFAIRS SITUATION AT END OF PERIOD. Location of civil affairs units and pertinent activities of each; any important changes of civil affairs operational zones or

areas; principal incidents and events since last report. (Indicate on map or overlay annex where possible.)

2.
GOVERNMENTAL (Use Annexes as necessary).


a. Civil Government :
(1)
Organization.

(2)
Administrative Changes.

(3)
Political Intelligence.

(4)
Changes in Personnel.

(5)
Pre-election Planning.

(6)
Other essential information.

b.
Legal.

c.
Public Safety.

d.
Public Health.

e.
Public Welfare.

f.
Public Education.


............................
 

(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B
-----..--------------------­
(CLASSIFICATION)
g.
Public Finance.

h.
Labor.


3. ECONOMIC (Use Annexes as necessary).
a. Economics :
(1)
Supply and demand ratio.

(2)
Exports and imports.

(3)
Trade and investment factors.

(4)
Natural resources status and development.

(5)
Other essential items not covered in additional economic
functions.


b.
Commerce and Industry.

c.
Food and agriculture.

d.
Price control and rationing.

e.
Property control.

f.
Civilian Supply.


4. PUBLIC FACILITIES (Use Annexes as necessary).
a. Public Works and Utilities :
(1)
Water Supply and Purification.

(2)
Waste Disposal.

(3)
Electrical Power.

(4)
Flood Control and Drainage.

(5)
Public Housing.

(6)
Other essential items.

b.
Public Communications.

c.
Public Transportation.


5. SPECIAL FUNCTIONS (Use Annexes as necessary).
a. Displaced Persons :
(1)
Census and other statistical data.

(2)
Relief supplies.

(3)
Repatriation and relocation.

(4)
Utilization.

(5)
Other essential items.

b.
Civil Information.

c.
Arts, Monuments, and Archives.

d.
Religious Affairs.


6. MISCELLANEOUS. Indicate any special recommendations and requests such as special civil affairs personnel problems exist-
-~~~~~~.~~~-~~~~-----------­
(CLASSIFICATION)
AGO 6147B 281
ing, requisition for additional units, recommendations for lifting controls, restrictions, recommendations for troop indoctrination, training and inspections, internal security information, and other miscellaneous matters not properly covered in paragraphs above.
..............................................................................
 

Commander Annexes Distribution Authentication
AGO 6147B
 

APPENDIX XXll
 
A CA UNIT CHECKLIST
 

The following is a list of major points to be checked in improv-
 ing efficiency in a CA headquarters.
 
1. DETERMINING THE MISSION. Check that--
a.
Each CA task is habitually begun by determining and an- nouncing the primary objectives of the unit, its teams, and sub- ordinate units.

b.
Statements of objectives of the unit are clear and definite, answering the questions: who, what, when, where, how, and why.

c.
Priorities among CA objectives have been determined and announced.

d.
The mission of each CA unit and of its subordinate units is stated in writing.

e.
Each individual knows the mission of the unit and of the section or team in which he works.


2. ORGANIZATION. Check that-
a.
Every function necessary for accomplishing the command- er's mission is assigned to an individual, section, or team of the unit.

b.
The responsibilities assigned to individuals, teams, subordi- nate units, or civilian officials are specific, clear-cut, and under- stood.

c.
Up-to-date organization charts of the unit and civilian gov- ernment (including structural, functional, position, and flow charts) are prepared and are available.

d.
The functions are assigned so that related functions are grouped together.

e.
Every member of the organization understands to whom he reports and who reports to him.

f.
No member of the organization is required to report directly to more than one supervisor.

g.
The number of persons or units reporting directly to any one supervisor does not exceed the number that he can effectively supervise.

h.
The channel of command through which orders and policies are transmitted is clear and is adhered to.

i.
The authority and responsibility are decentralized to the maximum degree consistent with adequate control.

j.
The assignment of activities to sections of the headquarters follows the same general pattern at all levels.


AGO 6147B
 
k. The responsibility for an activity is matched by the author­ity necessary to perform that activity.
3. PLANNING. Check that-
a.
Effective administrative activity is carefully planned well in advance by studying and determining future schemes of action.

b.
Planners have a complete and thorough understanding of the objectives to be attained.

c.
The procedure is determined at the outset for producing and coordinating each plan within the time available.

d.
Planning is based on complete and accurate facts, correctly interpreted.

e.
Close supervision of all phases of planning is provided to insure accuracy and timely completion of coordinated plans.

f.
Direct contact is authorized between coequals and counter­parts at all levels in order to expedite planning.

g.
The responsibility for supervision of each planning task is fixed with one individual.


4. COORDINATION. Check that-
a.
All personnel and functional teams of the unit are familiar with the functions of all other teams.

b.
Specific personnel in the unit are assigned responsibility to insure coordination of specific matters.

c.
Adequate and timely means are employed to disseminate enough information to insure intelligent cooperation.

d.
All staff sections contributing to an undertaking have an opportunity to comment on proposed plans, orders, or policies.

e.
Time is allowed in the preparation of plans and orders for the accomplishment of necessary coordination.

f.
Coordination is begun in the early stages of planning to avoid wasted effort.

g.
Staff papers are accompanied by an indication of the agen­cies concurring and nonconcurring in the paper.

h.
Staff officers visiting subordinate units habitually look for and report evidences of lack of coordination on the part of their headquarters and their own staff section, and check that such reports are followed up with corrective action.

i.
Files are checked to determine whether correspondence is leaving the headquarters or section without proper coordination.

j.
Progress reports are regularly studied for evidence of any failure in coordination.

k.
The functional team initiating an assigned action on a mat­ter is held responsible for coordination within its field and for referring the matter to the agencies responsible for coordinating in other fields.


284 AGO 6147B
5. DIRECTING. Check that-
a.
Definite tasks or missions are assigned to subordinates.

b.
Directives clearly define the relation of subordinate tasks or missions to the overall objectives.

c.
Directives are positively and clearly expressed.

d.
Directives are specific as to the who, what, where, when, and why of required action.

e.
Directives are fully understood, and ample opportunity is provided for subordinates to seek clarification.

f.
Directives are issued sufficiently in advance of the prescribed action.


6. CONTROL. Check that--
a.
Adequate measures are provided and properly utilized to determine that each activity is proceeding according to plans, orders, and policies.

b.
Priorities are established and disseminated.

c.
Continuity is maintained by-


(1)
Planning and organizing for the full period of operation.

