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Military government and civil affairs

Military government and civil affairs

,’ 22 December, 1943
22 December 1943.
This manual, War Department Field Manual 27-5 and Navy Department OpNav 50E-3, supersedes War Depart­ment Field Manual 27-5, 30 July 1940. .
G.      C. MARSHALL, E. J. KING,
 Chief of Stafl, U. S. Army. Commander in Chief,
U. S. Fleet, and Chief of Naval Ofierations.
Major General, Rear Admiral,
 Th,i” ‘b*r dent Gelaeral. Sub Chief of Naval Operations.
Table of Contents
XCCiiO,~ Pa?Y7Qw$lk      PtrYc
I.      GENERAL.
1: Definitions:      Military Government, Occupied Territory, and Civil Affairs ___- -_- __-____ –_ 1
     Military Contra1 by Agreement or Convention-2

     Occasion for Military Govcrnmcnt as a Right or Obligation in Enemy, Allied, Neutral, and Domestic Territories ___-__ -_____ – _________

     Object of Control of Civilian Populations—,,

     Degree of Control—————_-_-_____

     Period of Control ____________ – _.__–_ –__-­

     Authority for Control _____________________

     Exercise of Control a Command Responsibility,

     General Principles and Policies in Conduct of Civil Affairs—_____ – _______-____________

     Military Necessity…—,——-__.—­

     Supremacy of Commanding Of&r—,*

     Civil ht%nirs Jurisdiction _____.__ –___

     Economy of Personnel _–___ -__-_____

     Plcxibility _____ –ll_-_l__._-l._—l__

     Continuity of Policy——____._. I_.-__

     Trcntrnent of Population l____l_____l

1)      Must bc just and rcasonnblc-­(2)      Will vary with conditions—, (a)
     Hostile or nonhostile populations -_ll-_l-___

     Hostngcs and reprisals to bc avoided _–_ – ___-_-_

     USC of farce against crime, violators cnti tlcd to trial ____-_I_-__._.__…_

( h.
     Retention of Bsisting Laws, Customs, and Political Subdivisions ———–­

     Retention of Local Govcrnmcnt Dcpart­mcnts and Oficials, ___.-__-_.–______

     Abolition of unnccessnry gov­crr1111cnt ofices -I-^_ –,” —_

     Suspension Of Icgislativc bodir?)l———l—–_–­


1, GENERAL-Continued. CJ, ~~~~~~~ principles and Policies hl ~OrldUct of Civil Affairs-Continued.
is Retention of Loc>ll GC~VC~~IllllC!Ilt DallZrt”
mcnts and Oificials—Continued.
     Removal of high r:~nkilW of­ficials ______ –___-_—…–­

     Retention of subordinntc! Of­ficials _______ -___-_..—-.-­

     ‘rraining of inhnbitnrlts ior loen governmclnt——.—.-.

     Control of inhnbitants throUgh their own off&& _____.—-­

     Exclusion of local oficinis and orga.nizntions from any part in policy formation ___-_–.—­

     Civil affairs oirccrs to SupC~­vise, not operate ___cl-l _-_-­

     Protection for local ofliciids-­

     Relations of civil a&&s of­ficers with officials and orgnni- zntions _____ –_______ -____

     Treatment of Political Pdsoncrs——­


     Immediate need for cquhnble distribution of dnily ncccs­sit&–____ – _____ – __-__lll

     Need for checking ccononlic pIans after occupntion—–­

     steps necessary far rapid executiofi of economic plnnal

1.      Health—-______I_ -_-_-_______–1
Respect      for Religious Customs and Organizations _____-__.______ —_-.II

     Annulment of Discriminatory LWS–.-.

     Freedom of Speech and Press __-__,_. I.__

     Preservation of Archives and Records-….

     Mail and Documents—–_-______…­

     Preservation of Shrines and Art _-__-_,,.

11. CIVIL      AFFAIRS RESPONSIBILITIES. lo. Army-Navy Division of Responsibility__–___
Conditions      Likely to be Met itI Occupied ~~rh-ics —_–. –_-_-_-____________

Functions      of Civil Affairs Oacers to ~<:~>,t These Conditions—–_________-__ L ____… ,I

a.      Political and Administrntivr –_.,, . .._-_.

9 9 9 10

15 15
II.  CIVIL AlFAIRS RESPONSIBILITIES-Con, 12. Punctions of Civil Affairs Oficers io Meet  
These Conditions-Continued,  
b. Mnintcnnnce OF Law and Order—–…  15  
C. Supervision of Military and Civil  
Courts – _____ -___-­ 16  
d. Civilian Defcnsc – ___r_l__  16  
e. Civilian Supply __-.______ -__  16  
f. Public Hcnlth and Snnitntion——­
g, C:cnsorshipl—__–___­ :;  
11. C~onrlnlnnicntions-.. _______________­ 17  
i. T~~tlSpOfti~tiO~l -_-­_____________-_  17  
j. Port Duties _-__-_ –
k. Public Utilities ________­- _____ –__  :::  
1. Money and Bnnlh~g–l _–_ – ____ –_  18  
m. Public Finnncc – _________  18  
n. Commodity Control, Prices, and  
Rationing _________-___________  18  
” 0. Agriculture _—_—–_—-_______  18  
p. Industry and Mnnufacturc—____—  18  
q, Commcrcc and Tmclc—­
1’. L&or …—-.“ll-l—____ – –_____ -_  :8”  
s. Custody and Adnhistrntion of Prop-
CITY ———-_—I__cI——–­ 19  
t. Inforn~ation __-__ -__– __-________  19  
u. Disposition, or Relocation of Displaced  
Persons and Enemy Nntiotuh—–­ 19  
v. Education –_­______-___ – _-_____-  19  
. w. Public Wclfarc.. _______I__ -_-_-__­ 20  
x. Records ____.–____I_ – _LI__________  20  
y. Misc~lhncous r ._.__ -__  20  
13. Gcncral Chntrol for the Army and for the  
Navy, Plnnning and Policic:s–­__.___I______  22  
a. Undnr Joint Chiefs of St& for Joint  
Milihry Govermnrnt _,_ll_l___l__ -__  22  
b. Under Corubiucd Chiefs of Staff for  
Conhincd Military Govr!rnnlent_—,  22  
14,. Plnnning xncl Poni~ulntion of Policy Within  
the War nnd Navy Dcl,nrt!Hcllts—~.-.–..I,,,  23  
n. J’hc! Civil hRilil*S Divisiuil in the Of-
Act of the Chief of Stnn’, War Dcpnrt­
mcnt –“_ ._..-____ _.-““l -__-_ -_-I._-I_  29  
b. The Oflicc! for Chxxpitrd Arcas, Un+r  
the Vicr Chic~f of Naval Opixxtiona,  
Navy Drpnrt~ncnt __I_ ai v.__…____..__-  23  

15.      Theater Commander’s Responsibility for Final
and Detailed Planning and Operation of
Military Government Under General Direc-
tives from Higher Authority -I_-__-_ L– ___-  23
16.      Types of Civil Affairs Organizarion—-,____  24
a.      Operational ————-_________  
b.      Territorial—-L  5:  
17.      Advantages and Disadvantages of JZach Type-  24
18.      Organization of Military Government in Com-
bat Areas—————————–_  27
19.      Organization of Military Government in Rear
Areas———————————­ 28
20.      Organization of Military Government Within
a Task Force­–_-___ -______ -__­_-___  30
21.      Theater of Operations—– __l_____l______  30
a, During the Campaign —__-_ -__-__  30
b. After Cessation of Hostilities  30
22.      Civil Affairs Staff Sections -__-__  31
a.      Civil Affairs Staff Sections Created bi
Theater Commander—–­ 31
b.      Duties of Chief of Civil Affairs Staff  
Section …c-.———–_—  
23.      Organization of Civil Affairs Section——-­ 3”;  
a.      Magnitude and Character of Duties  
_      will Vary from One Territory to
Another —–_—____—_________  32
b.      Internal Organization to Perform
Duties will Include Provision for—-­ 32
(1)      Administrative officers—-­ ‘17  
(2)      Functional officers  35  ”  
(3)      Civil affairs officers from
other services in joint mili-
tary government-­__-_____  33
(4)      Civil affairs officers from
other nations in combined
military government  34,
24.      Civil Affairs Chain of Command  ,34  
25.      Personnel of Civil Affairs Group ______-____f  34.  
a, Number,      Rank, and Specialization of
Personnel in Various Areas _________  34
b.      Categories of Personnel Required—­ 34

26.      Occupational Military Police, Marines, and Shore Patrol-___-________ -_-_____ -_-____
     Provision, Organization and Equip­ment Similar to Those of Rear Area Military Police Units—–______ –_

     Assignment and Command-.—_____

     Authority to Make Arwsts ____ -___-­

27. Planning and Procuremqnt of Personnel—-,
     Theater Commander’s Responsibility for Estimates of Requirements and Requisitions for Civil Affairs Pcrson­nel—————————-­

     Assignment of Civil Affairs OfIicers by Echelons-____-__ – ___I_L__ —-_

28.      Types and Qualifications of Civil Affairs Personncl_-_——-I_I——_-____-___­
     General Types and Qualifications—­

     Qualifications of Chief or Deputy of Large Staff Section or Field Grdup–­

     Qualifications of Chiefs of Small Sec­

tions and Field Groups, and Executive \ Oficbrs ___-______ -___—_-_-___…
     Qualifications of Staff Assistants-.—­

     Qualifications of Administrative Serv­ices Personnel—-______ – __-___ –­

     Qualifications of Functional Oficcrs-­

29.      Training l___l_______ L- _____-.______.___ -­
a.. Training      in the United Stntrs of Ad­ministrative and Specialist Pcrsomwl in Schools of Military Govcrnmcnt of the Army and Navy-Occupational Police r_lll____l_______l_l_—– –._
b.      Further Training Conducted in Theater as Function of Commnnd-…-..
     Gcncral Planning for Control of Civil Afl$irs in Occupied Areas a Responsibility of Com­mnndcrs Assigned to the Planning of Mili­tary Qpcrations–____–_–____ – _____II-_

     Sources of Information for Planning _._l.__-l-



38 38
38 39
39 39 39
3 9
4.0 40

V. PLANNING–Continued.
32, Responsibility for Plans __________ -____ -__-  – 42
a.      War and Navy Departments Respon­
sible for Integration of Plans Under  
Joint Chiefs of Staff and for Liaison  
with Federal Civilian Agencies—–­ 42  
b.      In Theater of Operations Each Officer  
Charged with Civil Affairs Control  
Responsible for Planning for his Area  
in Accordance with Directives, from  
his Commander—-­-___—__  42  
33. Form of Civil Affairs Orders————–­ 42  
a.      Of Theater and Task Force Com­
manders ———__–____-_—–­ 42  
b.      Of Military Administrative Area Com­
manders————————­ 4.3  
C. Of Operational Unit Commanders–­ 43  
d.      Of Chief Civil Affairs Officers——­ 43  
e. Distribution of Civil Affairs Orders–­ 43  
34.      Content of Civil Affairs Orders———–­ 4.3  
a.      General –_—–_–_–__——–­ 43  
b.      Detail—————­–__  43  
35.      Initial Proclamation———–~–~—–~.  45  
a.      Preparation in Advance——­ 45  
b.      Form, Character, and Language—-­ 45  
c.      Contents __- ___- ____ —___-___  46  
d. Publication -_——————__  4 7  
3G. Further Proclamations and Ordinances–…–­ 48  
a. .Issuance————————-      4,S  
b. Form, Character, and Language  48  
c. Contents ——————______  48  
d. Delegation of Authority  49  
e. Publication —–_-­____ —  49  
37. Orders and Instructions­______-___________  49  
38. Theater Commander Establishes All——-­ 50  
39, Types ———–___-­____ -_-_  50  
a, Customary-Military Commissions for  
Serious Cases and Provost Courts for  
Minor Cases——­ 50  
b. Special for Trial of Juveniles, Traflic  
Cases, and Other –_-____ – ___- —__  51  
40.      Composition of Commissions, Customary and  
Special      Courts – _______________-____  51  


tYecliotb  Pwq71'apR  
COURTS,  AND  CLAIMS-Continued.  

4.1. Appointing Alltllorities-__-_–_——L ____ 4a2.Jurisdiction of Commissions and Courts—–­
     Gencml __-__-____ –_______ –____

Over Persons ——–_—-__ —–­

     Over Offenses Directly Affecting Mili­tary Govclnment—————–­

     Over Offenses Against Local Criminal Laws ——————–1______

     Over Civil Casts __________________

43. Bail n Matter of Discretion————–­
4.4,.Procedure———_——————-­General-Uniformity, Rules of Evi­dence, Witnesses ________I -_——­Commissions–Follow General Courts Martial -__—___-___-___________ Provost Courts-Follow S u m m a r y Courts Martial _____ -____ —–____ Specinl Courts ____–_.-______ –____ Trials-Necessity for Dispntch——­Counsel-Accused Allowed to Rctnin Counsel _-____________ -__—-___­Witnesses-Attcndancc Compelled–­Interpreters and Language——–­Court Reporters _________ – ______ -_ Previous Convictions of Accused—–
45. Scntcnccs and Penalties by Commissions and
Courts ——————————–­4,6. Records, Type for Commissions nnd Courts–­
47. Review Provided to Correct‘ Injustices——,
4.8. Clnims Commissions—-____ -_–_-_——_
     General Appointed by Theater Com­mandcr _–___— _-______________

     Investigntion &tics __–_ _–__-,-__ I._

     Scttlcmcnt of Glnims-Army Pro­ccclurc _–l_——_-_–l——–­

     Scttkmcnt of Claims-Navy Pro­

cedurc _I_._,__…______._I_l_l__l -_-_ INDEX _I.__ – _I_____ –_——_–_______–_—1111–~.–­
r is

Intentionally Left Blank
This mnnual supersedes FM 27-5, 30 July 1940, including Change No. 1, 22 December 1942.
,      a. Military Government. The term “military gov­ernment” is used in this manual to describe the supreme authority exercised by an armed force over the larids, property, and the inhabitants of enemy territory, or allied or domestic territory recovered from enemy occupation, or from rebels treated as belligerents. It is exercised when an armed force has occupied such territory, whether by force or by agreement, and has substituted its authority for that of the sovereign or a previous government. Sovereignty is not transferred by reason of occupation, but the right of control passes to the occupying force, limited only by inter- national law and custom. The theater commander bears full responsibility for military government. He iy, thcre­for?, usually designated as military governor, but may delegate both his authority and title to a subordinate commander.
Occupied Territory. The term “occupied terri­tory” is used to mean any area in which military govern­ment is cxerciscd by an armed force. It does not include territory in which an armed force is located but has not assumed supreme authority.

Civil Affairs. The term “civil aflairs” is used to describe the activities of the government of the occupied area and of the inhabitants of sucl~ an arca cxccpt those of an organized military character. “Civil affairs control” describes the supervision of the activities of civilians by an armed force, by military government, or otherwise. The term “civil affairs oflkers” designates the military officers, who, under the military govcmor, are engngcd in the con­trol of civilians.

MILITARY CONTROL BY AGREEM.ENT OR CON. VENTION. An armed fo?ce may exercik control over civilians to a lesser degree than under military government through grant of, or agreement with, the recognized gov­crnment of the territory in which the force is located, usually made prior to entering the territory, but subject to modification by the government and the military com­mander as circumstances require. In such casts military necessity has not required the assumption of supreme authority by the armed forces, but limited control over civilians is exercised in accord with these grants, or agree­mcnts and the territory is not considered reoccupied.” While this manual is primarily intended as a guide to military government, some of the principles set forth may be applied in these other situations as circumstances indicate.

OCCASION FOR MILITARY GOVERNMENT. Mili­tary government must be established either by reason of military ‘necessity as a right under international law, or as an obligation under international law. In this connection, attention should be given to the following considerations:

Military necessity may require an armed force to establish military govcrnmcnt to assist in the accomplish­ment’ of its military objective. The right in such cases is rccognizcd by international law.

As the military occupatibn of enemy territory suspends the operation 01 the enemy’s civil government, it is an obligation under international law for the occupying force to exorcise the functions of civil government in the restora­tion and maintcnancc of public order. Military govcm­ment is the organization which eserciscs these functions. An armed force in territory other than that of an enemy likewise has the duty of establishing military government when the government thereof is absent or unable to maintain order,

These reasons, concurrently as well as singly, may dictate the establishment of military govcrnmcnt.

Military govcrnmcnt is not confined to belligerent occupation. Military necessity may require its establish­

ment in such4 areas as the following, with or without the
 consent of the existing or a prior government:
Allied or neutral territory which has been dominntcd or occupied by the enemy.

Technically neutral or allied territory actually un­,friendly or hostile.

(3 ) Genuinely allied or neutral territory, the occupation of which is essential to a military operation.
(4) Domestic territory recovered from enemy OCCUR­tion or from rebels treated as belligcrcnts.
OBJECT OF CONTROL. The object of civil nfI’airs control through military government is to assist military operations, to further national politics, and to fulfill the obligation of the occupying forces under intcrnntional law. This assistance is rendered by maintaining order, promoting security of ‘the occupying forces, prcvcnting intcrfcrcnce with military operations, reducing active or passive snbo­tage, relieving combat troops of civil administration, and mobilizing local resources in aid of military objectives and carrying out governmental policies of the ZJnitccl States which usually arc predetermined. Furlhcr, the cficicnt conduct of a military govcrnmcnt as a part of one militxry operation will promote -military and political objcctivos in connection with future operations.

DEGREE OF CONTROL, The occupz~~~t may clclrwcl and enforce from the inhabitants of the occupied arca such obedience as may be necessary for the p~~rpos~~s of wr, the maintenance of law and order, and the prolxr :Iclnrin­istration of the area under the unusual circurnstnnccs of hostile occupation. In return for such obc~dkntx~, the *’ inhabitants should be granted freedom from all ~~tmo~w sary or unwarranted intcrfcxcncc with their individlr:\l liberty and property rights. Under military govrrn~lrt:nt the degree of control maintained by thr: occul)yin~ BREWS varies grcakly according to the rclatinns which l\;tv(! l>r(q*i­ously existed between the govermncnt of eho o(:(:ul)yillg forces and the government of the territory occul)ic:d, rhea

existing attitude of oflicials and inhabitants, the project&d military operations, and k~ent military, political, eco. nomic and other pertinent circumstances. In the territory of an enemy, rigid control of civil affairs is necessary if the bbjectives of military government are to be achieved. In neutral, allied, or domestic territory, sufficient cooperation from the officials and inhabitants may be obtained to permit greater latitude for action by local officials under broad policies and general supervision of the occupying forces, particularly in those governmental fields lcast im­
’      portant to the military forces in current or pending opera­tions! In any territory, as conditions approach normal, the control exercised by a military government will be relaxed, the supervision of the occupying force will become less direct, and supreme authority will finally be released to a recognized sovereign power.
I I 6. PERIOD OF CONTROL. The period of time during / which military government or civil affairs control is main- tained will vary, depending on whether military operations arc continuing, the USC or nonuse of the area as a base for future operations, whether the territory is bclligercnt or otherwise, the degree of cooperation of the inhabitants, the national policy regarding the futilre position of the terri­tory, and other military and political considerations. As long as military opcrntions continue, some degree of control will be ncccssary. Military govcrnmknt may etiend beyond such operations until it nchicves the ends of national policy toward which the operations arc directed.
7, AUTHORITY FOR CONTROL. Military government is exercised by virtue of and in accordance with rules of international, law. Authority for the exercise of such con­trol is derived from the mere fact of occupation or from some form of agreement such as an armistice, a convention,
, or a treaty. The more important of these rules are set 1 forth in the military’ manuals of the leading civilized 1 countries and ,in international treaties, such as the Hague i Convention No. IV, i907 (Annex Sec. III). The rules
/      4 Which govern the armed forces of the United States arc set forth in the War Department manual FM 27-10. While the Hcgue rules apply legally only to enemy tcrd­tory, as a matter of policy they arc gcncrally applied to other territories occupied by United States ~OIYXS.
EXERCISE OF CONTROL A COMMAND RESPONSI­BILITY. The exercise of civil affairs control is a c~nmmnd responsibility. In occupied territory the commander, by virtue of his position, has supreme legislative, osccutivc, and judicial authoritjr, limited only by the laws and cus­toms of war and by directives from higher authority.


Military Necessity. The first consideration at all times is the prosecution of the military operation to a suc- cessful conclusion. Military necessity is the primary undcr­lying principle for the conduct of militq governmcnt. So long as the operation continues, it is the duty of thr commanding officer to exercise such control and to t&c. such steps in relation to the civil population as will attaiu the paramount objective.

Supremacy of Commanding Officer. It follows from the basic principle of military necessity that tllc theater commander must always have full rcsponsibilit) for military government,

Civil Affairs Jurisdiction. The paramount illtt:rrst of the combat ofker is in military operations. Thc: para­mount interest of the civil affairs of?iccr is in dealing \yitl] civilian relationships of concern to the co~nmancl~~~. sut+ interest will be expressed in restoring law and o&r :mcl in returning to the civilian population certain’ facilities ~)1: services and restoring living conditions to norm:ll, ins;crf:lr as SUCK activities will not tend to intcrfcrc with military operations. Whether intcrfcrcncc with military oprr:~.ti(>lls

will  result shall  bc dctcrmincd  by  the  couunanding  of&:(ar  
after  giving  consideration  to  the  rclcornnlcnd3tiolls  of  lljs  
combat  and  civil  affairs  oficcrs.  

d. Economy of Personnel. Since cficicnt control of the civilian population ancl mobilizntion Of local civiliall manp~wcr will lessen the need for garrison ~OPXS,adequate civil affairs personnel will in the hlg lWl prom an Won. omy. The stimulation and sUpCrViSi011 Of production and use of local resources will lilccwise make savings in Shippi~~g and q~ply. All plans and practices Of military govern. ment should be adopted with this in view 2nd at lcast the minimum necessary number of Amy and Navy personnel trained in civil affairs bc providccl., The duties of civil
e      affairs officers should bc conlincd whcrcvcr possible to supervision.
Flexibility. The administration of civil aPTairs bvill vary widely in different arcas dcpcncling Up011 III:UIY hctoq including the nlilitary forces present and their disl>osition, the ‘structure of the native governmnt, the geography of the arca, ‘the economic instructions, tl~ chnractcristics of the pcoplc and their officials, the dcgrcc of control which may be necessary, the prcscncc or nbs~r~c of civilian of& cials, the dcgrce of destruction of 10~~1 resources, the pcrson- nel available, and the basic policies to be fdlow~d, includ­ing the contcmplatcd post-war position of the territory. It will probably vary widely everl in the ~nme territory from one’ tirnc to another as when the thrcnt of combat deklines or ceases. It follo\vs that the utmost flexibility must be provided in tlw l&ul~ and in the ccmduct of civil affairs.