(2)
Providing for replacement of losses by trained personnel.

(3)
    Accomplishing changes in an orderly manner, without interrupting operations.

d.
Flexibility is preserved by allowing room in plans, orders, and organization to meet changing conditions and for internal arrangement to meet such changing conditions.

e.
Physical audits or surveys are made when necessary to gather facts about accountancy procedures for functional teams wherein funds are involved.

f.
Individual effectiveness is kept at a maximum by-

(1)
Providing the best possible working conditions.

(2)
Training each individual in more than one job.

(3)
    Careful selection and placement.

g.
Staff visits to subordinate units by staff officers and assist- ants are made according to a systematic program to insure that all items and all units are covered and reported on regularly.

h.
A staff message control system is provided, including a positive check on the distribution and routing of important documents.

i.
Translator sub-section and civilian employees therein are properly screened and supervised.


7. WORK FLOW. Check that--
a.
Movement of work between two points travels the shortest distance possible.

b.
Related operations are concentrated to minimize physical movement, time, and space in handling workload.


AGO 6147B     
c.
All handling not absolutely essential is eliminated.

d.
Workloads are balanced and all workers have the same relative amount of work to do.


8. STANDARDIZATION. Check that-
a.
A best method is developed and adopted for those activities which recur frequently.

b.
Good procedures already developed in the Army and in busi- ness are considered at the outset of an administrative operation.

c.
Conditions authorizing departure from standing operating procedures are clearly prescribed.

d.
Satisfactory administrative procedures are prescribed early rather than awaiting the development of ideal procedures.

e.
Sufficient flexibility exists in establishing procedures to allow for changes in conditions and to allow for internal adjustments to meet them.

f.
Those important procedures which have been adopted are reduced to writing.

g.
Administrative instructions and procedures are reviewed periodically and revised when advisable.

h.
Consolidated report forms such as SITREPS and PERIN- TREPT are utilized by teams and subordinate units.


AGO 6147B
APPENDIX XXlll
 

EXTRACTS OF TREATY PROVISIONS FOR
 
PROTECTION OF PROPERTY
 

THE HAGUE CONVENTION (11) of 1899
Convention (11) with respect to the Laws and Customs of War
on Land and Annex to the Convention. Treaty Series, No. 403.
Article 1: The high contracting Parties shall issue instructions
to their armed land forces, which shall be in conformity with the
"Regulations respecting the laws and customs of war on land"
annexed to the present Convention.
Article 2 :The provisions contained in the Regulations mentioned
in Article 1are only binding on the contracting Powers, in case
of war between two or more of them. These provisions shall cease
to be binding from the time when, in a war between contracting
Powers, a non-contracting Power joins one of the belligerents.
Annex to the Convention.
Annex to the Convention. Regulations respecting the Laws and
Customs of War on Land.
Section 11. On Hostilities. Chapter I. On Means of Injuring the
Enemy. Sieges and Bombardments.
(g)     To destroy or seize the enemy's property unless such destruction or seizure be imperatively demanded by the necessities of war.
Article 25: The attack or bombardment of towns, villages, habita-
 

tions, or buildings which are not defended is prohibited * * *
 
Article 27: In sieges and bombardments all necessary steps should
 
be taken to spare as far as possible edifices devoted to religion,
 
art, science, and charity, hospitals and places where the sick and
 
wounded are collected, provided they are not used at the same
 
time for military purposes. The besieged should indicate these
 
buildings or places by some particular and visible signs, which
 
should previously be notified to the assailants.
 

Article 28: The pillage of a town or place, even when taken by
 
assault, is prohibited.
 
Section 111. On Military Authority over Hostile Territory.
 
Article 46: Family honors and rights, individual lives and private
 

AGO 6147B      287

property, as well as religious convictions and liberty, must be
 
respected.
 
Private property can not be confiscated.
 
Article 47: Pillage is formally forbidden.

* * * * * * *
Article 56: The property of the communes, that of religious,
 
charitable and educational institutions, and those of arts and sci-
 
ence, even when State property, shall be treated as private
 
property.
 
,411 seizure of, and destruction, or intentional damage done to
 
such institutions, to historical monuments, works of art or science,
 
is prohibited and should be made the subject of proceedings.'
 