Continuity of Policy, Tllc ndministtxtion of civil affairs in occupied territory should bc so l~lnnncd and conducted that a rcasonnblc dcgrcc of continuity of policy and pcrsonncl will result. PrCqucllt clmngcs of policies and orders will injure the cflectivcncss and prcstigc of the administration, while frcqu&t chan~cs of pcrsonncl Will. dcprivc the occupying forces of the services of ofikcrs when they hnvc bccornc of grcatcst v&c.

Treatment of Population. (11 Intrrnntinnnl law rcquircs and military ncccssity cliclntcs just and rcasonablc trcstnmt of the inhabitants of occupied territory to mini­mize their bclligcrcncy and obtain their coolxmtion. The

Cooperation of the inhabitants, where it can be sccurcd, is of direct advantage to the occupying forces in maintaining public order and accomplishing the objective of military government. While the welfare of the inhabitants ~110dd be considered also for humane reasons and should bc safc- guarded as far as military requirements permit, the primary purposes of just trentincnt are to fncilitatc the military operations and to meet obligations imposed by law, Proper treatment will be of direct benefit to the occupying forces in preventing chaos, promoting order, and in the procurc­ment of labor, services, and supplies. It will have 3 favorable influence upon the present and future attitude of the population toward the United States and its allies. It will provide incentive to populations of other tcrritorics to accept, our future occupation. Such a policy, liowcvcr, should not affect the imposition of such restrictive or punitive measures as may be necessary to accomplish the objectives of military government in any arca, but cspccially in one in which the population is aggrcsxivcly hostile and engages in active and passive sabotage.
(21 The treatment of the population of any occupied territory will vary, depending upon the nttitudcs of the people toward the occupying forces; their dcgrcc of coopcr- ation with these forces; the dcgrcc of their industrial, ec,onomic, political and moral deveIopment; and the political, diplomatic, and military policy of our govcrmncnt toward the government of the territory occupiccl. T’hc civil affairs officers should bccomc fully informed conccrl1­ing the local population and their customs, institutions and attitudes, and should direct military control in the light of the local situation and requircrncnts. Xn consid(*ring tll(: treatment of populations in occupied areas> tllc f&~ing factors should be taken into account:
Ia 1 Generally, Icss restrictive mcnsurcs wiII hc nrc(~ss:lq in dealing with nationals of friendly or nonllostilc countricbs than with nationals of enemy countries.
(b) The taking of hostages, the imposition of coIlectiv(: fines, or the carrying out of reprisals become military n~ccs­sities in some situatjons though such mcn~~res sh~~~~ld on13
5gll OF?“.- 48 .-^…… :< 7 be taken as an unavoidable last resort t0 illduCC a hostile population to desist from unlawful practices. Such actions are usually an indication of weakness of the occupying forces and of ineffective control of the inhabitants. Care­ful consideration should be given to the question of de­termining whether such devices will serve as a deterrent or aggravate an already difficult situation. (See FM 27-10.)
Force may be used to the extent ncccssary to subdue those who resist the authority of military government or to prevent the escape of prisoners OS ~WSO~XT suspected of crime. Persons accused are entitled to a fair trial before the imposition of punishment. The theater commander has the power to provide immediate trial, when an example is necessary. Sentences of military courts should be pro­portionate to the oflense and the need for a deterrent effect. The maximum punishment s110ul~l not be awarded automatically. The nature of sentences to be imposed and whether they should be carried out in public, depends in

Retention of Existing LaHis, Cwstoms, and Politi. Cal Subdivisions. Local officials and inhabitants of an occupied territory are familiar with its laws, customs,’ and institutions. To avoid confusion and tb promote simplicity of administration, it is advisable that local laws, customs, and institutions of government be rctaincd, except where they conFlict with the aims of military govcmmcnt or are inimical to its best intcrcsts. In gcncral, it is unwise to impose upon occupied territory tha laws and customs of another people. Any ntecmptcd changes or rclorms con­trary to local custom may result in devclopmcnt of active or passive resistance ancl thckby handicq the operation of military government. For similar reasons it is advisable, if possible, to retain existing territorial divisions and sub­divisions. Laws and customs in one political division of a country may differ widely froln those in another and the inhabitants therefore may be accustomed to the dccentrali­

part  upon  the  customs  and  habits  of  the  population  and  
the  types  of  punishment  which  have  been  found  most  
effective  in  the  particular  locality.  

zation of governmental authority which UN~Y l~arallels
such divisions.
i. Retention of local Government Departments and
Officials. (1) Of3[ices which arc unnecessary or detri­
mental to military government will be temporarily discon­
tinued or suspended by the military commander as military
governor. 111 some areas this fixay bc the cast with entire
departments or bureaus of the government.

Such legislative bodies as are still in csistcncc will
usually be suspended. Supreme legislative power is vcstcd
in the commanding officer in the theater of opcratioqs.

Usually it will be necessary to remove high ranking political officials from office. This action will include the removal of the nominal and actual heads of the national government, cabinet ministers, and the heads of principal political divisions. No permanent appointments to SUCK positions should be made by the military governor without approval of higher authority ,becnuse of the political impli­cations of such appointments. Wliilc mcmbcrship in un­friendly partisan organizations or political parties may not by itself be cause for removal, such o&Gals as have b~cn active Ieadcrs of such organizations will ordinarily not lx retained in oflicc, nor will other officials who prove to bc unreliable or untrustworthy. Willful failure of retained local’ oficials to perform their duties satisfnctc~rily should be regarded as a. serious offcnsc against the nlilit:\rY

’ (4) So far as practicable, subordinntc nflicials and (qn­
'      1doyCeS Of the lOCd govcrnmcnt should lx: rctainccl in tllcil offices and made responsible for the prqxr disc*llnrK(> trl their duties, subject to the direction and sl~l)(~rvisitru of civil affairs personnel.
(5) In some areas the native popu1~~tio1~ nl;t)+ have h:ul very limited participation in govcrnntcnl: ~x:~:;~~IsI: of 1~1~ domination of a foreign power. In such arcas civil &i&Is may have fled when invasion takes p~nct:, or it n,;ty I)(> inexpedient or unsafe for them to continua in oflice, (:voI, if they rem&n. In territories of this sort it nl;iy 1)(~(~01111~ necessary for military government t0 train nntivc personnel to -tal<e over certain positions.
Civil affairs pcrsonncl ~h0~1d CLS far L~S prnctical& deal with the inhabitants of occupied territory through such o~~ccrs aIld employc~ of the local ~o~rnrr~nt ‘~1s arc retained or appointed. FVhcn an of&in1 is rcmovcd, a replacement should be sought from among the inhabitants who by training and experience is qualified to take over the duties of the office. In the solcction of ofkinls, careful consideration should be given to their reliability, their willingness to cooperate with the military govcrnnrent, their positions in the community, as well as their other qunlifica­tions for the particular position. Appointments from a polkical faction or clique, regardless of their friendly sentiment, should be avoided, e?;ccpt in unusunl circum­stances. In some circumstances it may bc detcrmincd that the duties of the position cw bcttcr be pcrforrncd by a representative of the military ~ovcrmncnt.

Neither local political personalities nor organized political groups, howcvcr sound in scntimcnt, should have any part in determining the politics of the military ,govcrn­ment. Civil affairs ofhccrs should avoicl any cOuniiitmcnts to, or negotiations with, any local l~olitical clcmcnts cxccpt by directions from higher authority.

So far as possible, civil affairs oflicers should confine themsclvcs to supervision and avoid assumption of the duties of the operating head of a political subdivision or of a department of govcrnmcnt.

It may be advisable to provide protection for per­sons who continue in, or arc assigned to, local public ofice. They may bc accused of disloyalty by some inhnbitants of the area. Their persons and property may be thrcntcncd or endangcrecl.

( 10 1 Civil affairs ofllccrs and pcrsnnncl, as rcprcscnta- tives of the Unitccl States govcrnmcnt, sl~o~~lcl keep their relations with local oficinls and inhabitants ori a strictly official basis, avoiding unofficial social rclntionships. All personal favors or gifts which may bc on’cred .by civilians arc to be rcfuscd unless authorized by hi&r authority,
]. PeliQ;ical Prisoners. Persons imprisoned by tllc p”C­v&s government, for political or racial rcaSotXi only, should be released after investigation, unless directed othcrwisc by
higher  authority,  with  warning  that  political  activity  on  
their  part,  during  the  period  of  military  government,  will  
not  be tolerated.  
k.  Economics.  The  basic  economic  policy  of  Unitcrcl  

States military government is twofold: first, to revive cco­nomic life and stimulate production in order to reduce to a minimum the needs of the arca for United States and ‘allied assistance and to dcvclop the arcn as a source of supply for further operations, and second, to USC avnilnble goods and services as efficiently as possible for the satis­faction of military and civilian needs. Corollaries of this
basic policy include the following:
( 1 1 An equitable distribution of ncccssities, such as food, fuel, medicine, and clothing, should be instituted as quickly as possible. To this end it will be necessary to reestablish, to some degree at least, public utilities, transportation, communications, and trade. It will often bc ncccssnry to enforce controls, which may or may not be the same as those in effect belorc occupation, over various aslxcts of economic life, including prices; over marketing by ration­ing, by measures to bring hoarded goods out of hiding, and by suppression of black markets; over imports and czports; over money and banking. The reestablishment of corn-­munications $411 normally require the instituting of cxnsor­ship. At times military govermncnts will l;xvc to engage actively in some types of economic activitv in ot&r to assure that the armed forces and the populn~ion rcrcive at least a minimum of ndcessnry goods and scrviccxs.
(2) Such plans as may bc practicable should I~(> Inid in advance for the resumption of production, csl3rci:rlly in agriculture, fishing, and manufncturc, but also in mini~l~, forestry and the service traclcs. Prclilllirlilry decisions: niust: be reached as to which types of economic activity :\rc nlnsl important. Where military occulxl.tion is rf~~~:t.(~~l tll~~s~~ plans must bc carefully chcclcccl to dctcrmin(: wll:ll Il\()di{j­cations are necessary cspccinlly in view of d;un;~g(: dent: to
facilities. In most cases1 it will be IFX~SS~~~ to make rapid surveys of usable facilities and of undcvcloped resources &fore rehabilitation plans can be completed.
(3) Steps must be taken to put into immediate effect plans for the tehabilitation of production. In order to provide minimum military and civilian supplies it may be necessary to provide farmers and manufacturers with essen­tial equipment and materials. Labor SUPPLY rlmst bc pro- vided for necessary activities. It will be necessary to prevent abnormal wage increases, insure regular and adequate hours of work and control labor organizations. Steps should be taken to meet the most pressing needs, in some cases by making available United States or allied ma.terial immediately upon occupation. Priorities should be established for the use of scarce items, and in some cases to allocate particular material to specific uses. Most in­dustries will need supervision, and some may need assist­ance in management, especially in the early days. In enemy territory it may be advisable to provide skilled man­agers to replace those who may have fled or who do not cooperate sufficiently with the occupying forces.
1. Health. Protection of the health of the occupying foyces as well as humanitarian reasons determine the policy of safeguarding and improving the health of the population in occupied territory. Dead must be buried; sanitary dis­posal of sewage, garbage and rcfusc organized; water supply kept from pollution; food inspection established; necessary insect control “instituted and other steps tnkcn to provide precautions against the spread of disease. Such medical care for civilians as may be practicable should be provided.
Respect for Religious Customs and Organiza­tions. International law requires that religious convictions and practices bc respected, Therefore, places of religious worship should not be closed unless necessary as a security or sanitary measure.

‘biscriminatory Laws. Laws which cliscriminate on the basis of race, color, creed, or political opinions should be annulled as ihe situation permits. However, the prac­

tic& of such customs or the observance of such traditions as do not outrage civilized concepts may be permitted.
Speech and Press. To the extent that military in­terests are not prejudiced, freedom of speech and press should be maintained or instituted.

Archives and Records. Archives and records, both current and historical, of all branches of the government of the occupied territory are of immediate and continuing use to military government. It is therefore esscntinl to seize and protect such archives and records.

Mail and Documents. Mail and documents in large quantities will often be found in post offices or other central communications points. As this represents a SOU~CC’ of valuable intelligence information it should be the policy to seize and protect such material as well as to expcditc its delivery to proper censorship examination stations.

rr Shrines and Art. It is the policy of the United States, except where military necessity makes it impossible, to preserve all historical and cultural monuments and works, religious shrines and objects of art.

10. DIVISION Oi RESPONSIBILITY BETWEEN ARMY AND NAVY. Responsibility of the Army and Navy for the control of civil &airs in occupied arcas will bc dc­termined by, the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United St&s Army and Navy or by the Combined Chiefs of Stnfl of thr United States and one or more of its allies, depending upon the nature of the operation. In general, it is expected that the responsibility in continental areas will bc with tlrc Army, while the control, of civil affairs in island areas and in some ports and other areas contiguous to the sea will be delegated to the Navy. This is not a fixed rule OI principle as it may be advisable to assign to the Army the control of certain island arcas and ports. In such areas naval civil affairs officers may be assigned to the stafls of army commanders, either to assist in civil affairs control or to act as liaison between the two branches of the service. The Navy may control, temporarily at least, iskind areas which present many of the complexities of the larger land areas, or it may participate in land occupations through its operations in ports or on inland waterways. Where there is naval control of civil aff;tirS, ZlrXll)' Officers may serve with naval commanders in order to facilitate an ultimate transfer of the area from the Navy to the Army. When available, rqualified naval civil affairs officers should be assigned to regular civil affairs duties with army civil affairs organizations.
11. CONDITIONS LIKELY TO BE MET IN OCCUPIED TERRITORIES. The many and varied tasks involved in civil affairs control may have to be performed under the most diflicult circumstances. In most occupied territories one or more of the following conditions may exist in varying degrees. Civil administration may have broken down wholly or in part, Oficinls may have fled or have been deposed or be unreliable. There may be rioting, looting, or other forms of disorder, particularly if the local police force , has disintegrated. Agriculture and industry may have been prostrated or wrcckcd. Economic life may have been reshaped to serve a “new order” or disrupted by the “scorched earth” policy of a retreating enemy. There may be serious shortages of foodstuG and other csscntial materials. ’ If the area has been fought over or bombed, widespread destruction of buildings and other installations, public utilities, transportation and comnnmicntion facilities, and harbors may bc nnticjpntcd. Lnrgc numbers of lxoplc may be homeless. Many will be unemployed and without means of support until orderly proccsscs are rcstorcd. The enemy may have brought in large numbers of forced labor­ers fram distant areas, who will clcspcratcly scclc rcpatria- &on. There may be acute shortngcs of professional pcr­sonnel, such as doctors, lawyers, engineers, and other Plies may have been polluted. Medical supplies may have
specialists.  Hospitals  and  other  institutions  may  have  been  
destroyed.  The  wounded  may  have  rcccivecl  little  or  no  
attention.  The  dead  may  remain  unburied.  Water  sup  

been reduced to the vanishing point. The health and
morale of the population may have been undermined.
There may be few facilities to prevent the spread of pesti­
lence from cities and concentration camps.
12. FUNCTIONS OF CiVlL AFFAIRS OFFICERS. The chief function of the civil affairs officers during hostilities is to further the mission of the combat forces in every way possible. As areas are successively occupiFd he will assist by controlling the civil population so that it will not inter­fere with military operations. I-Ie will help reconstitute civil administration SO that local rcsourccs in manpower and in strategic material may be utilized to further military operations as authorized by the laws of war. His task may embrace a wide variety of activities, since the responsi­bilities of his commanding oficcr may range all the way from controlling a few simple functions of government in a small isolated rural region or a primitive island or group of islands, to controlling the many and complex functions of government in a large, densely populated, industrialized, continental area. In the occupation of sucli territories for a considerable period of time, the civil aflairs oficcr will in most cases be concerned with the following and other activities :
a. Political Government and Administration. TllC supervision, or even, in rare instances, the actual adminis­tration of the chief political of&s of the govcrnmcnt, such as, for example, the offices of the chief exccutivc, ministers, cabinet oflicers, secretariats, and other high ranking cxccu­
j     tive or administrative oficials on the national, provincial, or municipal levels.
b. Maintenance of Law and Order. The prcpara­tion, issuance, and enforcement of proclamations and ordinances regulating the conduct of the inhabitants; rc­establishment of the old police force or the creation of a new one, sul~l~lcmcntccl by military police, marines or shorq patrol; prevention, detection and prosecution of crime; maintcnancc OS public order and security of persons and property; regulation of relations between our forces
im10&3”–48—–4 15
and the inhabitants; administratiOn Of prisons; control of liquor and narcotics,* control of traffic; and prevention and control of fire.
c, Courts and Law. The establishment and adminis. tration of military commissions and provost courts and the determination of their jurisdiction and procedure; SU. pervision and control, or closing, of lOCal Criminal and civil ,courts; supervision of the local bar; decisions as to mod& ,cation or suspension of local criminal and civil laws; acceptance, investigation, and reports of claims, and, in some cases, the operation of claims commissions; general legal a&ice on all aspects of civil aflkirs. Locql courts ,concerned with litigation and other lc@ matters among Civilians are under the supervision of civil nll’airs officers, Such matters involving civilians and mcmbcrs of the armed forces arc also of primary concern to the civil affairs ofi. cers. Matters within the jurisdiction of courts martial are of no concern to civil aflairs oflkers.
Civilian Defense. The supervision and strengthen. ing of existing local organizations, or the creation of new ones, for civilian dcfcnse SO as to provide for air-raid warnings, blackouts, shelters, fire fighting, Casualty services, emergency medical cart for civilians, evacuation, dcmoli­tion, rehabilitation, and other nctivitics to rclicve the occu­pying forces of as much responsibility for Civilians as possible in thi: cvcnt of boinbing, shell fire, 01’ other military operations.

Civilian Supply. Rrrangcmcnts for cmcrgcncy re­liCf, dircctcd through accepted channels, such as food, clothing, shelter, and medical aid, to moct mi~irnum sub­sistence standards, preserve order among the inhabitants, and enable them to carry on with their agricultural, indus­trial, commercial, and other activities whicly may be of direct benefit to the pccupying forces; establish local organi­zation to administer any Cniergency relief programs; provide for other esscntinl civililm goods which may bc necessary to the rccstablishmcnt of law and nrdrr.

Public Health and Sanitation. Such activities concerning the control, prcvcntion, and trcntmcnt of dis­

ease; the supervision and rehabilitation of hospitals; the
rurnishing y 0;’ medical and sanitation supplies; the protcc­
tion of food and water supplies ; the disposal of SCW:I~(~
and waste; and the promulgation of such ‘other medical
an d sanitation mcasurcs, as will improve or ~JrC?x!rvC h!
statc of public health and protect the occupying fortrc~.
Censorrhip. Censorship of Civilian co~mtiunicntiolls is cffcctcd in order to nccon~plisl~ two objcctks; the pro­tection of security, both military and civilian; :md the obtaining of intelligence information. It will norru:~lly bc established in the very earliest phnscs d c.ontinuc throughout the period of occupation. Thus, its operation by civil affairs will require close liaisoii with the milit:2ry intelligence staff for the area from whom ccnsorshil~ policic>s and directives emanate.

Communications. Cooperation with sign:kl or corn-­rnunicntion officers in the use of civilian comnlunic:Ltiol1 systems by the occupying forces; rccst:lblislinlcnt, at tllc proper time, of civilian communication Ixiliticxs ; contrt)l, supervision of, all civilian radio, tclcpho~x, tclcgrq)h, cablo, and postal communication and activity. Although civil affairs agencies responsible for supervising coltlnlunic;ltitrlls will not operate censorship they will bc rcquirc~cl to co­operate with its cnforccnient.

Transportation. C0opcmtion with alqxol~ri:~t(~ :uxns and services in connection with military USC of Iwiv;~cc! 01 state-owned railroads, trucks, busses, vchiclcs, roads, lv;itcr-

’     ways, and airfields; recutablisllllu~~~lt at tlx prq~~r tilltc: of all essential civilian transport facilities; control c)r sul”‘r- vision of all such facilities.
Port Duties. Assistance to port dirctotors; ~ontroi OF civilian movcmcnts ih port arcas, inc:ludin.g civili:uls rvll~ Iivc in houseboats and smnll harbor cra[t; l)ro~ur(~111(~1lt and control of ncccssary lnl~or; h3ncllii~g antI ista&ng of supplies ashore and inland; liaison bctr\~(ql n;~v;ll ;lul]l(,)ri- tits afloat and ashore and civil allairs org:lllix:Ltic>lls ~lsl~~)rc~.

Pubflic Utilities. ChpW:LCiO~l Ivitll :t~~~~ro~~ri;~l~~
 arms and services in procuring, rcstoritlg, rulrl colltr~~llillg
 public utilities for military and civilinn use.

1. Money and Banking. Closing, if lN!CCSSLLl‘y, and guarding of banks, baulc fulldS, Safe deposit bOsEi, SCcuri­ties and records; providing interim b:tnking and credit needs; liquidation, rcorganixntion, alld rcopcning of banks at appropriate tinlcs; regulation and supervision of credit cooperatives and other financial agencies lxld organjza. tions; esccution of politics on currency fiXC1 by higher authority, such as the designation of typc~ of currency to be used and rates of exCh.al?ge ; supervision of the issue and use of all types of lnoncy and credit; dcckuxtion of debt moratoria; prevention of financial transactions with enemy occupied or cncmy territory.
Public Finance. Supervision and audit of the budget, revenues, and expenditures; supervision of tax collection, fines, asscssrnCrlts, alld the handling of public fu&, including rcvcnucs from govWnlTXXt monopolies alid investments; provision for neccssnry financial lacilitics for civil administration; levying of contributions.