THE HAGUE CONVENTION OF 1907 (IX) Convention concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War. T~S~~NO.
542. Chapter I. The Bombardment of Undefended Ports, Towns, Vil- lages, Dwellings or Buildings. Article 1. The bombardment by naval forces of undefended ports,
towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings is forbidden.
Chapter 11. General Provisions. Article 5: In bombardments by naval forces all the necessary measures must be taken by the commander to spare as far as possible sacred edifices, buildings used for artistic, scientific or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals, and places where the sick or wounded are collected, on the understanding that they are not used at the same time for military purposes. It is the duty of the inhabitants to indicate such monuments, edi- fices, places by visible signs, which shall consist of large stiff rec- tangular panels divided diagonally into two colored triangular portions, the upper portion black, the lower portion white. Article 7: A town or place, even when taken by storm, may not be pillaged. INTER-AMERICAN TREATY OF 1935 Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments. Treaty Series 899
Article 1: The historic monuments, museums, scientific, artistic, educational and cultural institutions shall be considered as neutral and as such respected and protected by belligerents.
These articles of The Hague convention (11) of 1899 were derived from the Declarn- tion of Brussels of 1874, e.g., Article VII of the Droft Declorntion rends as follows: "The property of communes, institutions devoted to religion, charity, and education.
to arts and sciences, even when stnte property, shall be treated as private property.
"All seizure of. and destruction of, or intentionnl dnmnge to such institutions, to historical monuments, works of art or science, should be mnde the subject of proceedings by the competent authorities."
AGO 6147B
The same respect and protection shall be due to the personnel
of the institutions mentioned above.
The same respect and protection shall be accorded to the his-
torical monuments, museums, scientific, artistic, educational and
cultural institutions in time of peace as well as in war.
Article 2: The neutrality of, and protection and respect due to, the monuments and institutions mentioned in the preceding arti- cle, shall be recognized in the entire expanse of territories subject to the sovereignty of each of the signatory and acceding States, without any discrimination as to the State allegations of said monuments and institutions. The respective governments agree to adopt the measures of internal legislation necessary to insure said protection and respect.
Article 3: In order to identify the monuments and institutions mentioned in Article 1, use may be made of a distinctive flag (red circle with a triple red sphere in the circle on a white background) in accordance with the model attached to this treaty.
Article 4: The signatory Governments and those which accede to this treaty, shall send to the Pan-American Union, at the time of signature or accession, or at any time thereafter, a list of the monuments and institutions for which they desire the protection agreed to in this treaty.
The Pan-American Union, when notifying the governments of signatures or accessions, shall also send the list of monuments and institutions mentioned in this article, and shall inform the other Governments of any changes in said list.
Article 5: The monuments and institutions mentioned in Article 1 shall cease to enjoy the privileges recognized in the present treaty in case they are made use of for military purposes.
CONVENTION OF 1954 FOR PROTECTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY (Summary)
The preamble describes the intentions underlying the prepara- tion of the Convention. The Contracting Parties state their deter- mination to take all possible steps to protect cultural property which, by reason of the developments in the technique of warfare is in increasing danger of destruction. The High Contracting Parties also recognize that damage of cultural property means damage to the cultural heritage of all mankind and consider it im- portant. that this heritage shall receive international protection, which cannot be effective unless both national and international measures have been taken to organize it in time of peace.
AGO 6147B 289
Chapter I deals with "General Provisions Regarding Protection." Article 1 defines cultural property, which it divides into three categories: (a) movable or immovable property that is of great importance to the cultural heritage of every people ; (b) buildings whose main and effective purpose is to preserve or exhibit mov- able cultural property; and (c) centers containing a large amount of cultural property. The same chapter then deals with the safe- guarding of and respect for cultural property. These general provisions further prohibit any form of theft, pillage or misap- propriation of cultural property, any acts of vandalism or repris- als in respect of such property, as well as the requisitioning of movable cultural property in the territory of another Party. After a provision applicable in the event of occupation, the Con- vention provides for Contracting Parties to introduce in time of peace into the military regulations such provisions as may ensure observance of the Convention, and to foster in the members of their armed forces a spirit of respect for the culture and cultural property of all peoples. They also undertake to establish, within their armed forces, services or specialist personnel whose purpose will be to secure respect for cultural property. Chapter 11, en- titled "Special Protection," states that a limited number of refu- ges intended to shelter movable cultural property in the event of armed conflict, or centers, containing monuments and other im- movable cultural property of very great importance, may be granted extra protection provided that, in particular, they are situated at an adequate distance from any military objective and that they are not used for military purposes.
Special protection is granted by entry in an Inte~national Register kept by the Director-General of UNESCO. Contracting Parties undertake to insure the immunity of such cultural property; this immunity may be withdrawn only in really exceptional cases of unavoidable military necessity, which can be established only by the officer commanding a force the equivalent of a division in size or larger.
Chapter I11and IV deal respectively with the transport of cultural property and of personnel.
Chapter V deals with the distinctive emblem.
Chapter VI deals with the field of application of tlie Convention and stipulates, in particular, that it shall apply in the event of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise be- tween two or more of the Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recognized by one or more of them. The Contracting Party is occupied, even if that occupation meets with no armed resistance, and in the event of a conflict not of an international
290 AGO 6147B
character. In the latter case, UNESCO may offer its services to
the parties to the conflict. Chapter VII is concerned with the execution of the Convention, which is to be applied with the cooperation of the Protecting Powers usually responsible for safeguarding the interests of the Parties during a conflict. Immediately any Contracting Party is involved in an armed conflict, these powers will arrange for a "Commissioner-General for Cultural Property" to be accredited to that Party; he will have an important part to play in insuring that Parties to the conflict observe the provisions of the Conven- tion. Furthermore, this chapter makes provision for conciliation procedure in certain cases and for the possibility of concluding special agreements, provided that they do not limit the protection already afforded by the Convention. The final provisions deal with the effective application of the Convention, its territorial ex­tension, its relation to previous conventions and the procedure for denunciation and revision. In the Protocol, the Contracting Parties undertake to prevent the exportation of cultural property from any territory occupied by them during an armed conflict and if any such property is nevertheless imported into the territory of a Contracting Party, to return it, at the close of hostilities, to the competent authorities of the territory previously occupied. Such property may never be retained as war reparations.
Section I1 of the Protocol lays down that cultural property coming from the territory of a Contracting Party and deposited by it within the territory of another Contracting Party for the purpose of protecting such property against the dangers of an armed con- flict, shall, at the close of hostilities, be returned by the latter to the competent authorities of the territory from which it came.
AGO 6147B
 

APPENDIX XXlV
 
TYPE TASK ORGANIZATIONS
 

1.
General. The cellular character of TOE 41-500 permits an unlimited number of organizational combinations. Such flexibility is necessary to adapt CA units to their multifarious missions and varying environmental requirements. The requirements for assembling platoons, companies, or groups with essential func- tional teams are as variable as missions assigned, and paragraphs

2 through 5 are given only as examples of organizations that might be formed under the circumstances outlined.

2.
A Civil Affairs Group employed in Communications Zone under Hq TACAC where English is not commonly spoken. One subordi- nate company advises the government of a province; a second


company, with five platoons, is deployed in counties and towns.
a. Group headquarters functions might be divided into three categories.
(1)
It would need for internal support a Mess Detachment (CA) for headquarters personnel, an Automotive Maintenance Detachment (DB) to service all group vehicles, and a Food Service Team (CA) to draw and distribute rations to all group units.

(2)
    Although most CA personnel will have or will develop some ability to communicate in local languages, they will always require support where exact meanings, technical matters, or quantity become factors.. Language Team FD provides translating as we'll as interpreting capa- bility.

(3)
    Group headquarters will also require a wire communi- cations system using two Switchboard Operation Detach- ments (GE).

(4)
    Sizes of the several functional teams would vary. A large Civil-Information Team (WC) is provided because activity in several media (press, radio, motion picture, drama, music, circus, and other areas of entertainment) may be expected and will require both operational con- cern and guidance to subordinate echelons. A small Civilian Supply Team (BA) would be adequate if the zone were nearly self-sufficient. This headquarters would need a large Economics Team (GC) for planning activi- ties and synthesizing data from the more specialized sec- tions of lower echelons. A large Labor Team (RC) is provided because this function is centralized. Each


AGO 6147B

292     
major headquarters needs a Legal Team although a small one (PA) is usually adequate if CA Courts are not active. A medium sized Public Health Team (NB) can provide staff coordination for company and platoon agencies. A large Public Safety Team (MC) is needed to provide both technical and staff guidance.
Headquarters t h CA Group Attachments : Name of Team Symbol Number
1 (TOE 29-500) Mess Detachment CA 1 (TOE 29-500) Switchboard Operation GE 2
(TOE 11-500) Food Service CA 1 Language FD 1 Civil Information WC 1 Civilian Supply BA 1 Economics GC 1 Labor RC 1 Legal PA 1 Public Health NB 1 Public Safety MC 1 Automotive Maintenance DB
b. The company advising the provincial government would also have four categories of units.
(1)
    It would need a Mess Detachment (CA) for its own members.