Commodity Control, Prices, and, Rationing. SU. pervision of the distribution of food and other supplies; control of prices; rationing; prevention of, hoarding and black markets ; regulation of esports and inllsorts; allocation of iniports for local distribution; regulation of military requisitions and purchase; cstnblishmcnt of politics to be followed in stimulating local production.

Agriculture. Encourage agricultural production and the establishment and administration of programs for developing self-s&kicncy.

p, Industry and Manufacture. .Ikvcloprncnt and supervision of such industrial and Irl:unufncturinhr fncilitics, including lumbering, mining, pctrohu production, and fish&g as may bc inclicatcd to furth~ nllicd intcrcsts and satisfy the immediate needs of the civilian population.
Commerce and Trade, Stimulation of wliolcsale and retail trade in order to rcstorc normal movcmcnt of csscntial civilian goods horn prod~ccr to cons~~~~r and thus further economic stabilizntion.

labor. Procurcmcnt of labor to assist any scrvicc in the occupying forces, procurcmcnt of labor for rchabilita­

tion and reconstruction in the occupied territory, tllC pre­vention of abnormaI wage increases, insurance of regular and adquate hours of work, and other conditions of ml-, ployment; controI of Iabor organizations and the handling of other labor relations problems.
Cusfody and Administra#ion of Property. Cus­tody and administration of all property and entcrpriscs owned wholIy or in part by an cncmy govcrmnc~nt, or enemy nationals of countries other than that occupied ; custody and administration of a11 property and cntcrpriscs owned wholly or in part by other govcrnmcnts, if taken over by the occupying forces; custody and administration of private property susceptible of direct military use and not in the custody of another branch of the nrmccl services such as transportation and c.ommunication facilities, arms, ammunition and .other implements of war; custody and administration of privately owned, abandoned or other property, if taken over by the military government.

Information. Subject to the dircctivcs of the thcntcr commander, interpretation to inhabitants of occupied tttrr’i­tory of the purposes of the occupation, counter propaganda, preparation of press, radio, motion picture and other releases, both for intcrnnl and external consumption; ~CW­era1 advice and assistance in various matters involving the inhabitants in which carefully l~Iannccl action will either avoid offense or improve relations betwc~~n the ocqq’ing forces and the inhabitants and their nttiturlc tl>\\vi\rtl tllc-United States and its allies.

Disposition, Repbtriation, or Relocation of Di$­

placed Persons and Enemy Nationals. Chad WI disposition of allied prisoners of war, civilian intcrrl(xrs ;uld forced laborers; political prisoners ; clisl)laccd rl:l.tiou:\ls of the occupied area including dmuobilizc~cl mc:rul~s of tIlc\ enemy armed forces; and civilian natiolrals of o&r errem! countries.
Education. Supervising cxlucntirmn1 syslw~~ ; ol)p~l- ing of schools and prevention of subvcrsi~~~ or 1~11ll‘~l instruction.

Public Welfare. Supervising public nnd private institutions for the care of children, the poor, the handi. capped and the aged, and the cncCWra~em2nt of ncccs~~~~ local orga&ations to operate such institutions.

&z.cords. Keeping full and complctc records for the military commnndcr of everything that is C~CUIC

by hiln or under his authority in any Of the i%bOVc Ol” other fields of military government so that 11~ m:ty rcndcr nn accurate accounting. Such records will !X csscntinl :\t lxacc con­ferences, before claims commissions, for investigatory bodies and for historical purposes.
y. Miscellaneous. (1 1 In addition, the civil nFfairs officer will be concerned with SLC~other civilian activities as may in any way affect the occupying forces 01‘the war effort of the TJnitcd Stntcs and its allies. Cutting across all of the foregoing activities will be lxqblcms ccxnmon to most or all of them, such as the sclcction and USC of local oflicials and pcrsonncl, mnttcrs of coordination and priority and the obtaining of information and intclligcncc.
(2) Theafer of Operafions. Within each stafl, many problems will arise which will rquire coordination between civil affairs ofl?ccrs and other sections whcthcr the operations be single, joint or combined. Members of the civil affairs section of a staff will hnvc rclntions wit]1 other stal! sections, in connection with mutual problems, such as the follo$ng, illustrated from Army orgnniz:ltion;
Ia 1 For coordination and supcrvision—
1.      G-I, Procurcmcnt, classification, rcclnssi~cation, assignment, pay, pronlotion, trxisfcr, retire­ment, disch:lrgc, decorations, citatians, honor+
awards, IC~VCS OS i~l>scIIC(Ij furlough, rcw&s,
and punishment of civil aQl’uirs pcrsonncl; in­tcrnal xrrnngcments of hc!nclcluaiWrs, personnel statistics; so.nitnI.ion, buri:lls.
2.      G-2, Collcctinn and trkurnittal of iuforlnation rclnting to tlic enemy population by, and trans­niittnl of intclligcncc~ to, .thc civil aflairs section; requisitions for mnps; regulation of censorship and other mcnsLUYXi t0 plCiWW sccrccy; countersubvcrsivc activities.
     G-3. Organization, equipment, and employ ment of military police units; training of civil affairs personnel, use of signal communicntions.

     G-P. Prac~rc~nent of supplks in enemy tcrri­tory; distribution of supplies to civil nllnirs groups; control of tmnspqrtntion; construction and maintcnnnce of rotIds, clocl~s, nnd utilities: traflic control; evacuation and hospitnlizntion; salvage; property and funds; procurcnent of shelter and facilities; employment of nntiw labor; preparation of civil affairs annex: to 111~: administrative order.

r[ bl      For special staff functions-
I. Antiaircraft o@x~. Passive dcfcnse mCasWCS.
Clasmicnl CJ~~CCT. Collective protcctivc xncasurcs.

     E’ngimxr. Coqstruction and maintcnnncc of roads, docks, and utilities; distribution of mnl~s~

     Hetzdqumtow conznznnrlant. Dctnil of ordcrlics an d mcssengcrs; messing and qwrtcring of civil affairs pcrsonncl; ofict: space.

     Provost Mawhal. Enq~loyn~nt of military po­lice on civil affairs duty; control of conduct of troops in relntion to tlic: civil polxil:ztion.

     Signal o@ccr. Use of military and coxiinirrcial signal communicntions lor civil nfl‘:lirs 19url9mw

     SZW~COYZ. I-Ienlth and snnitntion; USC oE civiliw hospitals for military p~iqmscs; nllw;&n nl medical supplies to the civil popul:ttion.

     Adjutant Gc~~.crnl. Distribution of routine orclers; classification, I.ccl:lssific.ntion~ nssign­mcnt, promotion, traxifcr, rq~lacc3n~trnt, clis­charge, decorations, citations, honkers, XWW~S, lGWEi Of RIXCIICC, nlld furlouglki; stipljly 0s publications; olwmtion of oflict! lwc~~~&~re,

     JTidgc aduocntc!. Rwicws of tllc rccorcls of ini]i” t:Wy commissions.

10, Qu~rt~~77mstcr. Distribution of clL~a~tt:rrnaster eq+~~cnt and supplies; allocation of food and ~uartcrnmstcr supl)lics to the civil population.
Il. Tram~~orE @CL”).. USC of transportatiol~ by civil affairs pCiYK~I1l~Cl; USC Of railroads for civil aflairs purposes.
12, p&& ~clnlions 0fim1’. l’rcss, radio, 1Hotion picture, and similar rclcns~s.
(3) personal Rella9ion~. Not only is it nc!ccssary for mCI&Crs of Civil affairs sections to hlO\V the! functions of 1 the various sections of the gcncrnl and spccinl staff, but it is desirable that they cultivntc cordkll personal relations wit11 the ofEccrs thereof. Teamwork bctwccn staff sections is essential. It is assured not 011ly by staff confcrcnccs but by i&ividunl personal Contact.

13. GEldEWAL, In military occupations carried on by the Arnly, general control over military govwnnlcnt is cscrciscd by the Chief of Staff for the Swrctnry of War through the colnmanding oficcr in the thcatcr of olmxtims. In mili­tary occupations carried on by the Navy tllc S:Mlc gcncral control is cxcrcisccl by the Conmwldc‘r in CXcf, bnited States Fleet nncl Chief of Nnvnl Opcratims for the Sccrc­tary of the Navy through the fleet or force comluandcr in the thcntC1’ Of O~~ClYltil~llS,
cI. Plarining nncl forniulation of politics for nlilitnry govcrnmcnt arc carried out unclcr the clircction of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in olmxtions. in which both the United States Army and Navy lxwticilxltc.
b. When the olmxtion is cnrricd Out by ,thc conlbincd forces of the Unitccl Stntcs :wcl one or nmru of its allies, civil alFairs planning and opcrutions arc cxc~.~~tccl under the direction of the Combined C&i& of StaE of the two govcrnnmits.
The military agcncics designated by the Sccrctnrics of War and Navy to plan and formulntc policy WC the Civil Aflairs Division of the War Dcpartmcnt and thr o&e for Occupied Areas of the Navy Dcpartmcnt.
The Civil Affairs Division, in the OJXCC of the Chkf of Stafl, informs and advises the Sccrctnry of War 0x1 all matters within the purview of the War Dl:partmcnt othol than those of a strictly military nature in XWLS occupied as a result of military operations. This Division has as its responsibility the formulation of broad War Dclxu?mcnt policies with regard to military govermncnt, and the plan­ning and coordination of civil affairs in nrcns occupied as a result of joint Army and Navy operations. Under gcn­era1 policies formulated by the Civil ARairs Division of the War Department, the selection and training of p~rson~n~~l for civil affairs is conducted under the sup~~rvision of thr Provost Marshal Gcncral.

The Ofice fdr Occupied Arcas, part of the O&x of the Chief of Naval Operations, is charged with the planning, training of personnel, and preparation of materials for mili­tary government in areas of paramount naval intcrcst, and in coordination with the War Department in arcas of joint interest.

15. ORGANIZATION IN THEATERS OF OPERA­TIONS. The theater commnndcr is rcsponsiblc for dr­tailed planning aqcl operation of military govcrmncnt uutlrr the general dircctivcs and plans rcccivctd from l+lrt~l authority. The thcatcr organization for civil ;z[r’;lirs I)Iilll- ning and control dcpcnds on the mission of the th(‘i\tcr co111­mander, on ~11~ organization of the militnry forces ill the area, on the military situation, on the structure CII th(! c:sistitlK government, on the gcogriqhy of tllc arca, 011 the ccononl! and characteristics of tlic pcoplc, on tlul p~~w~~rs ;lnd characteristics ol: their ofi&Js, ancl 011 dll!T rt!lr:\ranl.
16. TYPES  OF  ORGANIZATION.  Ch~cri\lly  sl)ty~I~iug,  
there  are  two  typs  of  civil  nfrairs  nrganizntion.­ ‘“13”““.  
tional  and territorial.  
60:110FI~..–4!~~~  23  

a. II1      the Opr~xtionnl type, C0nilllalldCrS Of cC)r!ht units
or of nlilitary administrative arcas arc responsible for civil affairs within their respective zOXlCS Of operation or areas; and the relationship of civil affairs Ofkr~ of 011~ echelon to civil affairs officers of a higher or IWVW cchclon are those prescribccl for staff officdrs in the aplxopiatc manuals. The chain of civil affairs control COnfOrlnS to the opera­tional or administrative ch:tin of command.
be In the territorial form, a separntc civil &airs organiza­lion is created under the direct C0Illlll:llld Of thO hater commander, or under a subordinntc CO111111:IIldC1’. Under this form, the chief civil aflairs of%lcer Of :1 territory is responsible to the military governor for the military govern­ment throughout the arca, :mt has ~~~lllll:\~ld of subordinate civil affairs oficers assigned to political subdivisions within the- territory. The lint of communication within the or­ganization is direct from higher to lower civil aflnirs oficcrs. Local civil affairs officers are IlOt rcsponsiblc t0 Op!ratiOnal ullit commanders stationed in the area with rrgard to the administration of civil affairs, but rcpokt directly to higher civil affairs oficcrs. It is n function of ~~‘~m~and to de­termine the tylx of organization to bc utilized at any particular time and ~Ixx. ThC SyStclll Xl0pt~d Inay Often involve fcaturcs of Cdl typ I:11llllllly I’Xil!S the occupy­tion will be progrcssivc, and one type of organization will
predominate  in  one  portion  of  :I  thcxtcr,  while  the  
other  type  prcdomin:&zi  in  nnothor  portion.  Under  
settled  conditions  in  continental  arcas  the  torritorial  fornl  
will  usually  prcvnil.  

a. ‘Cantrol through OperatPonal Unit and Military Administratiive Area Commanders. (1 I Advantage, The ndvnntagc of control throu& opcr;ltion:ll nut1 military aclministrativc area commanders is thnt authority for all activities, civil as well as military, is conccntrntec~ in the hands of the commnndcr who is rcqonsiblc for operations, supply, and evacuation. Thin insures thxt 311 activities,
1“, I ,1
including relations between troops and inhabitants, wi&h” ” the given zone of operations or military administrative area, will be coordinated in support of the operation for which the commander is responsible. It obviates possible friction and misunderstandings which arc likely to arise when two mutually independent oflicers with overlapping responsibilities are present.
(21 Disadvantages. The disadvantngcs of control through operational unit and military administrative arca commanders are :
(al Such commanders, concerned with combat training and operations, supply and evacuation, are apt to overlook the importance of civil affairs duty to operations, as well as to diplomatic and economic objectives.
(bl Combat units are generally subject to frcqucnt movement, resulting in repeated changes in the pcrsonncl assigned to exercise control over local officials, with COXISC­quent variations in policy. Only to a limitccl cstcnt can this disadvantage be minimized by the retention in the arca, and attachment to incoming units, of civil affairs ofliccrs formerly on the staff of the outgoing unit.
(~1 Combat units will necessarily be disposed ;\ccording to strategical and operational requircmcnts, and only b) chance according to local boundaries. Corlsccplclltly, thr territory assigned as the zone of opcrntion of aOcombnt unit will usually embrace parts of the territory of numerous political subdivisions, To a lcsscr degree, this may alsa lx true of the territory assigned as the area of a military administrative unit. In such casts, the same set of local oficials may receive orders from the commanders of all the operational or administrative units whose zone of olxr;l- tions or areas lie within or partly withi the political sub­division. The headquarters of the unit may not bc located at the seat of the local governmcntnl authority, In such case, in order to provide cfTcctive control over civilian officials, the civil affairs section of the staf? of the uni1: mny have to be divided into two cchclo~~s, one at the nrilit:~ry headquarters and the other at the scat of govcxxmcnt, with consequent loss Of ~cficicncy. Even after the ix%sation of hostiiities, when forces arc used as garrisons, conformitv of their areas to political boundaries may not always be po+ sible. On the other hand, the cormander of any opera. tional unit or military administrative area may have to supervise the civil oGcials of scvcral political subdivisions, For these reasons, control through opcrationnl and ad. ministrative unit commanders is liltcly to be wasteful of
(dJ Combat commanders and their staffs arc usually untrained in civil affairs work. Only to 9 limited extent can this disadvantage be minimized by the assignment of trained civil aflairs oficcrs to SUCK stalk
(eJ So long as hostilities are in progress or arc only temporarily suspended by an annistice, the control of civil affairs by military commanders takes their attention from the training of their men for combat, from lcadcrship in combat, and from other strictly military duties, which should ‘engage their whole time and energy.
IfI The imposition upon operating units of duties of military government or control of civil an’nirs tics such units to the al:ca in which they arc stationed and makes it very difficult to move them promptly ~1~~x1 military situa­tions, yhich should bc paramount, make such n move advisable.
b. Control Through a Civil Affairs Chain of Corn. mand. The advantages and disxdvantagcs of a civil affairs chain of command under the commanding offkcr of a higher cchclon are generally the opposite of those listed above for a civil aflkirs organization under operational units or miIitary aclministmtivc nrca commanders. A Civil affairs organization, established xftcr ~1 nrca bccomcs settled, will usually make a more cflcctivc and economical use of manpower than would an operating organization during such period. It would provide for greater con­tinuity of policy and personnel, and facilitate the use of specially selected and trained civil nkirs oflkers, On the other hand, since the 1ocn.l civil &‘airs oficcrs under thi? organization arc indcpcndcnt of the cammandcrs operating or garrisoned in their xrcas, or of commnndcrs exercising administrative command for other military purposes in the ” same area, unity of command at the lower level is not established.
Initial Organization. Military government usually begins in the combat zone, as soon as the area comes within control of the occupying force. In the forward areas organization of military govcrmncnt is necessarily limitccl to the most essential clcments of control in conformity with the military situation. Public officials may have fled, or be in hiding; consequently control must often bc cxcrciscd directly by the military forces on individuals. In rear areas, a greater degree of control and organization will usually be possible and dcsirablc. Rc,gimcnts or small naval combat units should be relieved of civil nfnirs control as far as possible.

Type of Organization. In the combat zone, control on the principle of unity of command is p;~r:m~ount. Com­manders control the civil population within their zone’s of operation, without regard to political boundnrics. ThC civil airairs ofkxrs are either staff oBiccrs of the com­mander of the unit to which they arc attached or mcmbcrs of groups assigned to control cnpturcd :~cns. Orders con­cerning the control of civil nil’airs arc issued through the military chain of command. The cmploymcnt of military police or shore patrol or marine units 011 civil nfl’nirs duties is providccl for in the administrative or ol)cration or&r, or in an anncs thereto.

Civil Affairs Personnel for Reinforcement. JVh the need is foucsccn, as when a city or other lx~l~ul~~us :w;\ is about to bc occupied, the thcrttcr commands clirccts that additional civil &tirs pcrsonncl be sent forw:~d to reinforce control of the area. Such personnel arc nttnclicd to the command within whose zone of olxrntions tl.11: city, port, island, or other nrcn will fall, but arc under or&:rs to pass to the control of the succeeding couin~:m&x wl~l~n combat units move forward. Evcntunlly, if the rr,rw:~~rl movement continues, they pass to the control of the c:()m­manding offkcr of a roar area or ‘to consul of tl~ n(~~~

l$rher civil affairs echelon under a civil affairs chain of command. While in the combat zone, reinforcing civil affairs personnel may be placed under the. orders of the chief of the civil affairs section of the staff of the unit to which they are attached. Reinforcing personnel should be selected with a view to their subsequent retention on civil affairs duty in the same area.
Amoun# of Organiza+ion. As territory falls within the communications zone or naval advanced base zone, a greater amount of civil affairs organization becomes pos­sible. Every effort is made to restore the normal func­tioning of the local government, subject, however, to civil aRairs control in aII echelons. Public ofEcixls are con­firmed in their functions, or replaced, except as to offices whose functions are suspended.

Type of Organiza+ion. (1) In the communica­tions or naval advanced base zone, consiclcrntions of unity of command usually recluire that the zone and subordinate military administrative area commanders be given control of civil aflairs within their nrcas. 7%~ absence of zones of operation assigned to tactical unit commanders makes the assignment of civil aBairs control to such unit commanders as may be prcscnt unnecessary, and the disadvantages of control by such commanders make SUC~I assipncnt undesirable.

(2) If the communications or naval advanced base zone is not subdivided for purposes of military administration into sections or otherwise, the commanding oflicer of the zone (or the commxncling oficcr scrvicc forces of the theater, if he is charged with the duties of a commander of the zone) ) ‘creates a civil &airs command, and desig nates the chief of the civil affairs section of his staff as civil aflairs commander.
(3 1 If the communications or naval advanced base zone is subdivided for purposes of military administration into sections or otherwise, the commanding of&xx of the zone exercises civil al‘fairs control through section or other mili­tary administrative area comhmndcrs, who in turn control civil affairs oficcrs of the highest tmritorial political c~l~lt~l through the chiefs of the civil aflairs sections of their respective stafls, designated as civil afTairs ccmuuandcrs.
(4) If the occupied territory inch&s more than ore: country or island group or is divided into other territorial political subdivisions, it will gcncrally be advisable to detail a civil affairs group for onch of the subdivisions in tllc’ highest political echelon, with suficicnt pcrsonncl to supcr.~ vise the government of such subdivision, :tnd to m:zkc available, sufficient persomlcl for suballotmc~nt to subdivi­sions in lower political cchclons, including cities. Usually personnel will not be available for the direct supervision of political subdivisions of less degree than that corrcsl>onding to an American coun’~y, or of small critics. Thctsc% can bc supervised by frequent visits of pcrsonncl stationed at plncc!s of greater importance.
(51 Chiefs of civil a.fI’airs groups detailed to tbx military government of a territorial political subdivision command similar groups detailed to lc&cr territorial political sub­divisions included therein.
(61 The commander of a combat unit stationed in or passing through a locality in the conlrnunicntiorIs zone where ‘no civil aflairs ofEcm is prcscnt, may make arrt:sts in cases in which immediate restraint is nct!c:ssary; and, if so empowered by the theater commander, may :tp@nt provost courts to try inhabitants for oiYcnscs ag;\illst the security of his command or against inclividuals tht:r& sending the records of such trials, togcthcr with c.onvi~t~~tl defendants, tb the civil affairs o@icer iu c:hargc of t]~o ;\r(:;L. Othcrwisc, except in cmcrgcncies justifyinff assullrl)li(>n of civil affairs command by the scuior oficcr l)r(!s(qlt, con1­mandcrs of such units cxcrcise no control ov(:r l*ivil :\Q:xirs,
(7) When the forward boundary of a zone or section is about to be advanced, the comlnanclcr, unless civil alf;\irs ‘personnel who are to pass to his control are already irl th(x new arca, should arrange to have the nc:crssary ci\lil a[Sairs personnel report to the proper commander forward, to
be in readiness to assun~c control immccliatcly~ when the boundary is advanced.
2~. TASK FQRCE. A task ~OXXC commander operating in a theater of operations esmciscs civil affairs control lwithin his zone of operations in the same manner BS a theater commander.
21. =i’WEATER OF Q~~~~~l~~~.
a. During Campaign. (1 1 While, the thcatcr is sub. divided into a combat zone a~1 a communications or naval advanced base zone, the theater commander exercises civil affairs controI over the combat zone through tl~ command. ing officers of field armies OT the naval flcCt or task force Commanders and over the communications Or naval ad­vanced base zone through its commanding o&xx.
(21 If, however, the theater is subclividcd into zones of operations assigned to scparnte task forces, each of whicll has its own communications OS naval advanced base zone, the theater commander exercises control through task force commanders.
Control over the central civil administration of the occupied area is ordinarily cscrciscd directly by the theater commander through the civil all’airs section of his staff. If the thentcr headquarters is not at the capital, it may be necessary to divide the theater civil alITairs staIT section into two cchclons, and to station a portion of it at the head­quarters and a portion at the capital. If unclcr such cir­cumstanccs the capital is in the combat zone, the echelon of the civil aflairs section of the thcatcr stall: stationed thereat may bc nttachcd to thC ficlcl army or naval task force whose zone of olxxations incluclos the capital, nncl the commanding oficcr thcrcof may bc char@ with tempo­rary responsibility for supervision of the ci&l service at the capital.

After CessaHon of Hostilities. hftcr fighting has ceased, in conscqucnce of an armistice or lx~tocol which rcndcrs the resumption of serious hostilities improbable, or if for any reason an occupied country is no longer within a Combat or communiCationi base xonc, tlrc tlicntcr com­

Ill;lndcr, or other suprcmc comnmndcr in the occupied country, so long as military government continues, may exercise control either through commanders of comhat units, within misting political subdivisions or within mili­
.tary districts consisting of a nunlbrr of such politknl subdivisions, or hc rnny cscrcisc control through civil af1’airs groups detailed directly to tcrritoriar politikxl subdivisions. If the situation ~warrants, a combination of thcsc two systcrns may be utilized, conlmaxlders of the larger cnnAx~t units being placed in control of the higher c~l~lons of military govCtmnerlt, with Civil nITairs groups, indclmKlcnt of commanders of the smnllcr combat units, bring dc~tailcd by them to exercise military govcrnmcnt functions it1 the lower ccliclons.
Creation of Section. In aclvnnce of thr entry of United Stntcs forccx into territory to bc orcupicd, the thcatcr comninnclcr crcntcs a civil ntl‘nirs section of his staJT. Such sections arc also provided for the st:kIl’s of subordinate commanders who arc assigned broad responsi­bility for civil aflairs planning and ~ol~un:u~l.

Duties of Chief of Section. ‘I’hc duties of 111~ chief of a civil nITairs section arc-­

(1 I To assist the commander ia all nmttc?rs of or~~;tniz;L- tion, supervision, and control 01 niilitary govcuinicut iii the area occupied, arId to furnish him with lull illforllmtion w the charnctcr af the p~ol~lc, the nntt~rc~ of tllc ~ovc~rn~r~wt, and the specific probkn~s likrly to bc facctl in tlmt territory.
(2 I TO be rcspisiblc for tllc pwpwlicln of tlL~tililC!Cl plans for nlilitary govl\rntiicnt in i>nch arca to Ix ocu~lkcl, inclucling gcncral di:sigrmtions of tlii: ~~unihrrs :u~l typrs of civil an’nirs pcrsonncl ni~lid, to kcq) sucl~ lk\i~s ~~irr~~it and to obtain the con1nl;uldcr’s npp~val of LINWL
(3 1 TO Inc rcsponsiblc for that, prqxnxticrn in :~l>l)r~>l)riilt(:
langungcs  of  such  llr(~cla.iuntioris,  ordiniulctx,  :ultl  orders  
to  be issued  in  the  XU~C  of  tlx  coltlnmtldcr  :ts  lmvr:  Ilot  
already  1×33~ prel~arecl.  
ti6H:l (18”-~-4!b—-o  31  

To prepare for issuance by the commander to sub. ordinate civil affairs offlccrs SUCK information on strategic and tactical dcvclopmcnts and 0x1the plans for military government of specific areas as will be necessary to keep them constantly up to date.

To corrclatc and analyze information rcceivcd through the commander fsom civil affairs ofliccrs and from intelligence and censorship lxrsonnel and to utilize it as a b&is for further planning.

To maintain constant liaisori with combat, security, supply, medical, engineering, and other officers on the commander’s staff, in order that planning I~KLY bc total ,ind coordinate bctwcen all branches of the scrvicc.

To be responsible under the command and in ac. cordance with specific directives issued for particular areas, for the supervision and coordination of the work of civilian agencies of the United States and its allies participating in the later phases of ,military government when the thcatcr commander has authorized their participation.

To supervise esccution of civil af?‘airs orders and,

where  designated  as chief  civil  affairs  off&r,  to  command  
,a11 civil  affairs  groups  placed  under  him.  

’ a. General. The mxgnitudc and character OF the tasks of a civil aBairs stafl section will vary g.rcatly from one. territory to another. Ed1 section will riced to bc mnnncd to do the particular job at hand, and the stn@ assignments will ncccssnrily dcpcncl on the particular situation and the pcrsonncl available. A large cic~grcc of versatility in per­sonncl and flexibility in staff assignments will lx csscntial, particularly in the c>nrly periods when the nature and dc­grcc of the supervision to bc csorciscd over local onicials is uncertain.
b. Irsternal Orgchzation. The chiclF of every Civil a,ffairs section will need to make provision for the following activities, but in a small staff scvcral of thcYc activities may bc pcrformecl by a single ofl~ccr, particularly in isolntcd and sparsely populatccl tcrritorics or in island arc:~ of interest primarily to the Navy: ;
(11 Administrative Officers. eputy. A large section will require a deputy, assist the chief of the staff and act for him in his
fficer. The chief of the staff csccpt in small sections, will rcquirt: an csccutivc oflicc~r to coOr­dinate the management of the O&X and t0 handle spccinl
(c) Staff Assistants. Every chief of a civil &Xrs see­tion should have one or more ,qcncml nssistants. Thq should not be given fiscd assignments, but shoulrl Ircb assigned to invostigatc any problem which nriscs ; to COIINC information; to see persons whom their chief cannot take the time to set; to visit lower cchclons; to prcparc‘ pl:Ul!i, policies, or decisions for considcrntion of their chief; to .
.      preparc orders to carry out such decisions; :md to SW to it that the orders xc transmitted to the proper pcrs~ns UKI arc carried out.
(dl Internal Administrative Officers. OfEccrs will. bc nccdcd to perform the duties of nrmy adjutnnt Or nav) csecutive 0Eicer nnd supply Oficor. ThWC llliltt~~l+S Of in­ternal administmtion arc Of vit:tl importnucc to the func­tioning of the civil afl’nirs section, :md should 1.~ :\ssign(~d to cxperienccd and qualified OfIkcrs. 111 a l:~rgc civil affairs section, scvcrnl oficcrs may bc nec&d to p:~forln these functions.
Functional CHficers, IIcpcnding upOn the conk plesity OE the duties t0 bc pc!ri’Ormcd, tlx civil ;112’;birs st:(*tiolr may require il numl.~C~r of functkxxd c~fkcrs, such ~1s nI& Cal, lcgnl, fiscal, intclligcncc,, and 0thc:rs. For ;I &:tdd description Of th? functions to bc p(:rfornic~C~ by civil :kll’;\irs ofkers set paragrnph 12.

Civil Affairs Officers from Other ServEces. 111 joint opcratinns, the c:Omm;mdc:r sho&i incluC~(: in the civil affairs section One Or morr civil nll’:\irs (Jf]iccrs Sroln th,a other service, It is nocc3sary tlult c:losc~ li;lis0n (+t [)t:­~WCU army :md navy civil :Gairs olliccrs, 1~ th(t O~~,tl~~;\- tion is primnrily Cln ;zrmy optxltion, it niivitl civil i,[l’;lirs oflicer shOLllC1IX Clttitdld to the\ army &vi1 ;\ffilirs st;tir ior

liaison and to assist in port Colltrol and 0t11cr Civil affairs duties. If it is a naval operation, and particularly if later Control is to be talrcn over by tbc army, it is csscntia.1 that army Civil affairs ofkcrs be attached to the naval Civil a&s staff.
(4) Civil AfTairs Officers of Ofher Na*ions. In my combined operations involving the forCcS of the Uditcd States and its :lllics, Civil affairs OffiCcrs of the nations participting should bc nssigncd to duty in number and to posts as dircCtcc1 by the thcatcr Comma~ldcr or his d&g­nated subordinate.
CIVIL AFFAIRS COMMAMRS. Whcncvcr a civil aRairs section of&r is dcsignatcd as chief of civil affairs, hc exercises the usual functions of Comma~~d over civil affairs groups clctailcd to territorial politiCa subdivisions within the geographic limits under his supervision, while at the same tirnc continuing to scLrv(: as a ~t:lff ofriCer to his Commander.


Q. General. A Civil affairs$ group detailed to a terri-’ torial political subdivision should consist of such ofliccrs, warkant officers, and cnlistcd pcrsom~l as m:ly bc ncccssary, with due regard to the structure and functions of the governmental unit to bc Controlled, the nnmbcr of subor­dinate territorial political subdivisions within the subcli­vision to which the group is clctailcd, the cast of Communi- cation within the arca, and thr size nncl chnractcr of the l~opulntion. To avoid Compiicntions arising from clcntb or illxlcss a.t lcast two ofIiicYY3 should b(: assigned Co conch group. The pcrsonncl of the gro~q) should bc assigned to such duties as its chief may clirtxt. Bscept in lnrgc Cities, ordinarily the lower the political cchrlon the less is the need for spcckdizntion; and whcrc ,thc group is small, slxcinlizatioii is impossible. A Inrgc Civil nfl’nirs group may bc organized in a mnnncr similar to a civil nRnirs staK section. (Set par. 21.)
b. Required Ccdegaries. In orckr to Coiuplctc a wcll- balnncccl gm~tp for Civil afYairs clutics, the following catc­gorics of pcrsonncl may bc rcquirrd :
34 .
( 1 ) Esccutivc and administrntivc pcrsonnc~l with special training in military government and liaison.
Technical specialists with special training in the characteristics of the arc:\ to which assigned.

Junior assistants.

Secretarial, clerical, and similar pcrsonncl.


Military police; short patrol, or marine clctnchmcnt.

Oficcr and cnlistcd pcrsonncl for operation of motor vehicles, patrol vcsscls and airplnncs assigned to civil airairs units.

a. Necessity. (11 The chief of each civil affairs group, in territory in which United States forces arc cscr­cising military government, will need su&icnt force at his command to insure cxccution of his orders; to nrrost offenders against the military govcrmncnt; to s&e Brcarms, ’ explosives and other contraband nrticlcs; to s&c and guard funds;’ to seize and seal rccorcls and archives; to .control, reinforce, or supplant the local police in the maintcnancc of public or&r ; and to prcvcnt or sUpprcss espionage, sabotage,, and rioting. Such forces will nlso be needed by combat unit comm;u~dcrs who arc vested with civil affairs control.
The use of combat units for this purpose, at lcast until a definite ccssntion of hostilities, is unclcsicnblc~, though at times .it may bc ncccssary. Not only arc such units divcrtcd from their combat nlission and innnobilizod hut their armament is unnc~cc~ssarily l~owcrful for orclimlry civil al-fairs duty.

Organic military police units nf arnlics, corps, divi­sions, and ma.rinc or short patrols of ilcct unit.s, will not ordinarily be available in the colnniunicntions zone 0r n;~vnl advnnccd base; furthcrxnorc, their :trnlaulcnt is n0t wtbll adapted to use in civilian control, While they lqill 1~ available in the forward nrcn, tlicy can si~lclom 1~ sp:trctl from otlicr clutics in suflkicnt nunJ~i~rs to control the population of a city, port, or ciqcstccl arca.

Where local civil police forces OX cOtlstabularics are trustworthy and adequate they shall be USC~ to the maxi­mum extent.

Where local civil police forces are inadequate or ca’nnot be relied upon, military police, marines, or shore patrol should be provided, organized, and equipped similarly to rear area military police units. Units which may have to be sent rapidly from their station to control outlying areas should be wholly or partially motorized or, in the case of island ‘areas, provided with patrol V~SSC~S and airplanes. The use of women nmrhers of the armed forces may be pra&&le, for technical and clerical duties.

la. Assignrmen+ and Command. (1) Military poIicc, marines, or ‘shore patrol units for the enforccmcnt of civil affairs control outside the forward arca should be assigned to cities and to political subdivisions a~ the situation war­xants. They should be placed under the command of the o&er in charge of civil affairs in ‘the city OX other political subdivision. This is a matter wholly within the discretion of the zone or theater commander.
E2) When there is riced thcrefor, the thcatcr commander may direct that reinforcing military police, marines, or shore patrol units be sent into the forward nrcn for the enforcement of civil afFnirs control in cities or other con­gested areas. Such units will bc attached to the combat unit in whose area of operations they arc to be. stationed, but with orders to pass to the control of succeeding com­manders when combat units I~~OVC forward, Eventually, if the forward movcmcnt continues, thc?y pass to the control of the commanding oficcr, communication zone or naval advanced base, or of the com~nancl~r of a s&ion thereof, and by him are l~la~ecl under the command of the proper civil affairs oficcr. While within the WJIK of operations of a combat unit, they may, by the commander thcrcof, bc placed, according to circumstances, under the command of a civil affairs oficer of the unit, OS otheswisr. assigned. They should bc sclcctcd with a view to their rctcntion, wholly or ih part, on similar duty in the same arca,
c. Authority to Make Arrests. Subject to the orders of higher authority, military police, whether on or ofF
5 duty,      have authority to arrest inhabitants of territory under military govermnqk,, who offend against, or arc suspected of offending against, the ordinances or other orders of United States military authority or against local law, or who are in any way disturbing the public pcacc or acting in a manner hostile to United States forces. When immc­diate restraint is ncccssary, they also have authority to arrest persons subject to military law; such poisons shoulcl, however, be turned over to the appropriate commander as soon as practicable.

a. Responsibility of Theater Commander. ‘I’hc theater cpmmnndcr is responsible that careful cstimntcs trf civil affairs pcrsoniiel rcquiremcnts-oficcr, warrant of&c, and enlisted pcrson”d-bc made well nhcad of :rny plnnnc~d occupation, ancl that such personnel arc rcquisitionc:cl. 1‘1i~~ personnel furnished undrr the requisition will bc assc~blrd in the theater under the direction of the theater CC)I~­mander. They will bc given the ncccssary further training, orgnnizcd, and nssigncd to duty in numbers :~d with qu;\li­fications sufkient to meet anticipated needs. r\s ~1 rultl, cxccpt f6r comn1anders of large units who pay 1)~: g;i\rpn responsibility for civil afTairs, pcrsonncl of combat units will not be assignccl functions of spc&lly tr:tincd civil affairs o&ers. Nevertheless, if they arc nl:c:d(;d in tip early phases or when hostilities have ceuscd ancl milit;\rv
government is expandccl, combat pcrsonncl with ~jrcv&+ experience in sonic nspocts of civil govcrnmcalt may ~11 [)(a transferred to duty with civil al-l’:&. ‘CVhr:tl so :\ssignpd, they should be ~l~t~~hed from ~tl~r duticxs ;mc[ tllpir work confined to affairs of civil ;\dn\il&tration.
b. Responsibility of Officers of Lower Echelons. Each ofEicer charged with civil affairs control is responsible for the allotment of civil affairs persormcl to the next lower echelon to meet its anticipated needs %nd those of further subordinated echelons. The chief of. A civil aflairs section or group should be consulted as to the sclcction of his subordinates.
General, Th& conduct of civil aRairs will require personnel drawn from various professions or callings. The chief administrative personnel for military government should have executive or administrative expcricnce and an understanding of the management of men and affairs. It is desirable that they should also have an intimate knowl­edge of the territory concerned, and its people and lan­guage. To assist them, persons with special or professional training in the several fields of civilian activity, or with ” particular knowledge of the area occupied, may bc needed.

Chief or Deputy of Large Civil Affairs Staff Sec. tion of Field Group. Thcsc officers should have broad executive cxpcrience, military or civilian, and Exceptional clualifications of character, judgment, and ability. They should be thoroughly trained in civil aflairs work, and also \bc well informed concerning the territory occupied. Knowledge of the language or languages in use in the territory is desirable.

Chiefs of Small Civil Affairs Sections and Field Groups, and Executive Officers. Thcsc oficers should have the same high personal qualities as rcquircd in b above but will usually bc less ospericnccd, They should bc thoroughly trained in civil aflairs work and, if possible, in the language of the territory.

Staff Assistants. They should hivvc had esecutivc or administrative expcricncc, particularly in staIlC work, Some stall posts will also rcquirc an intimate lrnowledgc of the country, its people, and its language. They should bc thoroughly trained in civil affairs duty.

Administrative Services Personnel. These serv­ices will hnvc to bc conductrd under diflicult circumstances,

at times in situations where the customary services of the Army and Navy are not available. The ofliccr and en­listed personnel should be experienced in the duties which they are to perform and familiar with the practices and procedures of the Army and Navy. *WhiIc dcsirnble, it is not vital that they have training OT cspericnce in civil affairs.
f. Functional Officers. Functional staff assistants and specialists should have both profcssionnl training and opcr­ating experience in their particular field, such as public health, public utilities, transportation, and others. Those assigned to theatw stat% and other high cchclo~~~ should bc trained in civil affairs and in the characteristics of the territory. In lower echelons while training in civil affairs is desirable it needs not bc more than a minimum.
~1. In the United States. Training of administrative and specialist pcrsonncl is conducted in schools of military govcrnmcnt of the Army and the Navy. Military police schools for civil affairs training also aw conducted by the Army.
b. In Theater of Operations. 111rhc tl1mtcr of opcra- tions, training for civil aflairs duties is a function of com­mand. Civil aflairs pcrsonncl nssigncd to a particular ter­ritory in advance of the occupation sl~o~~lcl rcceivc further intensive training. Such training should inchule, cspc­cially, instruction in the background of the p:uticular arca, the language and charnctcristics of the proplc, and in the civil aRnirs plnns and orders for military govcrmncnt as they are mado ancl issued. Insoh: as practic;~blc, tlic tmin­ing should be given by officers having an intimate kno& edge of the nrca, and by the civil afl’airs stair dr;&ing tl~t: plans and orders. Current Army and Navy intclligcnrc and censorship reports sl~o~~lcl 1~ rn:ulc avnilahlc ant1 tl~c assigned civil affairs l~~~onnel should bc kept l)ostccl 011
ncccssnry  military  aspects  of  the  occupnticn  plans.  ‘rha  
military  commander  sl~o~~~d  tnlcc  steps  to  ~SSII~C  tl~nt  ci\7il  
affairs  OfIkC:IY  rccxivc  :I11  CliUiSiACYl  informntim  pi$ncl~l:  to  
their  duties,  

GENERAL. Pl?nning for the control of civil affairs in occupied areas is a responsibility of commanders assigned to the planning of military operations. Civil affairs plan­ning, as a part of the planning of military ollerations, khould be integrated with operational plans and integrated with the situation and problems to be met. These problems ­in civil affairs should be anticipated and provided for by plans and alternatives, Acxible and subject to continuous change and adaptation during operatibns. Careful plan­ning will lead the command& to issue the specific civil’ affairs orders suited to the cxpcctcd situation. Planning will also reveal requirements for ofricers, enlisted personnel and materials, requisitions for which should be forwarded in ample time.

BASIS OF PLANNING. Information required for preliminary planning of military government will be fur- nished by the War, Navy, and other-departments of the United States or alliecl govcrnmcnts. Information for later planning in the theater of operations will bc supplied by the intelligence and civil affairs branches of the various services. Such information will include, in addition to such parts of the military plan as may be necessary to civil aBairs planning, the following’ concerning the area to be occupied :

01. The rcccnt history of      the country.
Ib. The theory and actual apcration of its government including the titles, functions, backgrounds and names of ofZcials in a position to help or hinder the mission of the occupying force.
All facts which may affect the mission, such as political parties, factions and ~l~avag~~, unoficiicial persons wielding political or other power both in the central govcrmnent and in political subdivisions.

Geography, including l&ation, area, topography, climate, and natural resources.

     Ch$mcteristics of the inhabitants of the country such 40

as ~~u~~lbers and prc~l~ortions by race, religion, and pliticnl 0r other nffYiation, and factors indicating probnblc attitudes toward the presence of the occupying force.
f, Local customs aud traditions, scnsitivc points, taboos, and national or religious obs~rvxnccs such as holidays and sacred or forbicldeu places,
g, Standards of living including hcnlth and dietary habits &ich might alrcct the occupying forces.
Administration of justice, including tribal custc~nls aIld traditions.

Forms of social courtesy townrds difTcrcnt ranks among the inhabitants.

     Character of the p0pulation as to ordcrlincss and

obedience      to law. k, Chnractcr of the police force and fire dclmrtnmnts.
1. Regulations and conditions as to salts of liquor and narcotics.
Existcncc of subvcrsivc 0~ tmtmy groups, potcntinl saboteurs and spies.

Organization and reliability of the civil courts in which 0ffenscs by civilians might bc tried.

The dcgrcc of dcvcl0pnmnt of ngriculturc aud forrsts, industry, ruining, labor conditions, lxlrticularly as they will affect matcrinl, labor, :d other supplies for the: task fm~..

p, Financial situation, including banks, condition of banks of issue and comrucrcinl bmks, mtcs of cxclmngc, amount and s0u1~lness of currency in use.
CurrcnC cconamic situation, i1lHOlltltS Of gOOClS :~.vnil­able for pulxI1:Isc, L\lld chc prob:Lblc cfl‘lx:l cd tl1c ]lrt’st!11ct: of a well-paid nccul)ying Eorcc.

Fond supplies, including their sufficiency for thtr 1~~1~ lation and for the occupying f0rtx.

The :zvailability nlld ndcquW,y of institutions,, I’i\CiXi­tics, matcrinls, scrviccs, equipncnt and I:tbor, likt‘ly tn afkct the mission of the force or In be rcrluirc:d by it, such as the capacity nnd condition 0.r ~~ublic works 3ud uW.ic:s, including milroncls, C:;iui1Is, hnrbors and d0cks, hi~hwnys, bridges, rolling stock, ~~otor vchiclcs, g;\s, clcctricity, writer works, and scwcragc.

Extent, location, and condition of the postal tele­graph, telephone, and radio services.

public health, inclucling sanitary condition prevalence and control of disease, protection of food, milk and water supplies.

Civilian Bebense. Set paragraph 32~4.