(2)
    It would need a large Language Team (FC) to assure prompt, effective contacts with advised officials.

(3)
    Functional teams would have to cover the spectrum of the government being advised. The several teams could be small, however, as a single counterpart to each minister should be enough. Exceptions would be Civil Information (Propaganda) and Economics (Planning).

(4)
    Company headquarters will also require a wire com­munications system using one Switchboard Operation Detachment (GE).


Headquarters th CA Company Attachments : Name of Team Symbol Number
Mess Detachment CA 1 (TOE 29-500)
AGO 6147B
 
Name of Team      Symbol Number
Switchboard Operation
(TOE 11-500) Language Arts, Monuments and
Archives Civil Information Economics Legal Labor Price Control and
Rationing Property Control Public Communications Public Education Public Finance Public Health Public Safety Public Transportation Public Welfare Religious Affairs
c. The company and five platoons deployed through the zone would have different requirements due to their dispersion and amount and variety of direct contacts with the population.
(1)
Company headquarters would need a Mess Detachment (CA); the five platoons would either be satellited on some larger units or set up a mess with indigenous cooks.

(2)
    Company headquarters will also require a wire communi- cations system using one Switchboard Operation De­tachment (GE) .

(3)
    Company headquarters and each platoon would need a small Language Team (FA).

(4)
    Functional teams would depend on the political, eco­nomic, and sociological situation in towns and counties of deployment. Some fields of work can sometimes be handled more effectively with some degree of centraliza- tion. Here only three Civil Information Teams (WB), one Displaced Persons Team (VB), one Public Educa- tion Team (QB), and one Public Works and Utilities Team (SA) are shown. Other activities may require a team at company headquarters and with each platoon, such as Commerce and Industry (HA), Food and Agriculture (IA), Public Health (NA), and Public Safety (MA).


AGO 6147B
294     
Headquarters th CA Company  
Attachments :  
CA Platoon  
CA Platoon  
CA Platoon  
CA Platoon  
CA Platoon  
Name of Team  Symbol Number  
Switchboard Operation  GE  1  
(TOE 11-500)  
Mess Detachment  
(TOE 29-500)  CA  1  
Food Service  CA  1  
Language  FA  6  
Civil Information  WB  3  
Commerce and Industry  HA  6  
Displaced Persons  VB  1  
Food and Agriculture  IA  6  
Public Education  &B  1  
Public Health  NA  6  
Public Safety  MA  6  
Public Works and  SA  1.  
Utilities  <-­

3. A Civil Affairs Company employed as part of a large task force that may sustain operations for several months in an area where English is not commonly spoken. The company will have two CA platoons and a wide variety of functional teams. It will need to be prepared to disperse the platoons and teams if the situation
so requires. The company headquarters will maintain a mess and a small motor pool using Mess Detachment (CA) and Automotive Maintenance Detachment (DB), respectively, and will draw and distribute rations to all personnel with a Food Service Team (CA). One large Language Team (FD) and two small Language Teams (FA) will give both translating and interpreting capability to the company and the platoons. Company headquarters will also require a wire communications system using one Switch­board Operation Detachment (GE). Choice between two or three small teams and one large one in the same specialty is dependent on local circumstances and probable methods of operation. For this organization, two large and four medium functional teams were chosen on the presumption that they could be used without fragmenting them. If complex problems with information media are anticipated a large Civil Information Team (WC) will be needed. Medium sized teams for Commerce and Industry (HB),
AGO 6147B 295
Labor (RB), Public Health (NB), and Public Safety (MB) will give weight in the more critical fields. Small teams in Civilian Supply (BA) , Displaced Persons (VA), Food and Agriculture (IA), Legal (PA), Public Communications (TA), and Public Transportation (UA) will give breadth of capability.
Headquarters t  h CA Company  
Attachments :  
th CA Platoon  
th CA Platoon  
Name of Team  Symbol  Number  
Mess Detachment (TOE 29-500)  CA  
Automotive Maintenance  DB  
(TOE 29-500)  
Switchboard Operation  
(TOE 11-500)  
Food Service  
Language  

Civil Information Civilian Supply Commerce and Industry Displaced Persons Food and Agriculture Labor Legal Public Communications Public Health Public Safety Public Transportation
4. A Civil Affairs Platoon employed as part of a small task force on a short time emergency mission in an area where English is spoken. The situation indicates that refugees will be encountered in considerable numbers, that food may be inadequately dis­
tributed, that repair of public works will solve the production and distribution of food, that labor may be required, that health and public safety will be critical if prompt action is not taken. Finally, local religious practices differ from those known to most members of the task force and extraordinary care will be necessary to avoid offending the local population. Small teams will be taken to conserve space and keep strength to lowest possible figure. Platoon commander and executive officer and team personnel
296 AGO 6147B
may be required to work in functions other than which they are presently assigned. Headquarters t h CA Platoon Name of Team      Symbol Number
Displaced Persons VA 1 Food and Agriculture IA 1 Labor RA 1 Legal PA 1 Public Health NA 1 Public Safety MA 1 Public Works & Utilities SA 1 Religious Affairs YA 1
5. For contingencies in which a small versatile detachment is desired, one of the following may serve. Examples of use include a detachment to accompany a very small task force where trans-
portation facilities limit number of persons and amount of equip- ment, a Civil Defense Team, a Mobile Training Team for Instruc- tion, a Mobile Training Team for Civic Action, or a CA Survey Detachment. Officers assigned MOS's other than 8104 will be selected on the basis of specialist requirements for specific missions. Officers assigned MOS's 8104 will be responsible for coordination of their detachments.
CIVIL AFFAIRS DETACHMENT "A" CA DET "B"
 MOS Number and Grade Number and Grade
 
1 colonel 1 It col
 2 majors      1 captain
1 It col      1 major -    lmajor 2 captains 2 captains
AGO 6147B
 

CIVIL AFFAIRS DETACHMENT "C" CA DET "D"
 

MOS - Number and Grade  Number and Grade  
8104  1It col  1 major 1 captain  

AGO 6147B
 

Paragraph Page
Acquisition. Utilization of
Captured Enemy Supplies ................................ 171
 Administrative Control (See Control.)
 Advice .................................................. 4d. 7f. 11. 12. 77
 Advisory Council (See Co~ilmunity Councils .)
 Agreements .............................. 2. 8. 16. 58. 72. 74. 77.
 
78.122, 128. App XXIII
 Airborne. Amphibious. Armored
 
Operations ........................................................ 108
 
Ambassador ........................................... 4. 66. 74. 76
 
Apyrehelision of Violators .......................... 121c (4)
 
Arbitration ...................................................... 12171 (8)
 
Area Authority ...................... 11-15. 20. 27. 28. 92. 95
 
Area Damage Control ...................................... 106. 107
 
Area Support ......................................... 27. 28. 92. 95
 
Armed Forces Disciplinary Control
 

Boards ............................................................ 648 (7)
 
Arts. Monuments. and Archives .................... 14c. 142
 
Assistant Chief of Staff. G1 ............ 56. 167. 169. 170
 
Assistant Chief of Staff. G2 ...................... 56. 87. 100.
 

104. 116. 136. 137. 139. 145. 146
 Assistant Chief of Staff. G3 ...................... 24. 56. 59.
 
104. 106. 116. 137
 Assistant Chief of Staff. G4 ...................... 56. 59. 104.
 
106. 107. 137. 162. 167. 169. 173
 
Assistant Chief of Staff. 65 ........................ 16. 22. 24. &56. 59. 64. 66. 92. 96. 1CU. 106.107.
116. 136. 137. 139. 162. 164. 167.
170. 173. 177
 
Athletics ............................................................ 64b (3)
 
Banks ............................................................... llf.12a
 
Bi-National Associatioils ..................... ........... Mb (9)
 
Boards ...................................................................... 124
 

Casualties. Civilian .................. lld. 107. 176. App VI
 Centralization .................................................... 15f. 28
 Civic Action :
 
Criteria .............................................................. 81
 
Definition ........................................................ 71b
 
General .............................................................. 79
 
Operations .................................................... 82. 110
 

Other Units
.......

.............................
 

..............
 75
 

Procedures .................................... .................... 84
 Projects ....................... ..................................... 80
 Teams 83
 
Civil Affairs :
 Annex . App 111, IV
 Authority . 2b, 15, 16, 20
 Checklist ...................... App V, VII, VIII, XXII
 
AGO 6147B
Paragraph
Commands (See Organization.)
 
Concept .......................................................... 6d
 
Definition ........................... ..................... 2a
 
Environmental Factors ...................... ............ 5
 
Functions (See Functions.)
 
Objectives .......................................................... 3
 
Officer (See Asst Chief of Staff. G5.)
 
Operations (See Operations.)
 
Organization (Ses Organization.)
 
Phasing ............................................................. 9
 
Principles .......................................................... 4
 
Representative Activities ................... ........ 7
 
Responsibilities ......................................... 92
 
Scope .......................................... 6, 7, 91, 92, 93
 
Support .............................. 7e, 91, 92, 95, 109, 160
 

Civil Affairs Tribunals :
 
Enforcement ................................................ 133
 
General ...................................................... llb. 122
 
Jurisdiction ............................................. 125
 
Procedures ...................... ........................... 126
 
Purpose and Authority ............................... 123
 
Types ............................................................. 124
 

Civil Censorship ........................................ 100, 139
 
Civil Defense ..................................... llc, 69, 106, 107
 
Civil Emergency ................ 2d, 3d . 11, 12f, 68 . 69, 107
 
Civil Government ............................... ... lla, 80, 83, 85
 
Civil Information .................. 14a. 83. 85.98g(l). 110
 
Civil Security ................................................. 134. 138
 
Civilian Agencies .................. 3. 7. 9. 11. 16. 17. 64.66.
 

69. 76. 80. 83. 84.119. 136
 
Civilian Internee ............................................ 104. 105
 
Civilian Officials ...................... 3. 4. 9. 16. 70. 83b. 98.
 
APP V
 
Civilian Supply :
 
Accounting .................................... ........ 175
 
Army Support .......................................... 153
 
Automatic Supply for Civilian
 
Requirements .............................................. 162
 
Bases for Estimates ................................... 157
 
Estimate of Requirements ......................lle, 156
 
Function ........................................................ 149
 
General ........................ 12f, <%, 98g(2), 101, 107c
 
Aiorement ........................................................ 177
 

Offlcer ............................................................. 151
 
Planning ............................................... 110, 155
 
Policies ........................................ .............. 150, 152
 

Priorities ........................................................ 158
 
Procurement (See Procurenlent.)
 
Quantities ........................................................ 158
 
Review of Requirements ................................ 159
 
Storage ........................................................ 172
 

AGO 6147B
 

Paragraph
Cold Whr Activities ................................ 2k. 67. 71-90
 

Collection Plan ........................................ 146.App IX
 

Combined Operations ...................... 4f. 19. 24. 28. 92.
 

App XV. XVIII
 Command Posts ...................................................... 98
 Command Support .............................. .. 26.94.9%. 96
 Commanders Responsibility ............ 4b. 6c. 18. 36. 92.
 
102c. 103b
 Commerce and Industry ...................... 12b. 80. 83.85
 Commissions ...................................................... 124
 Communications. Unit 100
 Community Councils .................. 7c.a.65. 83c(6). 84
 Compliance through Publicity .................... 121b(ll)
 Conferences ...................................................... 121b (7)
 Conciliation ................................ ... .............. 121b (8)
 Control :
 By Function ............................................. 11-14
 Coercive 121c
 
Degree. Duration, and Level ........................ 120
 

Enforcement ............................................... 133
 

General ........................................ .................... 79
 

Noncoercive .................................................. 121b
 

Program .......................................................... 110
 

Techniques ...................................................... 121
 

Transfer ........................................................9, 16d
 

Tribunals .................................................... 122-126
 
Coordination .................................................. 7d, 9, 22
 
Counterguerrilla .......................................... 86, 110
 
Country Teams ........................................ 16, 76, 83,84
 
Courts (See Civil Affairs Tribunals.)
 