32. R~§~O~SiR~~lT~ FOR PLANS.
War and Mavy Depar#men*s. The Civil Affairs Division in the War Dcpartmcnt and the OfIiccz:for Occu­pied Arcas of the Navy D’cpnrtment, s~bje~l:to the directiou of the Joint or Combined Chiefs of Staff, are responsible for the integration of the civil affairs plan with the strate­gical and logistical plans for military operations and for liaison with civilian agencies of the United St,ztes hovern- ment. The civil affairs plan of the War and Navy Depart. merits, usua.lly brief and general, is transmitted to the theater commander in the form of ‘a dircctivc. It contains the broad political and economic policies to bc observed.

Thea+er of Operations. Civil affairs planning for his command is a responsibility of cvcry officer charged with civil affairs control, whcthcr he be the theater coin­mander, the commander of a task force, a tactical unit, or a military administrative area, or the chief of a civil affairs group. The duty of actual preparation of the plan in accordance with the directive of the commander, usually devolves on the chief of the cisil affairs section of the staff. According to circumstances, the commander approves the plan, with or without modification, bclore it is translated into orders, or approves the civil aflairs order which results from the planning. It is dcsirnblc that civil aflairs plans of theater and task force commanders be trannnitted to the Joint or Combined Chiefs of Stafl’ for confirmation.,

a. Of Thea+er and Task Force Commanders. These commanders may, according to circumstances issue civil affairs orders as annexes to administrative or operation orders for military operations, or as routine orders when there is no direct connection with an operation.
known to the subordinate or included in an accompanying field or operation order. This may include information of enemy forces, of the enemy populntion, and any available supprt from agencies not tinder the command of the issuing officer.
The general plan of the commander, cscept so far as it is already known or is included in an accompanying order.

Subordinate oficcrs charged with civil*nfairs con­trol.; crcat?on of civil aflairs command or civil affairs groups; attachments and detachments, with time and place of each, including military police, marines, or S~OUC

patrol;missions of each.
General instructions governing all subordinates; such as­

Security measures to bc tnkcn.

Controls to be estnblishcd over civilian supply.

Measures to be taken td rcstorc public order. (d I Records to be impounded and their disposit.ion.

Directions as to control or disposition of public funds, ($1 Directions as to authority to mnkc requisitions.

Dir&ions as,to handling of enemy-own~cl property. (hl Currency to bc used and rntc of cschange.

Treatment of, or conduct toward, enemy nationals and local population and of&i&.

Slxcia.1 mcasurcs to bc taken with regard to public institutions; banks, industry, commcrcc, labor, and other activities.

Authority to appoint military courts, and to approve alxd execute scntcnccs; rules as to proccdurc; limits of punishments.

(I 1 Authority to appoint and rcmovc local officials.
(ml Proclamations nncl general ordinances to br pub­lishdd. (These may a,plx?nr as an appcnclis to the civil RfFairs anncs or routine orclcr) .
(n 1 Authority to issue ordinances of local application. (09 Reports to bc made; when and whore.
(p) Location of the issuing commander.

Issuance. While not ninnclatory unclcr intcrnntionnl law, as soon ns lxactiC:nl~lc after coi~i~~ie~~ccii~c:iit Of an Occqation, the tllcatcr coulumdcr, Or an :xuthorizcd sub-Orclinatc, should issue tO the inhalGtants of the occulGx1 territory a prOclnmatian informing them of the fact of Occupation, tllc estcnt of territory nfTcctcd, and the obli­ptions, liabilitic:s, &tics, cmcl rights of tlic pol.dation unclcl military gOV~T~llll~nt. Gcncrnlly, this lmxkumtion will have lxmi lmprd in ndv:uicc and in accOrclancc with directives from higher authority. Whcrc occupation Of ;1 large nrca is lx0cix~iling by stngcs, it is lm~lxr to stntc that the proclaniation will 1.x: appl’icnl~lc in ndj:~ci~nt art:35 2s they WC occupied.

Form and Character. 111 The ll~C~(:l~unn~ion should bc: brief and in siniplc tcrnis. It sl1ould lx! ph­lisld as witlcly as lmssil~lc in I?qlisli and in tllc latlguaps of the occupied Z11’CiL Ally trnnslntion sh0ulcl 1×1 iclimnatic~, clear, and con&c.

mation Jivill bc more friendly in character and may cmpha­size dcliverxncc from a common cncmy.
In occupations of neutral or nllicd territory, lately held by an enemy, a mnnifcsto may also be issued by the legitimate gavernmcnt supporting the ocxxpation and call­ing upon ~ff%ktls and inhabitants to coopcratc and to obey the r&es laid down by the commxldcrs of SUCK forces. Such manifcstos arc not legally ncccssnry, but arc issued to promote coopcration of the population with the CKXupying forces. In occupations of this type, the thcntcr commnndcr will usually clcnr such manifcstos with the Joint or Com­bincd Chiefs of Staff.

contefa+s. The initial proclnmatioa will vary in content according to the circumstances of the occupation. The important items to-be covcrcd XC: the stntc of nRa&s which exists, a definition of the arcn and peoples to which the proclamation npplics, the cxtcnt to which the civil administration will bc nflcctcd, the manner in which the inhabitants arc to conduct thcmsclvcs, and the mcasurcs which will be resorted to by the military govcrnmcnt. It is imlxacticnble to outline the contents of proclamations for all tylxs of occupations. In dcfinitcly hostile territory the proclamation should, in gcncrnl, cover the following points :

(‘II 1 Declaration of the Occupatian. This is formal notice of the fact of occupation and of tllc territory in gcncral over which the military govcrnmcnt nssumes jurisdiction.
(21 Purpose and Policy of the Omxqmtion. It may bc advisnblc to include a. stntcmcnt as to the l~url~ose and policy of the occupntion. Politicnl objcctivcs should be included only prsunnt to instructions from higher authority.
(3 1 Supremacy 6f Military Authority of Occupying Forces. This is an csscntinl lxcrcquisitc to the ndminis­trntion of any military govcrmncnt. It shoulcl bc nn­nounccd that n military governor had been appoirrtcd and that political tics with 2nd obligntinns to the cncrny gov­crmncnt, if any, arc suspcndcd. It should bc announced that inhabitants will be rc:~pirccl to obey orders of the theater comnmndcr and his subordinates and to abstain from all acts Or WOKIS of hostility or disrcspcct to the occupying forces.
(4) Retention of Laws and Officials. It: &uld be nnnounccd that, unless the military authority directs othcr­wise, local 1:LwS alld CuStOlns will continue in force, local OIlGals will continue in Oflkc, and ofIiccr and cml~loyees Of all transportation and colnmunic:ltion systems and of public utilities and other csscritinl scrviccs will carry on with their regular tasks.
(51 Treatment of Inhabitants. Assuratm-~ho~kl be given that persOns who Obey the instructions of the mili­tary authority have nothing to fear and will be duly protcctcd in their lx~sOns, property, family rights, religion, and occupation; and that those who commit ol-lcnscs will he scvercly punished.
(6) Resumption of Usual Occupations. Inhabitants sho~~lcl be instructed that they nlust continue or resume their usual occupations, unless sp~cifcslly clirectcd to the contrary. This will assist in the nlaintennncc of law and Order and restoration of nornml Oconomic conditions.
(71 Detailed Rules of Conduct. It is advisable to put the polxk~tion On notice that furthc:r proclnnintions or ordinnnccs will specify in dctnil what is required of the inhabitants and what is forbicldcn than to do.
(81 Miscelllaneous. Other rnnttcrs may bc coverccl, if circuinstnncos wnrlYult. Proclnmations published by prc- vious military govcrnrncnts may nlso scrvf as useful guiclcx
d, Bwblication. Proclamations mn.y bc l~ublishccl by posting, publication in ncwslqxrs, broadcasting, or any other pcticablc ructhod avvail:tblc in the lmrticul;.lr tcr& tory. It may bc aclvisnblc to publish thcni iii the snnlc II~~II~I~ ns 1cga.l notictrs arc lx~blishccl in the occupied area, or to crcntc a new olIicia1 publication clovotcd csclusivcly LO actions Of the military gpmmrr~cnt and to provide that pruclaniations and Ordinnnccs bccoinc cn‘cctivc when they appcnr in such publicntion.
, ,
/ ;
Issuclace. As soon as practicable after the publica­tion of the initial proclamation, the theater commander, or his authorized subordinate, will issue a detailed set of rules regulating the conduct of the population. These rules may appear as a proclamation, numbered in squcmce with other proclamations, or as ordinances. As far as possible these rules will have been prepared in advance and in accordance with directives issued to the ,thcater com­mandcr. Careful study should be made of the local laws, in order that necessary rules or ordinances, and only these, may be prepared, and in order that their full ramifications and effects may bc unclcrstood.

Form-and Character. The people of the occupied territory should be informed as to what they are rcquircd to do, what acts are forbidden, and in what courts they may be tried if they are charged with offenses. In general they should bc warned of the penalties which may be im- posed for disobcdiencc. Offenses should be clearly and simply defined. These further proclamations or ordinances should be published in English and in the languages of the occupied area. Translations should be simple and clear. It may be necessary to have a general prohibition against all hostile or subversive acts to cover oBenses not specifi­tally mentioned. Great care must bc exorcised in connec­tion with such regulation as it will mean very little to the population and will bc subject to grcnt variations of inter- pretation by the courts. As soon as several conviction6 for a similar offense under such regulation have been approved by the reviewing, authority, that type of of%nsc should be made the subject of a clearly defined proclamation or ordinance. In this way all forbidden acts which could reasonably be forcsccn, or which have been pointed up by experience, will be clearly set forth as a guide Lo the courts and population.

Contents. Contents of further proclamations OF ordinances will depend upon the stage of development of the pcoplc, their laws, customs, and institutions, and upon the military and political situation at the time of the occu­

pation. The rules laid down in the initial proclamations
and ordinancg are concerned primarily with the mnin­
tenance of law and order and the security of the occupying
forces and their lines of cOnnnunicatipn. Additional rules
or      ordinances will be issued as ncccssary to cOver a wide
variety of subjects. Proclnnlntions or ordinmccs may be
alnendcd or replaced, in accordance with cspcricnce. l’rc”.
quent changes are to be avoided, as they may be intcrlxctcd
by the inhabitants as indications of vacillations and wcab­
ness. In gcncral, it is sound policy to bc strict at the
beginning of an occupation and gradually relax the rcquirc-
nlents. Proclnniations Ox* ordinances should contain 110
provisions which it is not plautxd or not possible to enforce.
d. Delegation of Authority. Theater coxnmandcrs
lnay delegate their pOWXS to issue p~OCl~Ukli~tiOllS 01’
ordinances to subordinate ~omn~nndcrs or civil aflairs of&
cers, placing such limitations upon the csercisc of dclegatcd
authority as tl?cy see fit. It is geuerally advisable tl\at
considerable authority bc dclrgatcd cithcr to unit COIW
rnanders or civil a&k oflic~rs who arc actually locntcd in
the occupied territory. All ordinnnccs of local :qq~licntion
only will bc signed in the nnmc Of the military governor.
e. Publication. Publication may lx made as in the case of initial lxmlninntiOns.
37. ORDERS AND INSTRUCTIONS, Authority to issue detailed orders and instructions to locx~l oflit:i:ds sl~o~dcl iw delcgntcd to unit ~O~nnmndcr~ Or civil aflairs nflkcrs on thr spot. Insofar as possible SLI& orders and instructions should be in writing and topics rctninccl. Oral orders rund instructiorls may bc! given through intcq9rtWrs or in tlic local language. A record slmuld lx !-x~~t of iu~lxwtnnt: ones. Esccpt in cincr&m!ics, Only the ollici~ rcsl~or~sil~lc
1      for civil allYail Col1trOl in a pWtiCUl;W nrcta, or llis :~~ltllcjri& subordinates, should issue orclcrs or instructions to local oflicials. If an oficcr fr0m a higlicr civil &airs cchclorl
*      is sent into an arca 0x1 a mission requiring contact with local oficinlf;, hc should ~o~~s~dt with, act through, tilt: oficur charged with local civil nfl’nirs contrO1. Wlirrt: effkicnt n~lIiiiiiistration rccluircs that: lligli runlcing lc& civilian ofIicinls be permitted to continue a practice of transmitting orders directly to subordinatE officials, some procedure should be established whereby the civil affairs officer immediately concerned is informed of such orders and is empowered to interfere and countermand when he believes such action to be necessary.

ESTABLISHMENT. When an area is occupied and placed under military govcrnmcnt, the commanding officer in the theater of operations should establish military conl­missions and provost courts to try inhabitants for offcnscs aflecting the military administratian. These courts in general will not be circunxcribcd by the statutory and other rules governing courts martial; and their number, types, jurisdiction and proccdurc will be determined by the theater commander, subject to instructions from higher authority. The term “military courts,” as used in this manual does not include “courts martial.”


a. Customary Types. (1 I It has been customary for forces of the UniGxl States to provide lor at lcnst two types of military courts for the trial Of civilians-military com­missions and provost courts. The former deals with tbc most serious oflcnscs, for which punishment by death or by long prison terms and heavy fines have been prescribed, while the latter deals with less serious casts.
(2 1 Military commissions may bc appointccl or convened to try slxxific casts, t,f as standing tribunals to hear all suc11 CBSCS. Their nun&x and location will dcpcnd upon the volume of casts to be tried, the availability of ofkcrs to sit on such courts, the ncccssity for travel, the avail­ability of witncsscs, and the eficient administration of justice,
Provost courts may also be appointed Or convened to try specific cases, or as standing tribunals to hear various classes of lesser cases. Generally, a single type of provost court will be sufficient, although circumstances may war­rant the creation of superiar and inferior provost courts. Where there are a suficicnt number of minor oflenses in any locality to occupy the full time of one court, and enough of the more serious oflenscs cognizable by provost courts to occupy at least the part time of another court, it may be advisable to crcnte two types of provost courts, in order to espedite the disposition of the large volume of Ininor cases. The number, types, and location of provost courts will depend, as with military commissions, upon such factors as the volume of WSCS, the availability of oficcrs, the question of travel, the whcrcnbouts of wit­nesses, and the speed and cffcctivcness with which justice can be administered. Thcrcforc, for cficicncy, a civil aflairs oficer cxcrcising control over a p”rticular area should dclcgntc the power to bring to trial with cslxxlition the majority of cxcs. A table of masimum punishments for specific OIFCnSCs, aS well as the power of remission vested in reviewing oficcrs, should counteract any tcndcncy toward inquality of punishments mctcd out by provosl: courts in dill&xl: locnlitics.

O+her Types. If local conditions warrant> special +tary courts may bC cstablishccl for the trial of vagrants, l~rostitutcs, juvcnilq trx& violatOrs, or other classes of Oflcndcrs, or for civil CURCS (par. 4~2).

ma, Milihry Commissions. In providing for n$itnr)’ commissions, which may consi$ of any n~uiibcr of officers, rhc comrnnndcr will nppoint not less than three csccpt in cstraordinnry circumstances. In gencml, the rules for nrmy or navy gcW%xtl courts martial will scrvc as a guide in clctcrmining the coml~ositions OS militnry comni,issiOns, in­cluding the designation af lnw rncmbers, trial judge advo-C~QCS, and necessary nssistn.nts: The provision for a law I~E~~CP, with powers nnd clutics similar to those of a law member of an army gOncra1 court martial, promotes sound 51
decisions on matters of IZLW aId speed in procedure, and is recommended for such military commissions for both the army and the navy.
Provosf Courts. A provost COUK~ will ordinarily consist of one offlccr who should, if possible, have legal training and expcricncc. When it is necessary to create two types of provost courts, it may be advisable in more serious cases to appoint three mcmbcrs to superior provost courts. Provision may be made for standing special judge advocates or defense counsel, dc:l.“:nding ‘upon the type and volume of casts which WC tried before these courts,

Other Types. The purposes for which other types of military courts are crcatcd, 5ts ~011 ;U the kinds and the volume of casts heard by them, will dcterminc their com­position and the need for SUC~I special court personnel as judge advocates, dcfcnsc counsel, provost marshals and clerks. Ordinarily such courts will be constituted as provost courts.

Personnel. It is customary and usually advisable to apl~oint commissioned oficcrs as members of military courts and as juclge advocates and defense counsel. In general, where an army officer is the thcatcr commander, he will appoint or nuthorizc the appointment of army of& cers ns’members of such military courts; and whcrc a naval officer is the theater commander, IZC will appoint or au­thorize the appointment of naval officers as members of such courts. l*hcrc is no rule, however, which pro­hibits a theater commander from appointing oficicers from bdth branches of the scrvicc, cithcr to sit on the same court or to sit on separate courts, within the theater under his command. .

41. APPOINTING AU’I’HORITIES. Military commis­sions and provost courts may be appointed or convened by the oflicer in command in the theater of operations. He may delegate this power to subordinate commanders or civil affairs oficers. In forward arcas, in order to avoid delay, the cxtcndecl ‘confinement of prisoners, or the loss of witncsscs especially in cases where immediate example is necessary, it is advisable to delegate such authority to ,
division, force or other unit ccmlmanders in forward areas and to civil nirnirs officers in both Eorw~rd and rear nrcas. Whenever subordinate ofliccrs appoint or convene military courts, the orders establishing such courts should, but need not, recite the sour02 Of their authority.
4i. ~~~IS~~C~~~
General. Military courts hnvc jurisdiction only over such cases or classt:s of casrs as are rcfcrrcd to them by the qqointing or convening authority.

.Qver Persons. Military courts have jurisdiction over all persons within the occupied torritory cxccpt those having diplomatic immunity, and csccpt prisoners of war; but, unless thcrc are cogent rCas0rls to tliP contrary in a particular cast, persons subject to military or navnl law of the United States or its allies should bc tried by court martial.

Over Offenses DirecNy Affecting MilHary Cov­ernmen+. ’ Military courts have jurisdiction over the following types of oflcnscs:

(1 1 Oficnses against the laws and usngcs of war.
(2 1 Violations of the proclamations, ordin&cs, rcguln­tions or orders promulgntcd by the theater commander or by his nuthorizcd subordinntcs.
Over Offenses Agains+ Local Criminal Laws. IT the criminnl courts of the occupied territory are open and functioning satisfactorily, they should ordinarily bc por­mittcd to try l~rsons charged with ofl’cnsta ugainst local criminal IXW, not involving the rights, intcrcsts, ;W lxq.xrty af the United States or nthcr person serving with the occu­pying forces and sul~jccl: to military KW naval Ixw of the United States or of countrks allicd with the ‘CJnitcd States. The thentcr comn~~udcr or his authnrizccl suborclinatc may suspend lxoccldings in such local c’ourts in ;my cr~se or class of casts or may clircct that su& c;ks(’ or class of cases bc tried by militury courts. SuCll powor should bc cxer­&cd with rcspcct to any. lxosccudon inimic:~l to tllo ill­tcrcsts of the I.Jnitcd Stntos.

Over Civil Cases. II: the civil courts of tht: occupied

territory      arc ol.x!n and functioning satisfactorily, they should 53
Military Commissions. It is gcncrally advkblc to direct that military connnissions follow the procedure of gcncral Army or Navy courts martial, except whcrc such procedure is l~lainly in:q~l~lictzblc. The :~llowance of pcr­cmptory challenges should not bc ncccss:~ry. Any rcquire­tncnts of unnninious vote for a dcnth scntmcc ulay unduly impede the authority of niilitary governnlcnt. It n1a.y bc advisable to curtail the cstcnt of prclimiunry invcstig&ons.

Prwosf Caurts! Provost courts should in gcncrnl follow the proccdurc of Rrnly su~nnx~y courts martial or Navy dcclc courts, csccpt where such proccclure is nl:lni- fcstly inapplicable. If it is ncccssnry to cstnblish inferior provost courts, lxoccdurc uxxy bc sin+ified.

Special Courts. The proccdurc of other types of military courts will corrcspnnd to that spctiificd for provost courts or military coniiuissions, as dircctcd by the appoint­ing authority.

Trials. Trjals should bc had and judgrncnts cntcrcd with the utmost dispatch consistent with fair administra­tion of justice, pnrtic~ulnrly in Cases where witncsscs for or against the accused arc likely to disnlqxxr, Rccuscd per­sons should not bc tried utAw thy are present in person at the trial.

Counsel. Rccuscd l~rso~s should bc nllowcd to rc­txin counsel of tlirir own clioicc and at their own csl~c~nsc. Ordinarily military counsel sl~wlcl bc provided only for l~crsons tried by nlilitary conunissions. I-Iowcvcr, unro:zso~~­nblc cw~tinunnccs in order to obtain caunscl sl~~ulcl bc prohibited.

Witnesses. The attcndnncc of nlilitxry witnesses may be obtainccl as in Army or Navy courts nlnrtinl. Military courts should bc cml~owcrecl to conqxl tlic! ;tt­tcndnncc of civilian witncsscs, and to obtnin the nccc:ss;~ry assistnncc thcrcfor frani local oilicials, nlilitnry police, and short patrol, nncl nplxq~ria tc coitiinanding or civil ;I Ll’airs oflkcrs.

Interpreters. Proccccliiqp should 1×2 concluctocl in the 1:mgungc most convcniwt uliclcr the circwustnnccs. Whcrc it is ncccssary, intcrprctcrs should bc proviclcd, so

that the accused, his counsel, and the personnel of the court are fully informed as to the entire proceedings.
@porters. If available, shorthand reporters should, be employed in all cases tried before military commissions, and in such cases tried before provost courts as the appoint- ing or convening authority shall authorize.

previous Convictions. A military court may be au- thorized to consider, after a finding of guilty and before imposition of sentence, evidence of previous convictions and sentences by military courts (American or foreign) or civilian courts. Evidence of conviction of an offense legally punishable by imprisonment for more than 1 year should be admissible without regard to the date of commission of such ofl?ense.

a. General, Sentences should be limited to those pre­scribed by the theater commander or his authorized sub­ordinates. These will usually be issued in the form ‘of a prepared table of maximum punishments in terms of fines or imprisonment, or both. This table should be issued to all military courts and in the discretion of the theater commander may be made public.
b., Military Commissions. In general, the sentences which military commissions should be author&d to impose will include fines, imprisonment at hard labor, and death.
Provost Courts. Sentences imposed by provost courts should be limited to fines or imprisonment at hard labor, or both, with appropriate limitations, such as $5,000 and 5 years.

Additional Penalties. The following punishments may be imposed in addition to OS in lieu of fines and confinement.

(1 I Exprnlsi~~~ Military courts may bc authorized, in
appropriate cases, to espcl convicted persons from occupied
(21 Confiscation. Military courts rnay~#be authorized
in cases involving the unlawful purchase, sale, possession or
use of property, to order the forfeiture of such property to
the military government.
(31 Padlocking. Military courts may bc authorized to close houses of prostitution, places where there is unlawful traffic in intoxicating licluor or narcotics, and other places whre persons arc found to bc engaging in unlawful netivity.
Confinemen+. The theater commander should issue orders concerning the confincmcnt of convicted persons. Such orders will specify, among other things, the mnnncr of imprisonment, the rules of conduct to be followed,, and labor to be performed. Ordinarily, convicted persons should be confined within the occupied territory. The officer empowered to approve a scntcncc should designate the place of confinement. I(

Fines. All monks received as court fines will bc held, accounted for, and ‘disbursed according to prcscribcd procedure.

46. RECORbS.
a. Charges. It is advisable that chxrgcs be preferred by a person subject to military or naval law and on a “chnrgc sheet.” The charge sheet used by the Army
I&, A. G. 0. Form No. 115) may bc used, with such changes and additions as ~nay br nccc’ssary, or xpproprinta forms may bc adapted from those contained in NavaI Courts and Boards ( 1937). No oath to the charges should be required.

Mili+ary Commissions. M i 1i 1; a r y commissions sho~~lcl l~~ep records similar to those of Army or Navy goneral courts martial.

Prowost Courts. The thcntcr conu-nnndcr should

qxescribc      the types of records to be made of various classes of cnsw tried before provost courts. In ccrtnin types of casts, it may be advisnblo to kccq~ full rccorcls, with a coxnplcte transcript of all testimony. .In others, a sunun:n-y record may bc kept on the bxk of the charge sllert. Where it is ncccssary to establish tlic’ infcri& type of provost court, the latter proccdurc will gcncrally be fol­lowc$, and oral evidcncc will not bc rccordud.
General. All records of trial by military courts should be examined by the appointing or convening oficer or duly authorized subordinate, for the ~LW~OSC of correct­ing injustices. Further review in the next higher echelon may be desirable in important classes of ~ascs, and some cases may be dircctcd for final rcvicw to the headquarters of the theater commander. No sentence of death should be executed until it shall have been confirmed by the theater commander or by an authorized subordinate, esccpt that if a death sentence is imposed by an exceptional military court convcncd under naval authority, it must also be ‘confirmed by the Secretary of the Navy. The rev&wing authorities should be cmpol+rcd to disapprove or vacate, in whole or in part, any finding of guilty; to mitigate, commute, remit, or vacate the uncsccutcd portion of scntenccs, in whole or in part; and to restore the accused to all rights affected by the findings and sentcncc.

Military Commissions. NO sentcncc of a military commission ni’ay be carried into efkct until its record shall have been examined by the stafl’ judge advocate of the oficer appointing the commission or his successor (see

W. 46) ; nor may the scntcnce of any military commis­sion be carried into eRect until it shall have been approved by the appointing oficer.

Proves* Courts. The sentcnccs of provost courts should be executed forthwith, subscqucnt prompt review suEicir$ to correct injustices which may occur and to prevent the repetition of errors.

a. General. In order that there may bc prompt inves­tigation and settlement of claims, the military governor should establish in his territory a claims service, under the direction of an officer, prcfcrably with legal training and with expcricnce in the investigation and settlement of claims. The chief of the claims service will be rcspo&ible for the preparation of regulations governing claims pro:
ccdure and the operation of the claims invcstignting scrv­ice. Prompt awards will greatly improve the attitucle of the peopk toward the occupying IWCCS.
Investigation. It is the duty of civil aflairs officers to make -prompt invcstigntion and record of all accidents and incidents which may give rise to claims. This will prevent later disputes and the prcscntati& of stale or unjustified claims through diplomatic or other channels.

Settlement of Claims-Army. (1 I Qccupied Enemy Territory. The rules under which claims are processed dcpcnds upon whcthcr the award will be paid from United States funds or those of the military govcrn­mcnt. Since, in most cases, practically the entire popu­lation of cncmy territory occupied by Unitccl States forces will consist of enemy nationals, claims will normally bc chargeable to the military govcrnmcnt and paid from funds of the military govcrnmcnt, not United States funds. Such claims will bc processed in accordance with regulations issued by the thentcr commander. The provisions of the act of 2 January 1942 (55 Stat. 880; 31 U. S. C. 224d) as amended by the act of 22 April 1943 (57 Stat. G6), and AR 25-90, and the provision of the act of 3 July 194.3 (Public Law 112, 78th Gong.), and AR 25-25 do not apply to claims chargeable to such military government. In cast claims are to be paid from United States ‘funds the appropriate statutes and Army Regulations apply.

(21 Occupied Allied or Neutral Territory. AS for claims in occupied cncniy territory, the processing of claims in occupiccl allied or neutral territory depcncls upon the, source of funds for paymnnt. It is a nlattcr of poliq whcthcr claims in occupied allied or neutral territory are paid by funds of the military government. If so, they may be groccsscd in accordance with rcgulntions issued by thr thcntcr commanclcr and the statutes and Army Regulations cited hi paragraph 48c( 1 I abovc, do not apply. An) cl$ms which .it is dctcrmined shall bc chnrgcnblc to United States funds will bc considcrccl and allowecl and paid, or disallowed, by a .forcign clni,tns commissian unclcr the pro­visions of AR 25-90 and AR 25-25, as the case may bc.
The claims of all persons not members of the IJnited States
or allied military forces cognizable under the provisions of AR 25-90 or AR 25-25 should be subject to suspension of payment by general or special order of the military gov­ernor for such time as he may direct.
(3) Procedure. All claims for damage to, or loss or destruction of ‘property, or for personal injury or death, cognizable under the provisions of AR 25-90 or AR 25-25, should be fully investigated and processed in accordance with the provisions of such regulations and AR 25-20. All such claims will bc submitted to a foreign claims commis­sion, appointed under the provisions of AR 25-90. Claims chargeable to the military government may be submitted to ‘a foreign claims commission for processing CWIZ though not payable under AR 25-90; or such claims may be submitted to a board, commission, or other agency established by the military governor, which may be composed in whole or in part of officers of the United States Army, the United States Navy, or oficers of allied forces.
(41 Territory Subject to Jurisdiction of the United States Reoccupied by United States Army Forces. AS to territory subject to the jurisdiction of the United States qccupied by the enemy and reoccupied bfr United States or allied forces, claims arising therein will be proccsscd in accordance with the provisions of AR 25-25, whether or not a military government is established+
d. Settlement of Claims–Navy. In order that there may be prompt scttlcment of meritorious claims, command­ing officers of occupied territories shall appoint claims commissioners to consider and dccidc claims against the United States for injuries to property or inhabitants of occupied areas arising out of noncombat activities of United States naval forces including civi1in.n employees. If a claimant is a national of an ‘enemy country or of one of its all&, there must be a determination by the claims commission or by the 104 military. commxndcr that the claimant is friendly to the United States, bcforc his claink *Gay be allowed. A foreign claims commission may be aIlpointed to considcl; each claim as presented, or consti­
tute a standing claims commission to consider all claims presented to it. A commission will consist of not more than three commissioned officers of either the Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard. Claims of $500 or less may be heard by a commission consisting of one oflkcr. Claims between $500 and $5,000 shall be heard by a commission of three ofhcers. Decisions involving payments of $2,500 or less are final, while decisions involving payments of $2,500 to $5,000 are subject to review by the commanding officer. The Sccrctary of the Navy may, if he deems any claim in excess of $5,000 to be meritorious, certify such amount as may bc just and reasonable to Congress as a legal claim for payment. Claims accruing subscqucnt to 1 May 19-13 must bc filed within 1 year after the occurrence of the injury which is the basis of the complaint. The fact that the act giving rise to the claim may constitute a crime ’ does not bar relief, Contributory negligence of the claim­ant has such effect in the way of defeating or reducing claimant’s rccovcry as it would have under local law.. No formal proccdurc is prcscribcd for the conduct of the hear­ing on claims, but the instructions in Naval Courts and Boards (1937) governing the proccdurc of Courts of Inquiry and Boards of Investigation should bc used as’ a guide. The claims commission shall forward to The Judge Advocate General for review its findings and recommen­dations on all claims in which total damage cscced $5,000 and where the clnimn.nt retuscs to accept that amount in settlement of his claim. Claims within the jurisdiction of the Commission, but disallowed, shall also be forwarded to The Judge Advocate Cenernl. The instructions and regu­lations of tlze Sccrctnry oi” the Navy concerning foreign claims commissions appearing in the 15 May 1943 issue of Navy Bullctin shall bc followed by all commanding ~fli~ers and their subordinntcs in accupicd territories. An Army claims Commission may liancllc foreign claims for the Navy if rcqucstcd to do so and vice versa, With rcspcct to claims payable from funds of the military govcrnmcnt as distinguished from claims approved by a foreign claims commission and payable out of United States funds refcr­cnc.e is made to paragraph 48~.

Psmgrapll Pagt3Absence. (See Leave of absence.) Accidents, claims arising out of——-;—–48 58 Accounts. (See Records, accounts, etc.) Activities of civil affairs section————-23 Adjutant General, duties————____-__ 12Y ci Adjutant, duties of, performed by internal ad­
ministrative officers——–____ – _________ 23 33
Administration-Of chief political offices–______________ 12 15 Of property. (See Custody of property.)
Administrative area, (See Military administra­tive arca.)
Administrative ofXcers : Of civil affairs section _________-_-_____ 23 33 Internal administrative ofSccr ___________ Personnel—-_____________-_.-__I_I___ 22: 2
Aged, institutions for———————-12w 20 Agreement–_____________I —_-______ -_–_ 1 Agriculture—–i _____________ 9k, 11, 12c, 120, 31 11, 14, 1;
18, 4.0 Airfields—————: _________ -__—__ 12i 17 Airplanes, operation of, assigned to civil affairs
units—____ —___– ______________ —I_-25 34 Air raid precautions, blackouts, shelters, iire­fighting, casualty services ____-_- ~– ________ 12d 16 Allied Governments, furnish information for planning _–____ -__-__-________ – ____.___ 31 40 Allied territory, military occupation bf–_—–1 1
Claims arising in—–_________ -__-____ 48 59 Allies, civilian agencies—–,‘__I__ – _________ 22 31 Ammunition, custody———_-___ -___—_ 12s Annexes, appendixes (see nlso Orders) ______. 12y, 18 20, :;
To administrative or operational orders, civil affairs orders as ______ -_–____ -__ 33 43 To civil affairs orders issued by operational
unit commanders ____ –________ ___._-__ 33 43 Antiaircraft officer—–____ — _-____ -___–_ “__- 12Y Archives _____ -_-______________–_—_-___ 9p, 26 13, :: Areas. (See Sections of areas.)
Continental arcas _-___-_-___——–__ lo,12 13,15 Military administrative areas -_-_________ 17 Forward areas—______ –_____ – ___-___ 18 z: Rear areas, organization——.———- 18 27
Arcas-Continued. Pllmgra~lll I’ago Chain of command–I_________________ 18 27 Particular areas, directives ____________ -_ 22 31
Armnmcnt, of military police and marines, in­
adequacy bf for civil affairs—–________ -_ 26 Armistice __— -___—-____ —-___—-__–17,21 ,, 24 ti Arms, custody——-____ll_________l_____ 12s ‘is Army communications zone ____ -_–_______ –19 28 Army Regulations :
25-25——————————-59 25-go——-.——————-ii 59
Army and Navy: Division of responsibility between——–10 13 Depends upon nature of operation-in con­
tinental arcas usu,2ly with Army; in island areas and ports, usually with Navy -_-_–__-___-___-____________ 10 13
Fixed by Joint Chiefs of Staff or by Com­bined Chiefs of StnfF–______________ 10 13
Arrest: Commander of combat unit may———19 ,*,’ 28 Of defendants. (Ses Marines; Military
Police; Shore Patrols.) Art, prcscrvation of objects ___- –_____—-__ c.yJ Article of War 24 ___–_ –______________—:: 54 Assignment –_-_—__—-_—-___________ 12Y 20 Attitude of inhabitants –_-____—I_ 9g, 12t, 1.2y, 31 6, 17, 20,
40 .
Beil—,—————————–~–4.3 54 Banks and bar&g— _____________ -9k, 121, 31, 34 11, 18,40,
44. Bar, local. (See Lawyers.)
Supervision ____.__I__ –_-___________.___ 12c 16 Bclligcrcnt occupntion——–“.–_________ -_ 3 2 Bclligercnts __-_______—–__-_____- -__-_-_ 1 “Black market”———-____ –_-_________ 9k
Prevention—-__-__ – -____ -__-__-_____ 12×1 ,18 Bounldnries, local, political-____ L ____________ 17, 18 ,,24, 22 Bridges _——– –____l_____lll________–3 1 4.0 Brothels. (So0 Prostitution.) Burinl of dcnd-________— I______…_ -_ 91, 11; 12~ 12, 14, 2a
Cabinet Ministers, removal ————-.“—9i 9 Cnblc—–.l-_——–,——————-1211 17 Camps. (See Conccntmtion camps.) Canals——,——-I-I1I—I————31
Capital, when thcntcr hca.dquarters are not nt
capitnl during campaign——________I_I 21 30
Captured areas, control ——————–18 27

I’ar~lglYlpll Pilge
Catenories of oersonnel. (See Personnel.) Censorship———-______ -___ 9k, 12g,12y,
Chain of command ________.. ———: _____
Chain of control-.————–_—___.___ – Of civil affairs _____________ -_–______-Adv&ntages and disadvantages———– Military orders, issuance through civil
affairs ______-___-________———- Challenges of members of military commissions-Characteristics of peoples:
As affecting theater organization, etc-..–­In general————————–­Instruction in study——-______-___.. –
Gharges – ____ – _____ -___-__–_–____–___.­Chemical officer, collective protective mcas­
Chief of Naval Operations—-___—-__-___­
Chief of section of civil affairs staff: Duties—_____ -____ – _.__ – -,__ -__–______ Qualifications ____ -_—_-_-_-_ _.-,-_____ Preparation of plans by——_-.._____._­
Chief of Staff, U.S. Army ______. -_- __–___ -_ Children, care -______- -_-____ —__________
Institutes for ____- –_-__________ —_-­Cinema. (See Motion pictures.) Citations__——————————­City:
Within zone of operations ___…____-…_–­Small, supervision of ___-______ -__-_____ Civil affairs. (Ske Chain of command of civil
aflairs.) Definition–____ -_-_–__–___- ______-_ Jurisdiction – __________ – ______________ Organization _____ -__-_-_-______.______ Responsibility for planning ._.____…______-_
Civil affairs commands——-…——….–_–_
Civil afE airs groups : Composition ___-______ – _____ -___-__-_ In general–_____–_I~___ – __.____-__.._
Civil afTairs officers—- ______ -___–___–___ Administrative ___…___ -___-_-_– _____.+_ Duties of, supervisory rather than operat­
ing———-,—-_——–,-,-I-Functions of. (Sse Functions of civil
affairs officers.) May be staff officers of unit—– _______­Of other nations–_-_r________ – __-_____
:: 29,31
, ~3
11,17, 20,
39, ::,
 ’ 1,15
civil affairs officers-continued. Of other service ______ – __-_ -______ -___ Relations with local officials and inhabit­
ants——————____________ Selection and training _____ —-_________ Civil affairs orders:
Contents—————-,—________ In general——_-_______________ In detail _-__…-…_ – ____ — __________
Distribution __—____-__-___ -_—__-__ Form——————————­Of chief civil affairs officers———…–­Of military administrative area command­
ers——————————-­Of operational unit commanders——–­Of theater and task force commanders—­
Civil &airs sections——-____ – ______ —_
Organization of functional officers——-… Fiscal-___-________—–_–___­Intelligence ____ –_-__–__________ Legal_-_—————-_-__——­Medical _———__-_–__-______
Internal administrative officers———­Staff assistants _______ – ____________ -__­Officers from other services———____ Ofl’icers of other nations-____ -_- ____ —-
Civil affairs staff section: Creation—————————-­Duties——–l___l_l____ – _____ – _____ Internal organization–____.________ —­
Civil courts——_________ -___-_________ Civil government, enemy’s—_________ – _____ Civilian activities _——-:-_—-_-l–l—_ Civilinn agencies :
Supervision and coordination of work–.-­
Liaison with Civil Afl’airs Division——­Civilian defense- l——-__l____ – –______ Civilian employees, claims arising out of Con­
ductc–_,–,,,–,—1—————-­Civilian officials. (Sse Local oflicials.) CiviliansL-____ – __——-__ – –___-__ – _-___
Supplies, food, shelter, medical aid-,—­Transport facilities _______ —_______l_l Hospitals _-__——_ – —————- Distribution of food’ and supplies to, by
quartermaster ——__——I^r-l^_^
I’llU~grIL~Ll 23

. 22
 12d, 3 1
12C 12e 12i
43 ’
rn Claims, Army _–_I____-_-_ – -___________  n1mnp11 48
  58 Pilgc!
Settlcmcnt-­_____-__ –___–_-_–_-___ In occupied allied neutral territory–­ 48
In occupied enemy territory——-­ 48
–     Procedure-__–_-_—­-___-_-_-_I  48
For property and personal injury or death­ 48
Certain stntutcs and regulations, applicnbil-
ity—–­_.__ -___-__-I_—-_-  59
Foreign claims commission———___  is”
Claims, claims commissions —-L—-­i2c,  12~
Sdurce of funds 1or payment -___-I  48
Effect–_—__-_-__-_____,_______  48
Suspension of payment in ccrtnin cases–­ 48
Claims in occupied territory. (See Claims,  
Army;      Claims, Navy),
Chief 0 claims service, duties—-­_-___
Claims service to bc established——–­ 4.848
  ”      iii
For danlag: caused by military personnel  
(not including procurement claims) -___  48
Investigation—–­_____-____-_______ – 48
Proccdure—,,II_I—————–­ 48
Regulations to be prepared ___-____-__ – 4.8
Claims, Navy :
Accruing subsequent to 1 May 1943, filing
claim within 1 year…- _,_____ —-  48
Amount of, as affecting number of offkcrs
on commission——­_-____ – ___-____  48
Appointment OF claims commission—–­ 48
BP enemy nationals -_______ –__-_­__-_  4,8
Contributory negligcncc as affecting claim­ 48
Foreign claims commission __________I_ – 48
Judge Advocate Gcnernl, review by, in cer-
tain cases—-­-___-__­ 4~8
May br: handled by Army  4.8
Naval courts and boards (1937), guide
proccdurc-__—-_–__—_———–­ 48
Procedure, informal -_­_______-_ –_  46
Rcvicw ‘of, by commanding of%xr—–­ 48
Settlement – ______________ I—-­ 48
Classification -_____-_ –__­_____­ 12Y
Clerical personnel. (Soe Person+.)
Climate—-_-I-_____—–_,————­ 31
Clothmg, distnbution- Qk
Collcctiv,e fines and punishments——,,–__ Collective protective measures—-,–­ g&:
Color. (See Discriminatory laws.)
Combat areas- _______- –__-­____­ 18