Curfew .................................... 98, 102, 110, App XIV
 

Decentralization ......................................... 15f. 28
 
Declaration of Legal Obligation .................... 121b(2)
 
Declaration of Policy ..................................... 121b (1)
 

Definitions :
 
Civic Action ..................................... ...............  71b
 
Civil Affairs ....................................................  2a
 
Civil Affairs Agreement ................... .............  2e
 
Civil Affairs Operations ..............................  2b
 
Civil Defense ................................................  2c
 
Civil Emergency  .....................................  2d
 

Cold War .................................................... 2k. 71a
 
Counterintelligence ....................................... 1348
 
Displaced Persons ...................................... 102b
 
Economic Warfare ................................ 89a (2)
 
Evacuee ............................................................ 102b
 
Gazette ............................................................ 127c
 
General War ............................................... 2h
 
Intelligence ................................................... 1340
 
Irregular ...................... .............................. 71c, 86
 
Limited War ..................................... ............... 2i
 
Military Government ................................ .... 2g
 

AGO 61478
 
Page
Paragraph
Ordinance ........................................................ 127b
 
Political Warfare .................................... 89a (1)
 
Proclamation ......................................... 127a
 
Refugee ..............:.................................... 102b
 
Situations Short of IVar 2j
 
Status of Forces ...................... ................. 2f
 

Delegation of Authority ................................... 20, 92
 
Demobilization of Guerrillas ............................. 109
 
Demonstrations ............................................. 121b (5)
 
Depth of Area .................................................. 58, 92
 
Destruction of Property ..................... ........ 103e(4)
 
Directives ............................. .......................... 131
 
Disaster Relief (See Civil Emergency.)
 
Displaced Persons and Refugees :
 

Sssembly Areas and Camps 105
 
Collecting Points .............................. 103, 104, 110
 
Evacuation ................................................ 103
 
General .......................................... 14b. 989. 102
 
Moveinent Control ........................................ 102
 

Distribution of Supplies :
 
Accounting ..................................................... 175
 
Channels ........................................................ 173
 
Issue During Combat .................................... 174
 
Rlovement ................................................. 177
 

Econon~ic Warfare ................................................ 89
 
Econonlics .......................................................... 12a, 83
 
Economy of Forces ............................ 417 13d, App XV


.

Educational Ca~npaigns (See lJrol)agnnda.) 121b (6)
 Enemy Supplies ...............-.................... ....171
 Engineer ............................. ........................... 137. 169
 Engineers. Corps ............................ 10. 13. 80 . 83. 112.
 
166. 169. 174
 Environlnental Factors ............ 5-7. 13. 21. 44. 47. 58.
 
61. 63. Mc. 136. 137
 
Escape and Evasion ................................................ 87
 
Establishnlent of Standards .......................... 121'6 (3)
 
Estimates of the Situation .................. 57. 97. App I1
 
Evacuation .......................... 14b. 10.26. 103 . 107b (10)
 
Evacuees ........................................................ 14'6. 102b
 
Executive Order ........................................... 4. 16. 74
 

Food and Agriculture .................... 120. 80. 83. 85. 110
 Financial Institutions .................................. .... llf, 12a
 Functions :
 
Checklist .................................................... App V
 
Civic Action ................................................. 83c
 
Econo~nic...................................................... 12, 83
 

Civilian Supply ............................ 12f, 85, 98
 
Coluluerce and Industry .................... 12b, 85
 
Economics ........................................ 12a, 83
 
Food and Agriculture .......... 12n, 83, R5,110
 
Price Control and Rationing .......... 12d, 110
 
Property Control .................................. 12e
 

AGO 6147B
Paragraph
General .................................. 10. 93. App 11-VII
 

Governmental .............................................. 11. 83
 
Civil Government .............................. lla, 85
 
Labor ...................................... llh, 85, 98, 105
 
Legal ......................................... llb, 85, 110
 
Public Education .................. llg, 83, 85, 110
 
Public Finance .......................... llf, 121c (5)
 
Public Health ................ Ild, 83, 85, 98, 105,
 

107, 110
 Public Safety ........ llc, 85, 98, 105, 107, 110
 
Public Welfare .............. lle. 85. 98. 106. 107
 Public Facilities .......................................... 13. 83
 Public Communications .................... 13b. 85.
 107c. 110
 Public Transportation ...................... 13c. 85.
 107c. 110
 Public Worlrs and Utilities ........ 13a. 83. 85.
 
98. 110
 
Special Functions ........................................ 14. 83
 Arts. Monuments and Archives ...... 14c. 142
 Civil Information ............ 14a. 83. 85. 98. 110
 Displaced Persons and
 
Refugees .................................. 14b. 98. 105
 
Religious Affairs .................................... 14d
 

Gazette .................................................................... 132
 
Geneva Conventions ...................... 8. 11. 12. 102. 124.
 

126. 128. App XXIII
 Geographical Areas ........................................ . 92f, 95
 Governments in Exile ......................................... 90
 Guerrilla Operations ................ llc. 85. 109. 135. 144
 
Handbooks ................................................................ 61
 
Humanity ................................................................ 4i. 8
 

Identification ................................ llc. 103d. 110. 138.
 

144. App VII. VIII
 Information Activities ........................ 14a. 64b (1). 85
 Initial Action ........................ 96-98. App VII. X. XI
 Inspection .......................... 121c(3). Apg VIII. SXII
 
Intelligence : Area Studies and Surveys .................. 87. 89. 97.
98g. 136. 137
 
CA Support ........................................ 109. 140-144
 
Civil Censorship ...................................... 100. 139
 
Civil Security ....................... ................ 134, 138
 
Collection .........................:....................... 141
 
Collection Plan ................................ 146, App IX
 
Coordination .................................................... 10
 
Counterintelligence ................................ llc. 144
 
Custody of Archives ...................................... 142
 
Detachments ...................... ........................... 102
 

AGO 6147B
Paragraph
Essential Elements of
Inforluation .................................. .. 136. App IX
 
Estimate .......................................................... 148
 
General .......................................................... 134
 
Officer ............................................................ 145
 
Planning ....................................................... 136
 
Procurenlent and Recruitn~ent .................... 143
 
Purpose ............................................................ 135
 
Reports ............................................................ 147
 
Support ............................................................ 115
 
Investigation .......................................... 121c(2). 144
 
International Law ........................ 3. 8. 101a. 105. 110.
 

123. 120. App XXIII
 
International Organization ............ 7. 16. 24. Mb(9).
 

66.72. 119. 128.136. App SV-XS
Joint Conlmissions and Colnmittees .............. lla. 66
 
Judge Advocate ........................................................ 36
 

Labor .......................... Ilk. 85. 989. 105. 107c(9). 170
 

Law of War (See International Law.)
 
Legal .......................................................... 5. 11.85. 110
 
Liaison ................................................................ 7a. 92a
 
Licensing ............................................................ 121c(1)
 
Limited Actions .................................................... 2. 78
 

RlAAGs and Missions ................ 72. 76. 77. 79. 83. 84
 
Marches .............................................................. 99. 101
 
Martial Law ............................................................ 70
 
Mediation .......................................................... 121b (8)
 
Medical Service ............................ 10. lld. 36 . 80. 83.
 

103. 113. 176
 Military Assistance (See 3fAAGs and
 
3Iissions.) .......................................................... 72. 75
 
Military Authority ........................................ 49. 128
 
AIilitary-Civil Relationships .................. 6. 63. 6-1. 74.
 

77. 63. 110
 Military Governlnent .......................................... 29
 Military Police ............................ 10, 36, 69. 80, 102d .
 
104, 114, 115
 Mobile Training Team ................................ 72c, 83, 84
 Money .................................................................. llf
 RIutual Security (See MAAGs and
 
Missions.) ................................................ 72. 78. 120
 
Xational Policy ...................................... 3-5. 9. 16. 78
 
Xationalisn~............................................................ 73
 
Negotiation .................................................. 7b. lla. 16
 
Nuclear Attack .................................. 69. 103. 106. 107
 

Objectives. CA .................. 3. 4c. 9. 1.5. 50. 58. 74b. 79 .
 

107. lo!)), 110. 129. 150. 173
 
AGO 6147B
Paragraph  Page  
Open Houses-Exhibits ...................... 64b (2). 83c(11)  75. 96
 
Operations :
 
Airborne. Amphibious. Armor ...................... 108
 
Against Irregular Forces .......................... 86. 110
 
Aspects. CA ...................................................... 6d
 
CA Support .............................................. 91, 109
 
Civil Defense .................................................. 107
 
Combined .................. 4f, 19, 92, App XV, XVIII
 
Continuity ........................................................ 4e
 
Definition ........................................................ 2b
 
Guerrilla .................................... llc, 109, 135, 144
 
Initial Action ........................ 98, App VII, X, XI
 
Organization .................................................... 15
 
Platoon .............................................................. 96
 
Responsibilities ..................... ................... 92
 
Orders .............. llc. 59. 96. 99. 131. App 111. IV. XV
 
Ordinances .................. 130. 132. App XII. SIII. XVI
 
Organization :
 
Area Support Units ........................ 27. 28. 92. 95
 
Basic Concepts .................................................. 15
 
CA Area Hq (Type A) .................. 26. 28. 32. 35
 
CA Area Hq (Type B) .................. 26. 28. 33. 35
 
CA Command ........................ 26. 28. 32..33. 35 . 92
 
CA Company .................................... 26. 28. 30. 35
 
CA Group ........................................ 26. 28. 29. 35
 
CA in Cold War .......................................... 74
 
CA Platoon ................................ 26. 28. 31. 35. 96
 
CA Schools ........................................................ 34
 
Combined Comrnand ............................ 19. 24c. 92
 
Command Support Units .............. 26. 94. 95c. 96
 
Co~npositions of Units .................................... 25
 
Elements ............................................................ 23
 
Flexibility ........................................................ 93
 
Functional Teams ......................................... 36
 
General .................................... 6d (3) , App XXII
 
Language Teams ......................................... 35
 
Mobile Training Teams .................................. 8371
 
Paran~ilitary .............................................. 80j
 
Personnel (See Personnel.)
 
Requirements for Units .................................. 21
 
Service Teams .................................................. 35
 
Staff Sections ........................................ 24, 54-56
 
TdCAC ........................................ 22, 28, 32, 95
 
Type ...................................................... App XXIV
 
Orientation Programs .......................... ............ 64b (4)
 
Passes ........................................... ... llc, 989, App XIV
 
Personnel :
 
Assignment ...................................... .................. 38
 
Civilian Specialists .......................................... 39
 
Enlisted ........................................................ 38, 49
 
Qualifications ................................................ 37
 
AGO 6143%  

Paragraph
Planning .................................... 1.5. 58. 59. 74. 84c. 96.
 

102d. 107. 136. App XXII
 
Policy .................................................................... 4a. 5
 
Political Advisor .................................................. 17
 
Political Warfare ......:............................................ 89
 
Population Control .................................... 98, 101-103
 
Price Control and Rationing ...................... ..12d, 110
 
Prisoners of War .............................................. 105
 
Prisons .................................................................... llc
 
Proclamations ............ llc, 98a, 129, App X, XI, XVI
 

Procurement :
 
Automatic Supply .......................................... 162
 
Basic Considerations .................................... 166
 
Eneiny Supplies .......................................... 171
 
General ...................................................... 143, 161
 
Labor ............................................................... 170
 
Local Procedure ........................................... 167
 
Local Procurelllent Alethods ........................ 168
 
Local Procureitlent Objectives ...................... 165
 
Real Estate ...................................................... 169
 
Regulated Items ........................................... 163
 
Requisitions ...................................................... 164
 
Storage ......................................................... 172
 

Propaganda .................... l4a. 80. 8.7. 98. 103. 110. 116
 

Property Control ........ 12c. 36. 149 . 1.71. hpl) VI. VII
 

IJrovost Marshal ........................................... RGd. 137
 Psychological Warfare ........ l4n. 80. 83 . !)8g. 110. 116
 Public Cbmmunications ...... 137). 36. 80. 85. 100. 10ic.
 
110
 Public Education ........................ 11g. 36. 80. 83. 85. 110
 Public Finance .......................................... llf. 12lc (5)
 Public Health .... llr7. 36. 80. 83. 85. 98g. 103.107~. 110
 
Public Records ........................................................ 14c
 
Public Safety ................ llc. 36. 85. 9811. 103. 107. 110
 

Public Transportation .......... 13c. 36. 80. 85. 107c. 110
 
Public Welfare .............. lle. 3G. 80. 86. 98g. 105. 107c
 

Public Works and Utilities ........ 13a. 36. 83. 85. 9811.
 107e. 110
 Purchase of Consent ...................................... .. 12121 (9)
 
Quartermaster .................................................... 10. 166
 

Rear Area Security .......................................... llc. 110
 
Reconnaissance ................................................ 92. 97-99
 
Reconstruction .................... 7f. 12. 13. 80. 91. 106. 107.
 