combat commanders, off%xrs, troops :
 Larger units ______ -_–_-__-____ -__–_ 21.
 Liaison with civil affairs officers——–22
 Operations, units—____________ —-___ 4
Regiments _-__ —-_—-__- ______ – ____ 18
 Should be relieved of Civil Affairs Con-
 Small units ______________ -_–___—–_ 21
 Zone, combat-…———–_________-__ 17
Combined operations—-_____-_ – _______ 10, 13,23 Combined Chefs of Staff: Fix responsibility. as between U. S.
allies ___-____ ——–: _______ -_-__ 10
 In general_-_————————13
 Plans of theater and task force com-
manders transmitted to, for confirma-
Command, unity:
 Iti combat zcmc——-____-__ – _______ 18
 In naval advanced bnsc zone————’ 19
Commander in Chief, U. S. Fleet ____ – _-___ 13
 Commanding officer, supremacy _____ -_–__-_ 8
 Comment, upon refusal of defendant to answer
questions—L————————–._ 4.44
 Commerce, development and supervision—-lZq, 34
 Commercial activities——————____ 32e
 Commissioned officers as members of military
courts—___________ —-___—-______ -_ 40
 Communications (see also Signal communica-
tion) __—_________I__________ —–9k, 11,“:‘;
 Concentration c3mps——__________I –__-
 Conditions usual in occupied territory—-..–11
Rioting, looting, and food shortage——I 11
 Unburied dead———————–i:
 Water supply polluted _-__ —___–___-_
Conditions of cmplaymcnt. (See Employment,
 Confcrcnces. (See Pcacc conferences.)
 Confiscation of property———___- -__-__ 45
 Congress. (See Investigatory bodies.)
 Constabulary, local _____ – __–_ —___l_l__l_ 26
 Continental arcas _-_____ L—-____– _______ 10, 12
 Continuity of policy and personnel———–9f, 17
 Contraband articles, seizure-____ — ______-___ 26
 Contributions, levy———–_I______—__ 12m
 Contributory ncgligcnce. (Sac Claims, Navy.)
13, ;z 6, 24
Authority _______-__________ – ___-____ -7
 Disease __I_________–_-______________ 91
 Exercise of, command responsibility——8
 Exports and imports———–________ 12n
 Insects—————–_-___________ 91
 Labor organizations ______ ________ -__-_ 9k
 Marketing by rationing _______I_____..___ 9k
 Of money and banking ___- -_– _–___-__ 9k
 Of. prices _-______________ i ___—-____ 9k
 Over imports and exports—-L ________ i-9k
Convicted defendants-________ -__-_-_______ 19
 Coordination -________________I_ -_-_______ 12Y
 Between civil affairs officers and other staff
sections. (See Staff sections.)
 Counsel. (See Defense counsel.)
 Counterpropaganda -_____________—_______ 12t
 Countersubvcrsive activities (see nlso G-2)—- 12Y
 County, political subdivisions comparable to—-19
 Courts, local (see nlso Courts martial; Military
commissions; Provost courts; Civil) __-__-_ 12c, 21
 Courts martial (see nlso Military courts; Mili-
 tary commissions)—__________ -_-_-_____ 12c
 General rules for, applicable to military
commissions _______-__–_- – -____-__ -4.0
 Credit agencies _–___________I_-.—___I__ -121
 Creed. (See Religion.)
 Crime :
Persons accused _–______-__ –_-_______ 9g Prevention, dctcction, prosecution——–12b Scntences-_‘-I__-___ _- ________ll__l____ 9g Trial ____ – _-__-_ _-_- -_________________ %
Criminal courts, local _______ -_____ – ________ 12c Currency -____-_—-__–__-____________ 12,31,34 Custody of property of-
Enemy govcrnmcnts ____ – ______ –______ 12s
 Enemy nationals __________ – -._____ – ____ 12s
 Other govcrnmcnts _.-I_______ – ___-___ -_ 12s
 Private property l_–_-ll-_.l___.-l_____ 12s, 34
Customs of inhabitants ____-_.___ -_-_-._. ______ % To be retained usually—-_-___ – ._-___ L_ 9h,9m Study-_——–_-_–__,_____________ Tribal __-______—_.-.-_-_I__ – .I________ 31 !i
Custom(s) of war ____l__l___.- __.______I_____ f’;
:: 17
1; 6 6
18,4,1, ii.
 6, 12
1’ttl%gi%p11 1’11gcDead, burial _—– ————I-_-_-______ 91,11 12, 14 Death sCnt(!IlCCS-..-.– ——–___ – __________ 44
Confirmation————–_-___-_____ 47 ii Debt moratoria. (See Morntorin, debt.) De& courts——…–___II______ –____ 44 55 DCcorntiOnS —-_I_-_-.–_.-__ -_-.____ 12Y 20 Defendants–___- –.–_.- -_–_-___ – _-_______ 19 D&nsc COLlnSel————–I-__ – _I______ 40, 4.4 52,:;DCfinition of militnry government _…–__-_____ DClCgatc, military governor m3y—–T _______ : : DClCgation of authority —_________________ 36 49 DCpartmCnts, local govcrmnent:
To be rctainrd usually—.““-..“-.-_________ 911 8 TJnnCcrssary or detrimental ones to be dis- continued –………–w–e —. _– ___.___-_^ 9i 9 Deputy chief, civil ‘LlfhiKi section _____-___-___ 33
(&difiCntions -l___l__l –_-___________ zi Destruction of buildings ———–_-___-_,__ 11 it‘ DCvClopment Of lOCal rrsourccs, rrgriculturrt, in­
dustry, commcrcr, P!X -.-_.,…- _..__.__–____-____ 120
DirectivCS—–____-__ ..l_l.._. I ..__ – ________-__ 12t :i Specific, for specific ;ux~s _,.___ — __.______ Of War and Navy I)rpnrtments _____-____ ;z 2
Discharge of ~WSOIUX~ ________I_______ _-____ 12Y 20 Discriminatory laws b:~Cd 011 UKC, color, CrCCd, .
oq political opinions should be nm~~llrcl~~-~-9n 12 DisCasC, control—~ l________l_-__ll____I___ 91, 31 12, 42 Displaced ~C~SOII~L I .–1–11- _.—l__l_.-l_____ 12u 19 Distribution of-
Necessities, food, fu01, medicine, and Cloth- ing __l._l.l-t.l__lll___—-.—… _.__,,__–9k 111 Routine orders by Adjutant Crcncrol–~-~~ 12Y 20
Docks : Construction ancl m:iintcliilnt:c–,——–12Y Engineer I‘unctiorl -.._–I…….._-_ – _-___ -_ 12y, 31 20, ifi
Doctors ____–_—..–_—–__–I _._—____ 11 14 Domestic territory… _–_-I___ – ____.._ – _.__-__ L- 1 1 Duties of civil nffnirs ofliccrs, suprrvisory rnthcr
thnn 0pcr:ltiiig. (S4d SupfxGiion.)
Ecl1clons : Of civil 2llTiLil3-… I…___..____.. _ 16, 17, 18, 19,21,23 24*,26, 28,
30,33 Palitical___I-.~._. ___-llllll.-.l. __..- I . -..-.. .-.–_-25 Cencrnl -_.- ___I_____-__- – 1.e-…__e. _. . . . . ..I___ 27, 28 37, ii
Economic: Circuinstnnccs _“.,_. I._ ._~ ..___ ….l_l_ -._ __.____,__ 5 3 Life, rcvivnl-__-_,l ___._,ll,,l.. __.I .l,–l-.-l-l-l- Qk Situ&on, of occupied nr~n __._._ —-“.–_ 31 :: People,. as affecting theater organization–1.5
Economics,  basic  economic  policy  of  United  l’aragra~~h  Pll&?  
States,  corollaries  __-_ -__–  91c I  11  
Economy  of-

Personnel -______ –__—_—_-_–_-___ 9d Education, supervision—______ -_-_—-____ 12v ,Electricity __—__-_______________________ 31 Employment, conditions __-_____________ -___ 12n jhlI311y nationals. (See Trading with the
cncmy.) Disposition, repatriation, or rclocation—-12U Claims against United States——-…—-34
Enemy property custodian. (See -Custody of property.)
Engineer: Special staff functions————–_ 12Y Liaison with civil affairs officers——–22
English language. (See Language.)
 Enlisted personnel _–____ –____ –_____ —-
Training————————–..-. 2275 Equipment—————–____ – ______ —31 Espionage——————-_———–26 Evacuation—-_————————12y,17 Evidence, rules of, Army and Navy courts mar­
tial to be followed——– ____ —–_____ 44 Exchangqrate .–._–…_ – _______ -___-_–___-12,31
To be included in certain orders——–34~ Executive authority —__—-___-_ -_-_____ -8 Executive officer:
Of civil affairs section __.._______ – ____ –
Personnel—…—————-__—-.–.-22: Exercise of control—-___-_______________ ­Explosives, seizure–______ -_—-____ –_____ 286 Expulsion,,—————–__—–__—-~—45
Facilities _____ – __________I_.-__ -_____ –__-8 Civilian transport–_________-I_______ -l2i Communication —_________ -___–___ 12s, 12~ Damage—————————–91< Information as to, for planning—-,—31 Trinsportation _______-.-..__I____ –___-12i
Farmers to bc supplied with essential equip­
ment–l-,-____-_—___,_______________ 9k FM, 27-10, Rules of Land Warfare ______ –__-7 Financial agencies, financial transactions. (See
Trading with the enemy.) Fines–_______ – ____ – ____ __-___—___ 9g, 12m,45 Firearms, seizure ____ — ____ -_-_- ____ –_-.___ 26 Fire Department, prevention——_________ 12b, 31
1: 41 18
:: 35 19,24
18, :: .44 5
33 35
5 35 56
19, :;: 11 41
11 6
6, 18,57
X’nrllgrnl,ll Page
Fiscal officers _____ -_____ i _____ -___________ 23 32
Fishing : Development and supervision-__________ 12P 18’ Resumption———–________ —-___ 9k 11
Fleet commander——-_________ —_____-13 74 Flexibility, importance———–________ 9e, 23, 30 6, 32,40 Food :
Distribution—————____ –___-_ 9k 11
By Quartermaster ____ — ______ -__-_ l?y 20 Inspection __—____-__ -_–_________ -_ 91 12 Shortage, upon arrival in occupied tcrri­
tory__-_————————–11,lZf 14,16
Supplies, in occupied area ______ – _____ -_ 31 40 Force commander-_______ – _________ –____-13 22 Force, use of, to prevent escape of prisoners
and persons suspected of crime———–­Forced laborers———-__________ -_…-___ ‘II: 1: Foreign claims commission. (See Claims,
Army; Claims, Navy.) Forestry, forests————-_–____ – _____ -9k, 31 11,40 Forfeiture of property—- -_____-_________ –45 56 Freedom of-
Press——-.————————-90 5 Religion ____ —-____ -_—-___-____-_ -9m 12 Speech——————.——-I—-13 Fuel, distribution _______; _______ – ________ -_ ,“;: 11 Functional ofhccrs __–_-_-_________-___I___ 23 33 Qualifications _______I___ – ___________ -28 \ 38
Functions : Of civil affairs officers during hostilities—12 15 Msintcnance of law and order, civilian de­
fense, etc——-,-___-_ —–___-_ –12b 15
Funds : Seizure of and guarding ___-________ 12y, 26,34 20,35,44 *Source of, as affecting claims. ‘(See
Claims.) Furloughs———-________–________ _- __.__ 12Y 20
G-l coordination and supervision with civil affairs officers———_____ – ____ — ______ 12y 20 G-Z coordination and supervision with civil affairs ofhccrs—_____ –___-___…_ — ____–12Y 20 G-3 coordination and supervision with civil , affairs ofliccrs ____ -__–__________ -_—__-12y q 20 G-4 coordination and supervision with civil affairs of6cers -___-__-______ – _______ –_–12Y 20 Garbage, disposal—; ________ – _____ – _______ 91 12
Garrisons—_______ –___—_l-______l_ –_ 17
 General principles in conduct of civil afTairs—9
 Geography, of area, importance -_____–______ 9e, 15
 Information concerning, for planning—-31
 Native__,———-_—–_________ 9e
 Property of enemy ___________ -__–_-___ 12s
 Other governments _-________ -___-_____ 12s
 Existing, structure, importnncr-..—_____ 15
 Operations of, in occupied area ____.I__ -__ 31
Habits, local, dietary, study _____-___’ _______._ 31
 Hague Convention—–_-r-_-_——-L-___ 7
 Handicapped, institutions __–__—_–______ 12w
 Harbors,——-_————–__-____ 11,31
’      Commandan’t, duties ___-__-____–____ –12,
 Of operational type ____________I__ –___
 During campaign __I__________-___ -___ ::
Heads of state; removal _.__- A ——_–______ 9i
Health _____ —-__————— —- —-91
 Burial of dead——-__—____-______ -91
 Civilian hospitals _____I______-___ –_-_-12Y
 Disposal of sewage and garbage –________ 91
 Food inspection ________-_-I___-___-___ 91
 In general ___I____-_______–_____I 11,12.f, 31
 Of occupying forces ___—___________ –31
 Water supply _————–.—-_—– 11
 History of occupied arca, information concern-
 ing, to be supplied for planning -_-___ -____ 31
 Hoarding——-____________lr_ –________ 9k
 Holidays, local, religious, to be studied——-31
 Honors (see nlso G-l ) _–._ —_________ – ____ 12Y
Function of Adjutant Gcncml—,—–.–12Y
 Hospitalization, function of G-4 ____ – _____-__ 12y
 Hospitals nnd hospital supplies ______l.–l 11, 12E, 12y
 Idostages, purposes for which taken———-9g
 Hostile occupation—-_l___l___l_ -_-_-____ 5
 Hostilities–___-___-_ – __-__ -._-_–___ ____ -__
Cessation __-__-_l-l__.—.. ____-_-_-17, 21, Z
 Hours of work –_.___ -_ . ..- -.-.._ – _.____._______ 9k, 12r
Implemcnt$ of war, custody ___.___ i–‘-___- –_ 12s Imports, control ________ – __I_________ -___ 9k, 12n
 6, 23
14, i;
14, 16, 40
14, 16, 20
24; 30, 35
 11, ia
Incriminating questions, refusal to answer, right P~l’a&@~ Z’lljiP of comment upon _____-_–_ – __-_____ —_ 44 55 Industries, supervision _-_—–9k, 11,12e, 12p, 31,34 11, 14, 16,
18,40,44 Information ———————129, t, and y; 22 17, 19, 20, 31
For planning, furnished by War, Navy, and other departments and by allied govern­ments—————___ 2 __-_____ -_ 31 40
Inhabitants : Treatment _______l____-l_____________ 9g 6 Relations with _________________ —__-12b 15 Dealings with, through local oficials—–9i
On official basis only————–9i, 12t 9,1: In general—_______ -_-_—_________ -17 24 Trial of, for ofl’cnses against security—-19 28 Characteristics, study ____________ –____ 29, 3 1 39, 40
Inland waterways, usually Navy assignment-; 10 13 Insect control—_I__-___ –________ –_—-91 12 Institutions, local (see also Welfare) __-_____ 9g, 31 6,40 Instruction, subversive or harmful, prevention–12v 19 Instructions (see also Orders)—_-__ –__–_ 37 49 Intelligence _____l____l–_______I____ 1!& 12y, 22 17,20,31
Branches of variouS services, inlormntion
supplied by—______-__ -___-___—-31 40 Officers _-______________ –___________ 23 32 Reports __________–______-____ –____ 29 39
Internal nrrsngcments. (Sea Headquarters.)
 International Law, rules——–_____ -___–7 4%
 Internrcs _____________-____________ —___ 12u 19
 Interpretation of purposes of occupation to in-
habitants —_-_-_-_–_ –______ -_-_-____ 12t 19 Interpreters —_________I-I_______l_lll 26, 37,44 35,49,55 Intoxicating liquor. (Se8 Liquor.) Investigation of claims _____l___l-____.__l_ –4.8 Investigatory bodies-___-__ -__—____ -___-_ 12~ ii Islands, island areas, island groups, $ Navy re­
sponsibility, usually _______l_ll______ –10, 12, 18 13, 15, 27
Joint Army ancl Navy operations ________ -___ 14,23 23,32
Joint Chiefs of Staff:
 Certain plans to be submitted to _r_______ 12y, 32 20,42
 Determine responsibility between Army and
Navy _-___..______ –__ll-l__________ 10 &ulnihg POliCiCS for military govcmmcnt, :92 Planning responsibility ____—-_ i _…_-..– i: 42
Judge advocate :
 Review of records of military commissions, 40
 Review of certain claims ___- _-________ 48 ii
Judicial authority of occupant————-w 8 5
I’lUW%%~,l~ I’IKC Judgments should be prompt—–__I—-__-44. 55 Justice, administration _____________________ 3 t 40 j uvenile-offenders, special courts for-__–I__–39 51
Labor : Procurement ____________I_____-9g, Sk, 12y, 3 1 6, 11,20,
40 Native -_-___. – -________ i-,-_______-__ 12Y 20 Conditions, study __________ – ________-I 31,34 40,44
LLaborers : Forced ___-I__ –__________ -__-______–1211 19 Native –___-_________________ –____._ 12Y 20
Labor organizations, control—______——-9k 11 Land wnrfsrc, rules ___________L_ – _________ 7 4 Language Of-
Pro&motions, ordinnnccs, orders, ctc—-22 31 Territory by civil nffairs officers———38 Desirnbility of English _______ – __________ ii 39
Large units, commanders of, responsibility far civil affairs———–__-______-____-____-27 37
Laws : Discriminntory to bc annulled——–,-9n 12 Criminal nnd civil, locnl, modilicntion or
suspension —__-______-___ -__- _.__.___ 12c 16 Lawyers (see also Bnr) —___–___-_____l_l_ 11 14 ’ Le;uve of absence -.___ – _-____ — ___–_____ __-t2y 20 Legal advice–l—_–__________________,_ 12c Legal oficcrs—_________ – _________-___ -__ 23 ;; Lcgislntion, lcgislativc functions——___._-._-_ 8 Lcgislativc bodies: Usually sus~~cnclccl~~~~-~~~ 9i Liaison :
Botwecn Army 2nd Navy—__-_____-_-_ 10 13 Between nov.val nuthorities nflont nnd nshorc and civil affairs organizations nshorc,.. 12j 17 Between chief of civil affairs section nnd
other combnt and stnff oficcrs ___l._l._l_ 22 31 Spccinl tmining–___ —____–______.__-34 With civilian ngencics———–,..–._-_ iii 4.2
Limitation of time in which to file &rim—–… 48cl 60 Line of communicntion of civil affnirs oficcrs in
territorial type of orgnnizntion_—-,——16 24 Liquor –.–___ -_____ –______—-_—-__-121,45 15,57 Litigation _I-___-____…_____ – _____-“. ___.__-__ 12C 16 Lo& customs and traditions -_-, __– ____,- _.___- 31f 41 Local govcrnmcnt departments, when to bc rc­
tained or discontinued ______-____ — __-_____ 9i 9
 LoCal Inw as to contributory ncgligcncc of
 clnirnant, egcct—-_____-_______________ 4.8 59
74 c
J.mal officials: 1%!ngrnp11 Pnge When to be retained or dismissed——–9i 9 Members of political parties _______-_____ 9i 9 Subordinate ones to be retained usually~-9i 9 Dealings with inhabitants through–~~~~~ 9i 9 In operational type of organization——- 24 Police—————~ ________ —_-_-:; 35
Local resources-______ –_____ —___-___ 9d, 9c, 12 6, 15 Lumbering————————–__-12lJ 18
Mail, censorship—____ -__________ – _______ % 13 Manifesto-____ –_-___–_–__—–___ _____ 35 45 Manpower. (See Waste.)
Economical use–,-_______ -____ -__—- 17 24
Manufacture : Resumption—..–r——————-Sk 11 Development and supervision-____ – __-__ 12P 18
Mal)s———————-,————-12Y 20 Marines (see also Military police; Shore pa­
trols) _—-___–_-_ —__-__ -____ –_ 12b, 18,25 15, 27,34 Arrests, authority ta make ____ —_______ 264 37 Assignment and command——________ 26 36 In general _____ -________ -_–_–_.-____ 2f.l 35 Necessity –_–___-_–_____ -__-_-_____ 26 35
Marketing, control _____ –_____ -__-__–_____ 9k 11 Material (see also Strategic material) __-_____ 12 15 Maximum punishments, table..-,-____ -__—_ 39 51 Medical oficcrs, liaison with civil affairs offi­
cers———————-,_–_————22, 23 31,32
Medicine and medical supplies: I Distribution –____ —__________ – ____ -_ 9k Lack—–_—–_____-_–____________ 11 ::
Messcngcrs————-____-______-______ 12Y 20 Messing __– I _-_____._ -_-_____ -___—-_-._-12Y 20 Military administrative arcn ____.___.-__ – –____ l?, 24 Military commissions :
hclvocate~~~~~~-~~-~~~~~–~~~~-~~~~–12Y Appointed by ____ -_-__________-______ -41 i:: Composition _____ – _______ -_______.._____ 40 51
Establishment –____ —_____–__________­
Jurisdiction – _____ —______ —_-______ ii 53
Personnel_——_—-_–________-____ 4,o 52
Procedure—–,———————-44 54.
Records of, review of by judge _-______ –_ 47 58
Types—–__–_–_-__-I_____________ 39 50

Military control, by agreement or convcntion–2 2
Military courts—–__–__-__ -_________ 34,38,48 44, 50,59
Military districts ___-_ -_-__ ______ –_- ___-_-_ 21 30


Military government – ____L____ 21  30  
Definition -____ – __I_________ -_­____-__ 1  
In general -__­__-____-___. –_ 22  3:  
Planning,,-,_–_-__—————–­13  22  
Territorial and operationnl types——-­16  24  
Military governor _-__-_ – ____-__ -L­1  1  
Responsibility of civil affairs offtcers-……–­16  
Military intelligence–­___-_­-c ______-____ 12g, 12~  17, :tT  
Military Inwl persons subject to, arrest _._._-____ 26  35  
Military necessity——­_-__–_-________ -_ 3  
Reprisals—­-__­___-___ – ________ 9g  i  
Military police. (SEE Mnrincs; Shore patrol.)  
Arrests, authority to make ——–I 26  
Assigmncnt of command _I_________ -___­26  
Duties—­__-_ – _____-___ L—,  
In general -__-­_____-___ – ____ –__ ’ 22:  
Organic units, nv&tbility–­-___ 26  
Rear area–­___-______I___  
Milk –__: ____-_ – _____________-I -__­–,­32;  
Resumption——­- ____._.__ 9k  11  
Development and supervision 12,31  1540  
Minor offenses——­_-_______l_l_ – ____-__ 39  50  
Mission of theater commnnder -_-__-__-__-___ 15  23  
Money nnd banking -__r___–_-_l—_______ 9k, 121  
Monopolies, public _____._ _.__– -_-___ 12m  ::,  
Monuments, preservation ___–.____-__.____.___ 9r  13  
Morale—-,———–L—————-­11  14  
Morntoria, debt _________I_ –__—-_ 121  .I8  
Motion pictures, rclcnses-­___l__________l 12t, 12y  19, 20  
Motor trucks, busses, and vehicles. (See Trans-  ,,,  
portation.)  9  
Narcotics ____-__ r______–__–_______I_ lPb, 45  15,57  
National policies -__–____— – -__–____-__I 4  
Native government (see also Local government 9e, 9i  6,:  
departments) .  
Native labor. (See Labor.)  
Nwval advanced bnse zone. (See Zone.)  
Nwal combat units, small, should be relicvcd  
of civil &airs control ___-_ –_ 18  27  
Navy Dcpnrtment :  
Sccretnry of Navy – _________ -:–­ 22  
Commander in Chief, U. S. Fleet,— ::  
Chief of Naval Operations -_ 13  

Navy Department-Continued. b Secretary of Navy-Continued. Pnrngmp11 PagO Joint Chiefs of Staff _-_____ 10, 12y, 13, 32 1,3,20, 22,
42 Combined Chiefs of Staff ______- 10. 13. 32 13, 22,4,2 Fleet commander–____ — ____ –..L ’ 13 22 Force commander—-___________ -_ 13 22 Vice Chief of Naval Operations——–L’ 14 23 Oflicc for occupied areas——-________ 14 23 Neutral territory, military occupation.-..–,—-3 2
Claims arising _-_–_ – __-____.__________ 48 59 Object of control ________ —_____ -___—–4 3 Objectives :
Of military government—————-98 G Economic——-,,—————I-17 24 Diplomatic -_-_____ —_____ —___ L— 17 24 Occasion for military government————3 2
Schools for training—-____ — _-__ -___ 29 39 Occupied territory, definition __________ -___ 1 1 Offenders, offcnscs:
Against security ____ –_-____ -_- ____ -_-_ 19 28 Military Commissions, Jurisdiction——42 53 Jurisdiction, minor offenses—-_________ Jurisdiction, serious offenses————i: 2
Oflice for occupied areas. (Ses Navy De­
partment.) Oflice procedure–____—–__—-_________ 12Y 20 Ofhcials, offices :
Actual and no!ninal heads——________ 9i 9 Appointment and removal—–____ -_– 34 Information concerning ______ -_____ -___ 31 2
Local,  use  of,  control  ________…____  -___­ 12Y  20  
Police,  local  I_-_-_______  –_-_­ 26  35  
Removal  of  high  political,  Cabinet—–­
Operating  ‘units ___—-_  I-___—______-_  1;  2:  
Operational  type  of  organization.  (Sfx  organ­
Operations,  Military  -___-__­ ____- -___  4  
Single,  joint,  or  combined-­ _._II_____.-__  12Y  2:  
General  __.__ –______–__—–  ___-___­ 17  24  
Operations,  theater  of.  (See Zone.)  
,,  Order,  maintain!ng  Public  4, 12b, 26,  34  3, 15, 35,  
~rderl6es,———-,——————–­ 12Y  iit  
Orders.  (See  Civil  Affairs  orders.)  
Annexes—-,———————–­ 18,33  27,43  
Civil  affairs,  supervision,  excCutlOn–,–­ 22  
Distribution  of, by Adjutant  General—-,  12Y  it  

Orders-Continued, PtWllgNl~,ll Pngo Interpreters——__-______-__________ 37 50 Issued through chain of command—.—16 24 Language ———–_ _____^__________ 22 31 Preparation, by staff assistant–_______ ___ 23 Routine _____l-l________-__ —__–___ 33 2
Ordinances _____________ – _____ – __________ 12b English and dtbcr languages—-________ 34 :: In general-:-_______ – ___-_ – ______ —_ 36 48 Language–~———————___ 22 31
Organization: Advantages and disadvantages of each type 17 24 Army communications or naval advanced
b asc zone–_____________I_ –___-_–19 28 Civil affairs section–______ —-_______ 3 In general—–:——____ -_-___—__ 13-26 2: Theater, affected by various things——15 e 23 Types, operational territorial _-___-…_ -_-_ 16 24 War and Navy Department __-__–___ –14. 23
Padlocking, houses of prostitution, ctc——–4.5 57 Patrol vessels ____ -____ – ____ ———_—__ 24, 34 PSY-_-____-__—-____—————,-_ 12Y 20 Peace, disturbing ________ -______________ -_ 26 35 Peace conferences———__.___ —-__—– 12x 20 Personnel———_-_____—____ –___-___ 9c
Administrative service——————28 386 Categories, rcquircd—-______ –_______ 25 34 Civil affairs, selection and training by
PMG-___-_——_————–_-14 23 Clerical, secretarial—————–~-~ 25 34 Enlisted _______ —-____ -____ –__– 25,27,30 34,37,4,0 In gencral~~~_~~~~~~-_~_____________, 27-29 3 7-4.0 Military, damage done by, claims-_______ 4.8 58 Oniccr———————.———27 37 Statistics—–_____I __________ –_____ –12Y 20
“Versatility essential _-____—_____-_____ 32
W&ant ofliccr—–________—____-__ 8 37 Pestilence——–____________________ –__ 11 14 Petroleum production, dcvrlopment——–I-1211 18 Physicians. (See Doctors.) Planning, plans-,-_-_-___ – ____-__ -________ . 13 ’ 22
By civil affairs staff section _-_… – ._I______ 31 Chief of, planning by -__-___—_— zz Information furnished by———–22 3”:
In gcncral—___-____________ – ____-__ 30-34 4.0-4.4 Responsibility _____ -____ – _____ -_______ 32 42 Studies of localities, as basis __– – -______ 31 40
Police. (See Military police; Local oflicials.)
Policies : PUi~@YL~l11 Pngo Basic–__.-________—__–_______ Introductibn 1 Diplomatic—–_________ -__-_—_–__ 9g Economic __1-1_-__-_____1_________I -_ 911 1: Formulation ____ —————z____ 12a, 12b 15 . Covernmcntal ____ L———-_________ 4 3 Military –: _________________ – _________ , 9s 6 National ___________________ –_——-4 3 Of occupation _I___-_______ – _____ -_-__ 35 45 Political: Activity prohibited .—–__________I_ -__ 9j 11 Boundaries. (See Boundaries.) Circumstances–_______ ——–L—–5 Opinions not to be published ______ -__-_ 9n 1: Parties _–_–_-_——_______________ 31 40 Parties, membership–_______ – _________ 9i 9 Power wielded unofficially—–______ -__ 31 40 Prisoners, to be relensed _____ –______ -__ 9j 11 Subdivision ______ – -_____-______ 17,21,24,25 24,30,34 Subdivisions, to be rctnined————- 911 + Pollution of water supply–______ -____ —*z 91 1: Prevention —_______ -_-___——_—-11 14 Poor, institutions for _______ – _______ -_-_-___ l2w 20 Population, trcatmcnt (se0 also Inhabitants; Civilians; Civil afTairs orders)————- 9g 6 Port, duties of civil affairs officers in——–12j, 18 17,27 Port arcas ______________ —__—_________ 123 11 Postal communications, service ______ -___–_ 1211, 3 1 17, 4.0 Post-War, position of territory ____ -_- _______ 9e Press, freedom of ________ –____ — __-___—90 1: Press releases, prcpnration-_________ -__-_ 12t and y 19,20 Previous convictions——————-_ 44 55 Prices, control——______ – ____ —___- –__ 9lc 11 Principles -___________ -_–____l_l________ 9 5 Priority ______-_-_–__-___-_-____ – _________ l2Y 20 Prisoners : Political, to be released ______ -________ -9j, 1211 II,19
Racial prisoners __-_- -________________ -9j 11 Prisoners of war, allied—-_l.—l_.“—.-l—12u 19 Prisons—.__- —-_l–__- _————–_-12b 16 Private property. (See Property.) Procedure (see also Military commission claims,
Army) ________I___ – _________ – _______-_ 34 44 Proclamations –__-_———-________ 12b, 34,3G 15,44,40 English and local languages ____—I….-..–35 45 In ~encml_-___-_–___———-34 44
Purther proclamations and ordinances—­Contents-_-,—–__–_____——–~-­Form and character———–_–­Issuance———-____ – _____ –_-­Publication -___-__-__–__I_______
Initial—-____ –___- ______ – _______-__ Contents———-____ -_- ________ Form and character,- __________I___ Publication——–______ -_-______
Procurement: Claims_——l_–__——-LI———­Of labor——-____ –_-__–__________ Of personnel——————-______ Of services——_____ –___-_-_____-__ Of supplies _______ —–____ -__- ______ Responsibility of lower officers ____-_____ Responsibility of theater commander—–..
Production———-I——————-­Profession8 or callings:
Various, personnel drawn from __-_–.__– Promotion ___–__–_____ -_-___-_____-____ Propaganda. (Sea Counterpropaganda.) Property :
Enemy government, custody–_–_–_–­Private—-____ – L_______________-____ Private, of military use -__–_L——~
Prostitutes -___ –__- ______ —_________ -___ Prostitution, l~ouses of, closing, padlocking—­Protection for local officers—______________ Protective measures—________ –_-___._____ Protocols———-__——-__I_-_-____-­Provost courts———__-__ – _____._._.I_____
Appointed by -.____ –___- _____ – -___-__ Composition-__________ -___-_–_-I._.__ Jurisdiction – ,____ – _______c__________-_~ Personnel—______l___l__-_____r_I___ Procedure ___._-_ – ______.-___l_________ Records -…—-L——-__-_-_c-__–___ Sentcnixs imposed _—-___-__-_—____
Provost marshal –_.. –_-___—–.. – -__–__–
Selects and trains personnel _l-_…-_—_- Publications, supplied by Adjutant General-­Public finance, budget, revenues, expencliture,­Public health :
Training and cxperiencc in, qualihcations for functional ofliccrs——-___- –___ 00
 9g, 12y
12s 12s s
12s, 12y
 19, 40
12~ 12m
 6, 18
28, :“z
 t 52
 Public monopolies. (See Monopolies.) I’aragra~~Il PaC’r Public relations officer .+-_-_-_ –____ -___– 12Y 20 Public utilities :
ODerating exrxxience in, desirable for
-functional &icers—-l___________ -_ 28f 39 Planning concerning———_____–_–31 40 Restoring —–____–____ -A–9k, 11, 12k and y 11,14,1’/,
20 Punishment, punitive measures (see also Maxi-
mum punishments) ______-________II_____ 98 6 Carried out publicly ______ —___–__-c_ Limits _____-___ – -_____– -___—___–2 4:
&rchascs -_–_–_——–__—____ — ____ 12n 18
Purposes : Of occupation-I——__-,_-______,___ 12t 19 Set forth in initial proclamation———35 4*5
Qualifications : Of civil affairs oficcrs __________ –___-28 38 Executive and administrative experi­ence, management—-.–.——.-28 . 38 Knowledge of territory and language-28 38 Of functional 0fXcers :
Prafessional training __-__ -___-_____ 28 Quartering———————__________ 12Y ;llQuartermaster, distribution of equipment and
supplies by __-______________I____ – _____- 12Y 20
Racial discrimination: Inhabitants imprisoned solely because of, to be released————-____ ______ % 11 Laws based on, to bc annulled———9n 12
Radio—————_-l-l——-l_-_l__l 121s 15 Releases __l__l___l_ —__—___–___-_ 12t Service————-_–__-,-,—__,__ 31 to”
Railroads, railways————————12i
Use of for civilian Durnoscs ____l-__l_ 1.2~. 31 20, :;I Rationing ____________–L–L –__-_–__-_I_ “9k Rear areas, orgapizstion __________I_ —-__-18 :: Rebels —_______________________________I 1 Reclassification _-____________________ -__-_ 12Y 2: Record;, of trials before military commissions,
review of Judge advocate Gcncral (see also Reporters)——-______–_ -_-______-___ 12Y 20 Records, accounts, etc., to bc kept by of­ficers,————-___,_______________ 12x
Records, historical and current ______________ 9P Seizure and sealing _________ -____ -_-___ 26 To be impounded———-,,______,,, 34
Regiments, civil affairs control, should be rc­
 As to claims in general————-_–48
 Navy claims ________ -_-_-_—_________ 48
Reinforccmcnts of civil affairs pcrsonncL—-18
 Relations of troops with inhabitants
 9i, 12b, 12t, 12y, 17
Release. (See Press releases; Radio; Motion
Pictures; Prisoners.) Relief————————-~–~-~~~~~ Religion and religious places—____________
Laws discriminating against to bc an­
n~illed_-I_-_-_——–_—__——-­Local, study ____________ -___-_–_-___ Places of religious worship to remain open.. Respect for religious customs and organiza­
tions—————————–­Relocation of displnccd persons . ..__—-_____…- Remission of punishment—____ —__-__-___ Repatriation of-
Persons I___________________-,——–
Persons in occupied territories———­Replacement_—-_-____ –_____ – _____-____ Rcportcrs for military coinmissions———­Reprisals against inhnbitants————II-­Requirements for of&xrs, enlisted personnel
materials, planning for_—-_-_—–___–­Requisitions -L—-____– ____I____________
For pcrsonncl and materials——–,—Rcsourccs (See also Local resources) -_______ Responsibility, division of:
Bctwccn Army and Navy————–Bctwecn United States and allies–.-,–..­Plans. (See Planning.)
Retention of-Existing laws, customs, and political sub­divisions——————_-______
Local oficcrs and offices ————— Retirement of personnel-_____ -_____ – _____ -_ Revenues, public—–_________l_l_ll_llll_ Review of records of military commissions by
judge advocate-_______ -____ -__-_- _____ Rioting—______l_l_______l__________I___ Roads———————————-­
Construction and maintenance __–__l-l_ Rolling stock __________ – _-_-_-_–___I___-_
12e 9m
9, 15, 19,,
 9m 12
12u 11
* 12y
 90, 34,
9i i
 12y 20
 12m 18
12y, 47
 Routine orders; (See Orders, routine.) I’lli?ll&Ul~~ll PllSC Rules for trials. (See Procedure.) Sabotage and saboteurs, preventing and thwart­
ing—-____ ——: -____ —-___–___-4, 26, 31
 3, 35,4q
 Sacred places, information concerning——–3 1
 Safe deposit– _—_ – ____-_____-_-___—-_ -121
 Salvage _______._ – -_.___ —________ – _____ —12Y
 Sanitation ____ – __._ —_- _____ -__ 9i, 11, 12f, 12y, 31
 9, 14,16,
 Duties of surgeon———_______ —–12Y 20
 ‘Schools. (See Instruction.) Schools of military government train adminis­
trative and specialist personnel ____ – _____ -_ 39
 Seal and sealing records and archives——-35
 Secretarial personnel. (See Personnel.) Secretary of Navy _________________________ 22
May certify meritorious claims in excess of $5,000 to Congress for payment——59
 Secretary of War——–_____ -__–_____ —22
 Advised by Civil Affairs Division _——–14
 Sections of areas, when advanced, what com­mander should do–______ – _——–_—- 19
Of occupying force-_____ -___—____-_ 4~, 12g
 3, 17
 Officers —I_______-___ –________–__ 22.
Sentence (see also Death scntcnces) _________- 34
Padlocking, Expulsion; Confiscation, Con­finement, Fines, Confirmation, Mitiga­tion; Disapproval, Commutation, Rc­mitting, Vacating——-_______–___ 2; 57
Review of _—__-__–_-___—_——– 58
 Serious offenses————-__–___——-38
 Services- __-__ -_-____ –________ —-_-___ 8, 9, 31
 Service trades—————_____ –______ 9k
 Sewage and sewerage—_____ -____ -_— _-__ 12f, 31
 iF, 40
 Shelter—————_-__ ——- —-…— 12Y
 Short patrols (see &so Military police; Ma­
rines) ____.____ – ___—– -_–___–___ 12b, 18,25 15,27,34* ,
 In general ______ -_-_–___________ -__-26,34 35,44
 Necessity —-_—–__ –______ —___-_ 35
 Assignment and command ____________ 22: r Arrests, authority to make _______ –_____ 2G ;;
Shrines, preservation…———_-___._–____ 9r 13
 Signal communication -_____ -______ —-_-___ 12y 20
Signal oflicer ____.__-___ –__l__l_______ 12Y 20
 Social relationships, (See Relations.)
Sovereignty cloes not pass to occupant——— 1
Specialists and specilization (see also Schools -of military government)–.L–__-____ 11, 25, 28
 14, 34, 38
Special staff functions, generally-‘_______ ____ 12Y
 Speech, freedom of ____ – _____ –__-_-___-___ 9o
 Staff. (See Special staff functions, G-l, G-2,
G-3, G-4; Staff sections; Civil affairs staff
 section; Staff assistants; Staff officers.)
 Staff assistants:
Duties ____——_- – —–_ -__–___-__-23
 32. No fixed assignments——- ____ –__ 23
 Investigate problems—____ –__-__-_ 23
 Collect information—————-
 Prepare orders—-r-__—-__ – _____ 223”
Qualifications __-_-_____ -___-__-______ 28
 St& officers, civil affairs. officers may be, of
 commander of unit _—.—-_-_____ – ______ 18
 ‘aff sections (see also G-l, G-2, G-3, and
 Coordination between civil affairs officers
 and other staff sections————–12Y
itistics——–_____ – –___c___ —_______ 12Y
 rategic material _______—–__—-_______ 12
otrategical rcquiremcnts as affecting control through operational and military administra­tive area commanders-_—–_-_-__-__–.-. 24,
Studies of local matters, as basis of planning– i:
 Subversive instruction. (SSS Instruction.)
 suits. ($60 Claims.)
 lummons to dcfcndant——_____ – ___- -___ 43
 hpcrvision :
And coordination with G-l, G-2, G-3,
and G-4~——_——-_–_———-12Y
 In general——–_______I__ -_-______ 22
 321” Of agriculture, commerce, etc _______-__- 120, 3 1
 Of educational system __I…__—–__-_– 12v
 Of industries–_____________-____-____ 9k
 Of production __l__l_________ – ________ 9d
 Rather than operating head, general rule
for civil affairs oflicers–___l____ll___ 9i
 ! upremncy of ‘commanding officer————8
 ! upplies :
In general _.___– – ______ – __—-_– —-i7,31 24, 30
 Medical ___________l____l________ Il,12j, 12~ 14, 17, 20
Specialists and specilization (see also Schools
of military government) – _______ -_—-11, 25, 28
 Special staff functions, generally-L ______..-___ 12y
 Speech. freedom of—-__________ -___—__-
 Staff. (See Special staff functions, G-l, G-2,
G-3, G-4; Staff sections; Civil affairs staff
 section; Staff assistants; Staff officers.)
 Staff assistants:
Duties-_______–_–_—–_-__________ 23
 No fixed assignments _______________ 23
 Investigate problems _-_l_____l_l___ 23
 Collect information ____-___-______ –
 Prepare orders ____ ———–_____ ;33
Qualifications -_-_-___c_____ – _________ 28
 Staff officers, civil affairs, officers may be, of
 commander of unit ____ – _____ – ____ —_-__ 18
 Staff sections (see also G-l, G-2, G-3, and
 G-4) -_-____-_________________________ 12Y
 Coordination between civil affairs officers
 and other staff sections ____ – _________ 12y
Statistics ____ -__- _____ – -__—-___—- – ____ 12Y
 Strategic material——–______ –_________ 12
 Strategical requirements as affecting Control
through operational and military administras
tive area commanders–________ –____ –__ 17
 Studies of local matters, as basis of planning– 31
 Subversive instruction. (See Instruction.)
 Suits. (See Claims.)
 Summons to defendant–__-__ – ________ -___ 43
 Supervision :
And coordination with G-i, G-2, G-3,
 and G-4 ____________-I_____——– 12p
 In-general—______ —__-_I_–___ –__ 22
Of agriculture, commerce, etc ___-_______ 120, 3 1
 Of educational system- _-______ – _-____ -12v Of industries-______ –__-___-_____ –__ 9k Of production——-___– ___-_ -_—__ 9d Rather than operating head, general rule
for civil affairs ofSccrs———______ 9i
 Supremacy of commanding ofhcer—-…——-8
 Supplies :
In general ______ -_–_r_______–_-_—17,31 Medical—————–________ 11,12j, 12~
14, 34, 38
18, 4.0
24j 30
 14, 17, 20
Supplies-Continued. Parngmpl\ Puge
Occupied territory as source- ____________ 9k
Quartermaster——_____ –___—___–12Y ::, Supply officers, liaison with civil affairs officers-22 Surgeon———_——————-_—-12Y ii
‘Taboos—-~—————————–31 40 Tactical unit commanders——————. 28 Task force ____I__________________ -___–_-:z 30
Commander exercises same control as the-
ater commander __-_-_ —___-_-___–21 30 Taxes, collection——______ —__-__-__–_ 12m Teamwork, importance–_______I________ —12Y :i Technical specialists–______ —-___—___–25 Telegraph–_…_.– _… -_- _______I__ –_____ 12h,Sl 17, :“d Telephone ____ –__–___-__-__-____ L _____ 1211,31 17,40 Territorial type of organization. (See Organization,) Theater commander:
‘Directives—————————-32 42 In general——-_–____ -_-__–__-__-I 13 22 Mission of, as affecting planning——15, 19, 20 23, 28,30
Theater of operation—— __-_ -__-__–_ 12y, 13,21 22,30 After cessation of hostilities————-21 30 During campaign-_____________ – __-___ Planning___————————–:: ii!
Theater organization depends on mission,
forces, etc—-___._ -_- ———,———Topograpl~y~~~~~~~~-~____________________ ;: i: Trade. (See Trading with the enemy.)
Development and, supervision ___________ 12q 18 Trading with the enemy——————-121 18 Traditions, local——____________________ 31 40 Traffic, control _l____–_–_____–_l__ 12b, 12y, 39 19, 20,51 Training :
In iiaison _____ –_–__________________ 34 In theater of operations—– ___________ z95 t 39 Of Army personnel ____________ ——–12Y 20 Of civil affairs officers _____ -__–_______ 12a
In the United States————–27 By schools of military govern­
ment——____-^___-_-_–_ 29 39 Of combat troops—.—-.—–. –______ 17 24 Of Navy personnel ____________________ 14
Transcript of testimony (see also Records; Re­porters) ___—-l-I———————46
Transfer : Of sovereignty, none in military occupa­tion—l-l-i7_–‘—————-­Of 06icersL “’
—L–L———-?——­Translations of proclamations, ordinances, etc–
Paragranh  PR@  
12Y  2:  

Transport officer, duties————______ 9k, 12~ 11,:: ‘Transportation——____—-____ -_ 11, 12i, s, y, 25 14,17, 19,
Training and experience in, for functional
officers —-_—_–___—__-___ _____ Treatment of local population will vary ac­cording to attitudes—— ______L___ – _____
Trials (see nlso Judge advocate) __——–__
Records —___–_____–___-___–_____ Tribal customs ______.-__ – _____ —_____ -___ Tribunals _-_____ – ______ – ________ –______ ­Troops, relations with inhabitants———–­Types of organization. (See Organization.)
Utilities. (See Public utilities.)
Vagrants -_——__-_—_–_-_I__________ Versatility in personnel essential———–­Vice Chief of Naval Operations, in charge
of Office for Occupied Areas—–_________
Wages, abnormal increases—————-­
War Department: Organization of Civil Affairs Division—­Information for planning _-____ -___-__­Responsibility for planning——-,—-­
Warrant officers- _-__-____ – _____-_______ -_ Waste———————————-­Of manpower_——,—————­
Water supply—————–,—_______ -_ Pollution,——______________ -_-___ Works_—————————–­Protection _____ –____ – ______ –_—___
 Welfare, public __-__ –____ –_-_–_– _____
 Wireless. (See Radio.)
28,31 38,40
9s 6
4.4, 12~ 55,20 19 31 ii
38 30 17 24
51 ;:, 32
14 23
9k, 12r 11,17
14, 32 23,42
;: 1: 25,27 34,37
12f 16 17 24 91 12
11,12f 14,16 31 40 31 40 12i 11
12w, 34 20,44
Witnesses –_-_­Works, public-­___—__—–__———–
 Worship. (See Religion.)
  44 31  55 40  
Zone :
 Of operations—­Combat —___­ – ___-________ —–___­-_-_­_-__  17,19 18  24,2S 27  

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