150. 160. 169. 174. App V
 Refugees (See Displaced Persons.)
 
AGO 6147B
Paragraph Page
Regulatory Matter :
 
Enforcement .................................................... 133
 
Gazettes ............................................................ 132
 
General ............................................................ 128
 
Orders. Instructions. and Directives ............ 131
 
Ordinances ............................ 130. App XII. XI11
 
Proclamations ................................ 129. App X. XI
 

Religious Affairs ......................................... 14d. 103d
 
Reports :
 
Final Civic Action ...................................... &id (2)
 
Intelligence ...................................................... 147
 
Interim Civic Action ................................ 84d (1)
 
Periodic .......................................... 62. App XXI
 
Submission ........................................ 121b (10)
 
Retrograde Movement .................................... 101. 103e
 

Schools ...................................................................... 11g
 
Screening ................ llc. 102f. 103d. 110. 138. 143. 144
 

Security .................... llc. 99h. 100. 102. 103. 110. 138
 

Setting Examples .............................................. 121b (4)
 
Signal Corps ....................................10. 13. 80. 100. 117
 
SOLOG .................................... 24c. 128. App ST-XIS
 
Staff Coordination .................................................. 56
 
Staff Supervision .................................................... 5.5
 
STANAG .................... 24r. 128. -11)~

STI-SI'III.
XS
 State. Department .................... 4a. 9c. 17. 83. 84e. 150
 Standing Operating Procedure (SOP) .... 60. Agp VI
 Subversion ............................................................. 85. 88
 Summary Action ............................................. 121c(6)
 Surgeon ........................................................ 64b (7). 137
 Surrey (See Intelligence and Reconnaissance.)
 
TACAC ........ 22, 28,'32. 95. 146 . 150. 151, App XXITT
 

TALOG ........................................ 22. 28. 160 . 151. 173
 Taxation ................................................. llf. 121c (5)
 Tech Service Support of C.1 ............ 56. 68. 69. 75. 80.
 111-113. 117. 118. 153. 174. 176
 
Theater Commander ............ 16. 22. 124. 128. 129. 159
 

Theater Plan ............................................................ 58
 

Training :
 
Area ............................................................ 34. 47
 
Area Damage Control .................................... 107
 
Categories ..................................................... 43
 
Center ................................................................ 34
 
Conduct of ........................................ .il.App SVII
 
Continental United States .............................. 41
 
Enlisted .......................................................... 49
 
Functional ........................................................ 46
 
General .......................................................... 40, 44
 

AGO 6147B
Paragraph
Language ................................................ 34, 48
 
Mobile Teams .......................................... 72, 83, 84
 
Objectires ........................................................ 50
 
Policies ...................................... 4.5. .I1~1)XIS,SS
 

Program ...........................................................  40  
Standards .........................................................  52  
Superrisioil .................................................  53  
Theater of Operations ....................................  42  

Transportation Carps .......................... 56, 80, 118, 177 Treaties (See Agreements.)
Gnconventional 1\23rfare .................... 83.90 . 109. 110
 
USIS .......................................-.-.-.Qb (8).83
 

Weapons .................................... llc. 98a. 110. 143. 144
 

AGO GI4TB
[AG 353 (1 Mar62)l BYORDEROF THE SECRETARYOF THE ARMY:
G. H. DECKER,
General, United States Army, Official : Chief of Staff.
J. C. LAMBERT
Major General, United States Army,
The Adjutant General.
Distribution :
Active Army:
DCSPER (10) ACSI (10) DCSOPS (10) DCSLOG (10) ACSRC (10) CRD (5) COA (2) CINFO (5) CofF (5) TIG (1) TJAG (5) TPRlG (5) CCA (5) TSG (5) CofOrd (1) CofEngrs (5) TQMG (5) CofT (5) CsigO (5) CCmlO (1) USCONARC (10) ARADCOM (10) LOGCOMD (5) USARPAC (50) USARAL (1G) USARCARIB (10) USAREUR (50) Armies (CONUS) (2.5) Seventh USA (40) EUSA (35) Corps (CONES) (3) except
XVIII Corps (15) I Corps (15) V Corps (15) VII Corps (15) IX Corps (15) Div (10)
NG: State AG (3) ; units-same copy to each unit.
Bde (5)
Regt/G~/Bg (5)
Bn/Sqds (5)
Co/Btry/Trp (1)
PMS Sr Div Units (2)
PMS Jr Div Units (1)
USASA Sch (5)
USACAS (6000)
TAGSUSA (75)
ARADSCH (5)
USAARMS (10)
USAAMS (700)
USAAVNS (2)
USACHS (200)
USACMLCSCH (25)
USACGSC (2060)
USAES (6)
FSUSA (2)
USAIS (500)
USARIS (30)
USAINTS (218)
TJAGSA (100)
MFSS (25)
USA Ord Sch (25)
PMGS (150)
USAQMS (25)
USASCS (5)
USASWS (lo)

USATSCH (10)
 
U~'AWC (16)
 
AFSC (10)
 
USA SW Cen (10)
 

MAAG (5)Mil Msn (5) Units org under fol TOE : 17-22 (5)
as Active Army except allowance is one
USAR: Same as Active Army except allowance is one copy to each unit. For explanation of abbreviations used see AR 320-50.
AGO 6147B 309
Cover page - back





THEATER ARMY
INFORMATION & GUIDANCE
~
~ EXCHANGE INFORMATION ....
SUlMITS REQUJ:REMENTS ~HQ TACAC
~DETERMINES AVAILABILITY-Y
,-­
~
~
e;
I'iI
<f.l
I ~
I'iI
I::>
00
<f.l
::>
<f.l
Eo<
0
H
~
 ~
 
f;3
'-­
~
i
0
~
'-­
I EXCHANGE INFORMATION I
JJ /REQUESTS DELIVERY CIVILIAN SUPPLY
CA UNIT HQ
.1 ARRANGES REI'URN
OFFICER
~II
 
~/
 
~
HQ TALOG
-
-
e;
.-­
i<f.l
I ~
&l
§ p:;
~
H
I'iI
~
p:;
I'iI
~
~
0
~
~
'-­
"4
TALOG CONTROL ! AGENCY OR USINGI UNIT
Figure 9
Figure 9. Support ot military effort trom local resources 1citllin aOlJIMZ.
 AGO 6147B 183
 
 

Comments

comments

Share

Related Articles


Read previous post:
Lectures on GC-1949

Close